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F 526 CSs'^"^" ^"'"*'^*"^ Library 
'^"fllimilli iiiiiiiiiifi«K,l Benton Jasper and N 


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Cornell University 

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nn HIS volume goes forth to our patrons the result of months of arduous, un- 
J- remitting and conscientious labor. None so well know as those who have 
been associated with us the almost insurmountable difficulties to be met with 
in the preparation of a work of this character. Since the inauguration of the 
enterprise, a large force has been employed in gathering material. 
During this time, most of the citizens of the four counties have been 
called upon to contribute from their recollections, carefully preserved 
letters, scraps of manuscript, printed fragments, memoranda, etc. Public 
records and semi-official documents have been searched, the newspaper 
flies of the counties have been overhauled, and former citizens, now livmg 
out of the counties, have been corresponded with, for the verification of the 
information bj' a conference with many. In gathering from these numerous 
sources, both for the historical and biographical departments, the conflicting 
statements, the discrepancies and the fallible and incomplete nature of pub- 
lic documents, were almost appalling to our historians and biographers, who 
were expected to weave therefrom with some degree of accuracj', in panoramic 
review, a record of events. Members of the same families disagree as to the 
spelling of the family name, contradict each other's statements as to dates of 
birth, of settlement in the counties, nativity and other matters of fact. In 
this entangled condition, we have given preference to the preponderance of 
authority, and while we acknowledge the existence of errors and our inability 
to furnish & perfect history, we claim to have come up to the standard of our 
promises, and given as accurate a work as the nature of the surround- 
ings would permit. Whatever maj' be the verdict of those who do 
not and will not compreliend the difficulties to be met with, we feel assured 
that all just and thoughtful people will appreciate our efforts, and recognize 
the importance of the» undertaking and the great public benefit that has been 
accomplished in preserving the valuable historical matter of the counties and 
biographies of man j' of their citizens, that perhaps would otherwise have passed 
into oblivion. To those who have given us their support and encourage- 
ment, we acknowledge our gratitude, and can assure them that as 3-ears 
go b\- the book will grow in value as a repository not onlj- of pleasing 
reading matter, but of treasured information of the past that will become 
an enduring monument. ^ 

October, 1883. THE PTTBLISHERS. 





EARtY History and Early Occupancy 11 

Accession of the British 17 

Clark's Campaign 19 

County Illinois 20 

Development of the State 30 

Division of the Northwest Territory 21 

Formation of Counties 30 


French Settlement, The 16 

Lords of the Soil, The 23 

Organization of the Northwest Territory. 20 

Organization of the State 29 

Public Lands : 28 

War of 1812. The 26 




Geology and Settlement 31 

Advantages, Natural 31 

Black Hawk War 40 

Bowlders, The 33 

Cbatterlie Beservation 40 

Cicott, Zachariah 36 

Cicott and the Harrison Campaign 38 

Cicott After the War 39 

Coal 34 

Drainage 31 

Factories, Early 45 

Indians, The 36 

Land Entries, First 42 

Landscape, The 32 

Library, County 49 

McCIure Workingmen's Institute 48 

Mills, Early 45 

Mound-Builders. The .- 35 

Old-Time Customs 44 

Railroads 49 

Sandstone. 34 

Settlement by the Whites 41 

Surface (Jeology 33 

Township, Medina, 1836.. 
Township, Mound, 1836... 

Township, Pike, 1836 , 

Township, Pine, 183G 

Township, Warren, 1836.. 
Township, Washington, : 

Vigilant (orapanies 

Wild Animals 


County Organization o3 

Acts of Commissioners.. 

Agenta of Three-per-cent Fund 

Boundary Alteration, County 

Boundary Alteration, Township 

Circuit Court, First Sitting of. 

Circuit Court, Second Session of 

Circuit Court, Subsequent Sessions of.. 

Circuit Court Clerks 

Circuit Court Judges 


Common Pleas Judges 


County Agents 




County Officers 78 

Court Houses 64 

Court House, The New 65 

Creation of County .53 

Creation of Townships......... » 61 

Cutter Bar Maoufacturing Company.. 77 

Election Returns, First 55 

Election Returns, 1827 to 1880 70-76 

Establishment of County Seat 54 

Fair, Warren County 68 

Finances, (.'ounty 80 

Grangers, The 78 

Medical Society 77 

Name of County 66 

Old Settlers' Association 69 

Organization of County 54 

Pauper, First County 66 

Politics, < ounty 70 

Poor Farm 67 

Population of County 66 

Probate Court, First r>9 

Probate Court, Second 60 

Probate Judges 79 

Recapitulation of Taxes, 1H82 84-85 

Recorders 79 

Re-location of l 'ounty Seat 56 

Roads, Gravel 77 

School <_'ommissioners 79 

Sheriffs 79 

Surveyors 79 

Statistics of 1«40 69 

Table of Receipts and Expenditures 82-83 

Treasurers * 79 

Vote for August, 1827 70 

TowN.s AND Villages 85 

Baltimore 113 

(^'arbondale 114 

('hesapeake 114 

County Press 96 

Green Hill, or Milford 107 

Hedrick 114 

Independence 100 

Johnson ville 114 

Marsbrteld.. Ill 

Milford, or (^reen Hill 107 




Towns and A''illages.— Continued. 

Pine Village 106 

Point Pleasant 114 

RainsviUe 109 

State Line City 104 

Warrenton S5 

"West Lebanon 97 

West Lebanon's Incorporation 99 

West Lebanon's Industries 98 

West Lebanon's Newspapers 99 

West Lebanon's Population 100 

West Lebanon Railroad Station OS 

West Lebanon's Secret Societies 100 

AVilliamsport f^'5 

Williamsport's Merchants and Mechanics.. S7 

Williamsport's Z\Iills and Factories 02 

Williarasport, New Town 93 

^S'^illiamsport's Postmasters and Attorneys 9;i 

"Williamsport's Present Business 'J^ 

"Williamsport's Secret Societies 94 

Military History of Warren County 115 

Assassination of President Lincoln 13-i 

Patties in which Warren County Men Par- 
ticipated 134 

Campaign of the Warren Guards 120 

Call of August 4, 18(52 124 

Call of October, 1863 126 

Call of April 23, I,';64 126 

Call of July 16, ls64 126 

Call of September 19, 1864 127 

Close of the Kebellion 132 

County P.ounty 130 

Democratic ISIeetiug 120 

Draft of October 6, 1862 12o 

Enlistments, Continued 121 

Enlistments Under the Calls of July and 

August, 1862 122 

Enlistnjents During 1863 125 

Fall of Atlanta 12S 

First County Kelief 119 

Late Civil Strife, The 11". 

Letters from Camp and Field 119 



Lincoln's Second Inauguration- •• - 

Military Olficers from Warren County J^^ 

Militia System, The Old JJ^ 

One Hundred Days' Service Men J^]^ 

Opposition to the War ':"'a\"'r'^ ii^ 

Soldiers of the Wars Prior to 1861-65 llo 

Re-organization of Company B j^JJ 

Return of the Soldier Boys J^ 

Return of the Warren Guards 1-0 

Roll of Honor.. 


KOli oi lionor --■ "■■ -"- 

Summary of Troops from A\ arren County. 134 

Union Soldiers' Picnic 129 

Volunteering, Continued 118 

War Meeting, First H' 

War Meeting, Second US 

War Meeting of Julv 1^ 123 

WarMt^eting of July 21 123 

Williamsport Literary Society 129 

Education in Warren County 138 

Early Schools, The 138 

Green Hill Seminary 144 

High Schools 140 

Moot Legislature of Indiana 147 

Schoolhouses and School Funds 139 

State Line City Seminary 142 

Warren County Seminary 141 

AVest Lebanon Seminary 144 

Williamsport Debating Society 145 


circuit Riders, The 148 

Gopher Hill Church 150 

Grand Prairie Harmonial Association 154 

Huuianitarian Society of Spiritualists 156 

Independence (.'hurches 150 

Marshfield ihurches 152 

Pine tillage Churches 153 

Rains villc Churches 152 

State Line City Churches 152 

West Lebanon churches 151 

Williamsport (.'hurches 15;j 

Bio<;RAr£iirAL. sketches. 


J. Q. Adams Township lOii 

Jordan Township 192 

Kent Township 177 

Liberty Township 188 

Medina Township 194 

Wound Township 175 


Pike Towuship 166 

Pine Township ...• 202 

Prairie Towuship 2ii9 

Steuben Towuship i*>0 

Warren Towuship 184 

Williamsport and Washington Township 157 

St. John, Soth, between pages. 


PART in. 




AiKistroi)he to tlic Old Court House 251 

(.'banges in Townships 222 

County I'^anii aud Huildings 2;iS 

Courts, l'::irly 231 

Court House, I'^irst in the County 2;U 

Cduit HiHise, Second at Oxford-.'. 23il 

Court House at Fowler 247 

Cvoatlou of Townships 222 

Early I'Jections 22S 

I'>ection of Public Buildiug.s 2'.V^ 

Jail, First in Rt-nt^ni Couuty 235 

Jail, Second in tlie County 23S 

.lall at l''owIer 252 

Land ICntries, ICarly 222 

l.ccHtiou of Seat of Justice 28;? 

Marri:\>;i's, Early 21S 

Organization y^l' the Countv 226 

Re-locatioii of County Seat. 241 

Settlement of the County ..." .V.V" 214 

Soil, The " 21^ 

Timber * ^^^ 

jMii.itary Hi<;tory ok Penton County 252 

Benton's First l\>uipany [ '^*p^ 

Ponton's Second Coiupany '" ^,=47 

Benton's Third Company..'. '"V' 

Benttm's Other Volunteers........,.......*".". 265 

Conclusion .%j 

PuI'lic Sentiment aud Civil Action 'i~i 

Rebellion. The Great *i.> 




Past Events— Present Condition 274 

Ambia, Town of. 315 

Aasociate Judges 283 

Auditors, County 284 

Bar of Benton County 318 

Boswell, Town of. 314 

Bridges 283 

Cattle Disease in 1868 318 

Churches 296 

ClerkSj County 283 

Commissioners 284 

Common Pleas Judges 283 

Coroners, County 284 

County Officers 283 

Earl Park, Town of 312 

Fowler, Town of 308 

Justices of the Peace 285 

Lands Entered by 11. L. Ellsworth 275 

Miscellaneous Acts of the Board 317 

Miscellaneous Items 316 

Murder 315 

Newspapers 291 

Otterbein, Town of 315 


Oxford, Town of. 305 

Pioneers and their Acts 318 

Presbyterianism in Benton County 301 

Probate Judges 283 

Railroads 276 

Raub, Town of. 312 

Recorders, County 284 

Roads, State and County 282 

Schools and Schoolhouses 287 

SheritFs, County 2S4 

Societies and Associations 291 

Spaulding Trapedy, The 274 

Sunday Schools 303 

Surveyors, County 284 

Talbot, Town of. 315 

Telephone, The 305 

Templeton, Town of 313 

Towns of Benton County 305 

Township Trustees 285 

Treasurers, County 284 

Voting Population at Intervals by Town- 
ships 275 

biooraphicaij sketches. 

Bolivar Township 

Centre Township 

Fowler, Town of 

Gilboa Township 

Grant Township 

Hickory Grove Township.. 

, 339 
, 323 
, 323 
, 405 

. 372 
. 380 

Oak Grove Township 347 

Parish Grove Township 384 

Pine Township 386 

Richland Township 393 

Uniori Township 395 

York Township 389 


Atkinson, Robert M 289 Raub, A. D 

Dunn, James 239 , Robertson, Henry 

McConnell, David 219 | Sumner, E. C, and Mrs. E. C. 


, 269 


Residence of Amos Hagenbuch 279 

Residence of Henry Robertson 259 

Residence of John E. Morgan.. 



Formation of County 


Agricultural Societies 

Cabin, The 

Changes in Topography 


Church Summary 

County Officials 

County Superintendent's Statement.. 

Courts, The Early 


Economical fieology 

Farm The 

First White Settlements 

Game, The 



Jasper County Apricultural Society.. 

Jasper Rangers, The 

Life on the Prairie 

Live Stock 

Material Resources 

Mills and Markets 

Origin of Name 

Physical Features 

Political Organization 

Prairie Fires 

Prairie Travel 

Press, The 

Primitive Society 

Public Buildings 

Roads, Early 


,. 4(19 
.. 419 
.. 427 
,. 441 
. 414 
,. 472 
,. 475 
. 454 
,. 479 
. 455 
. 456 
.. 413 
. 441 
.. 436 
. 438 
.. 411 
. 423 
. 427 
. 458 
. 440 
.. 420 
.. 414 
,. 443 
. 410 
. 446 
. 415 
,. 444 
. 460 
. 460 
. 451 
. 463 


Railroads 465 

Schools 475 

School Funds 477 

School Fund, Common 480 

School Fund, Congressional 480 

School Funds, < ondition of. 481 

Secret Societies iHi 

Settlement of the County 431 

Social Development of the County 459 

Swamp Lands 429 

Military History of Jasper County 485 

Artillery, Fourth Battery 504 

Bounty and Relief Funds 489. 

C'alls for Troops..... 487 

Cavalry, Twelfth ,102 

Infantry, Ninth 489 

Infantry, Fifteenth 492 

Infantry, Seventeenth 494 

Infantry, Forty-eighth 495 

Infantry, Eighty-seventh 496 

Soldiers' Aid Society 489 

Tables Showing Enlistments, etc 483 

Growth of Vili,a(;)-:s 50s 

Blue Grass Settlement .117 

Davidsonvjlle 516 

Fork's Settlement, The 014 

lieminirton. Town of fin 

Rcnsseiaur, Town of. 508 

Saltillo Village 511 

viii CONTENTS : 




Milroy Township ggy 

Newton Township ^^ 

KeniinfTton, Town of. ^03 

Kensselaer, Town of „„ 

Union Township... •■ '^^^ 

Walker Township 


Barkley Township 567 

Carpenter Township 542 

Gillam Township 571 

Hanging Grove Township 560 

Jordan Township 549 

Kankakee Township 590 

Keener Township 583 ' Wheatfield Township 

Marion Township 523 


Hammond, E. P.. 


417 I Nowels, David B . 



Erection of County 593 

Archx'ology GIS 

Benevolent Societies 683 

(^abin, The 643 

Churches 676 

Church Statistics 67S 

County Otficials 664 

County Seat, The 657 

Economic Geology 61S 

Farm, The 645 

Game, The 641 

Garden Vegetables and Seeds 620 

Geological Survey 608 

Indians, The , 631 

Material Resources 608 

Mills and Markets 647 

Origin of Name 603 

Paleozoic Geology 616 

Phvsical Features 604 

Politics 674 

Political Organization 657 

Prairie Banditti 639 

Prairie Travel 649 

Press, The 674 

Primitive Society 650 

Public Buildings 662 

Itecent Geology 610 

Railroads 669 

Roads, Earlv 667 

Schools '. 678 

School Funds 680 

Sections of Bores and Deep Wells 611 

Settlement, Early- 
Settlers, First.....'. 

Social Development., 
Surface Configuration.. 


, 666 

, 666 


Swamp Lands 621 

Table of Educational Interests 683 

Then and Now 604 

Traces ot Earliest Inhabitants 624 

Newton County in the War _ 685 

Infantry, Fifty-first 691 

Infantry. Ninetv-ninth 693 

Militia, State ' 685 

Regiment, Ninth 688 

Regiment, Fifteenth 689 

Regiment. Fifty-first 6S9 

Regiment, Ninety-ninth 690 

Regiment, (i'ne Hundred and Twenty- 
Eighth 690-696 

Volunteers, The 6?& 

ViLT-AGE Growth of the County 700 

Goodland T05 

Kentland 700 

Morocco 707 

Railroad Towns, The 710 


Beaver Township 7S6 

<TOodland, Town of. 751 

Grant Township 751 

lrO(]Uois Township 779 

.lackson Township 796 

.Teflerson Township 715 

Kentland, Town of 715 

Lake Township §04 

Lincoln Township §03 

McClellau Township 802 

Washington Township 767 


Hartley, r. W 071 

.Johnston, John Z 653 

Kent, Alexander J . 
Ward, Peter H 





BY .7. H. BATTLE. 

TTTHEN the Northwestern Territory was ceded to the General Govern- 
* ' ment by Virginia in 1784, it embraced only the territory lying be- 
tween the Ohio and the Mississippi Rivers, and north to the limits of the 
United States. It coincided with the area now embraced in the States 
of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin 'and that portion of Min- 
nesota lying on the east side of the Mississippi River. The river was at 
that time the western boundary of the United States, but by the purchase 
of Louisiana in 1803, the western boundary was removed to the Rocky 
Mountains and the Northern Pacific Ocean. This later addition has been 
called the "New Northwest" in distinction from the old "Northwestern 
Territory. " 

In the year 1541, De Soto first saw the " Great West" of the New 
World, but penetrated no further north than the thirty-fifth parallel of 
latitude. The expedition resulted in his death and that of more than half 
his army, the remainder of which found its way to Cuba and thence to 
Spain, in a famished and demoralized condition. The Spaniard founded 
no settlements, left no permanent traces, and accomplished little more 
than to awaken the hostility of the natives and leave a disheartening fail- 
ure to discourage such as might have been ready to follow his success in 
a career of discovery for better purposes. Complete as this failure 
proved, it opened up to the Old World a theater of activity which subse- 
quently engrossed the attention of all Europe. It was a full centm-y, 
however, before any serious attempt was made to realize on the possibili- 
ties suggested by De Soto's expedition. In 1616, four years before the 
pilgrims "moored their bark on the wild New England shore," LeCaron, a 
French Franciscan, had penetrated through the country of the Iroquois 
and Wyandots to the streams which run into Lake Huron, and in 1634 
two Jesuit missionaries founded the first mission among the lake tribes. 
It was just one hundred years from De Soto's advent upon the Mississip- 
pi until the Canadian envoys met the savage nations of the Northwest 



at the Palls of St. Mary, below the outlet of Lake Superior. I* was not 
until 1659 that any of the adventurous fur traders attempted to spend a 
winter in the frozen wilds about the great lakes, and not until a year later, 
that a station was established upon their borders by Mesnard. who per- 
ished in the woods a few months after. In IGCo, Claude AUouez built 
the earliest permanent habitation of the white man' among the natives of 
this region. In 1668, Claude Dablon and James Marquette founded the 
mission of Sault Ste. Marie at the Falls of St. Mary, and two years af- 
terward Nicholas Perrot, as agent for M. Talon. Governor General ot 
Canada, explored Lake Illinois (Michigan) as far south as the presen 
city of Chicago, and invited the Indian nations to meet him at a grand 
council at Sault Ste. Marie the following spring, when they were taken 
under the protection of the King, and' formal possession was taken of the 
Northwest. This year, Marquette established a mission at Point St. Icr. 
natins, where was founded the old town of Michilimackinac. 

During the explorations authorized by the Canadian Government and 
Marquette's residence at St. Ignatius, rumors of a great river away to 
the West were rife, and the missionary fancied upon its banks whole 
tribes of God's children resided, to whom the sound of the Gospel had 
never come. Inspired by the wish to prear>h to these people, and in com- 
pliance with a request from the Governor General, Marquette set out, 
with Joliet as commander of the expedition, to ascertain whether the 
river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico or the Pacific Ocean. On the 13th 
of May, 1673, accompanied by five assistants, the hardy explorers set 
forth from Mackinaw. Coasting along the shore of Lake Michigan, they 
entered Green Bay, and passed thence up the Fox Kiver and Lake Win- 
nebago to a village of the Miamis and Kickapoos. Here the,- found a 
cross erected in the middle of the village, which marked the farthest 
outpost reached by Dablon and Allouez. Guides conducted the advent- 
urers across the portage to the Wisconsin River, upon which they 
latmched their canoes, descending with its current to the Missis.sippi". 
After varied experiences, they reached a village of the Arkansas tribe, 
about the latitude of thirty-three degrees, where they became satistied of 
the true course of the river, and set about returning. Their cotirse was 
up the Mississippi to the mouth of the lUiuuis, thence up the latter to 
Its source, whence they found their way to the lake, and back to Careen 
Bay without loss. Marquette, in ICTd, returned to the Illinois tribes 
and established a mission among them. On the ISthof May of this ve'ir 
passing the mouth of a stream on his way up Lake Michigan he bmded 
10 celebrate mass. Leaving his mea with the canoe, he retired n short 
distance alone and began his devotions. Considerable time elapsed and 
as he ,lid not return, a search for him was instituted bv his co,n,vmions 
when he was found dead, but still in the kneeling posture He h'ui 
quietly passed away while at prayers, and was buried on the sune sp',t 


While Marquette and his companions were fi^''J'suing their labors in 
the West, another explorer was preparing to follow in his footsteps, and 
perfect the discoveries so well liegun by him. This was Eene Robert 
Cavelier. Sieiir de la Salle. In i66ii, excited by the reports of the In- 
dians in regard to a river which rose in the country of the Senecas and 
dowed to the sea. he started with a party of twenty-fooi-. maintained at 
his own expense, on a tour of discovery. After surmounting the most 
vexatious difficulties, he reached the Ohio and descended it to the falls. 
Returning to his ti-ading post of La Chine, and pondering his plan of 
discovering a new route to China and the East, he was startled by the 
reports of !Mai-quette and Joliet. This seemed, to his eager mind, the 
lirst step toward the realization of his dream, and venttu-ing everything 
in the enterprise, he sold his property and hastened to France, where he 
secured loans of money, and prepared to carry out his plans upon a large 
scale. Constructing a large vessel — the Griffin — he set out with a party 
of thirty men and thi-ee monks. August 7. 1679. for the scene of Mar- 
quette's discoveries. He tirst conceived the idea of secui'ing the country. 
thus discovered, by a series of forts, which should form a barrier to re- 
sist the encroachments of the English, who were gaining a strong hold 
on the Atlantic border. This received the encoiu'agemeut and aid of 
Frontenac. who was then Governor General of Canada, and rebuilding 
Fort Frontenac as a base of operations, he set sail for Late Michigan. 
An-iving at Green Bay. he loaded his vessel with furs and sent it. under 
the care of a pilot and fourteen sailors, on its return voyage. Waiting 
here for the Gi'iffin's return until forced to give it up in despair, he set 
out with canoes to pursue his enterprise, and landed at St. Joseph. Fol- 
losving the river bearing the same name to its source, he reached the 
Kankakee by a short portage, and passed down that river to the Illinois. 
Marquette's mission had been established near the present site ,jf Utica, 
in La Salle County, 111. Here, in December of 1679. La Salle found an 
In. iian town of -460 lodges temporarily deserted, and, passing on to where 
the city of Peoria now is. found another village of about eighty lodges, 
where he landed, and soon established amicable and permnneut rela- 
tions. With the consent of the tribes. La Salle soon built the fort of 
Creveeceur, a half a league below, and then eaidy in March of 16S0, 
set out for Fort Frontenac. in Western New York, and thence to Mon- 
treal to repair the loss of his vessel, the Griftin. 

In the meanwhile the Jesuit faction, engaged in tierce competition 
with him in sectu-ing the peltry trade o£ the Indians, anl jealous of La 
Salle"s success, and the English of the Atlantic border, striving to over- 
reach the French in securing both territory and trade, united in stirring 
up the Iroquois to assault La Salle's Illinois allies in his absence. 
•• Suddenly.'' says Parkman, •' the village was awakened from its lethargy 
as bv the crash of a thunderbolt, A. Shawanoe, lately here on a visit, had 


left his Illinois friends to return home. He now re-appeared, crossing 
the river in hot haste with the announcement that he had met on is 
way an army of Iroquois approaching to attack them. AH was p 
and confusion. The lodges disgorged their frightened inmates; women 
and children screamed; startled warriors snatched their weapons. There 
were less than five hundred of them, for the greater part of the youDg 
men had gone to war." Here Tonti, La Salle's able Lieutenant, left m 
charge of the fort, found himself weakened by the early desertion of 
most of his force, and now, an object of suspicion to his allies, in an awk- 
ward and dangerous predicament. Undaunted by the untoward circum- 
stances, he joined the Illinois, and when the Iroquois came upon the 
scene, in the midst of the savage melee, faced the 580 warriors and de- 
clared that the Illinois were under the protection of the French King and 
the Governor of Canada, and demanded that they should be left in peace, 
backing his words with the statement that there were 1,200 of the Illi- 
nois and sixty Frenchmen across the river. These representations had 
the effect of checking the ardor of the attacking savages, and a temporary 
truce was effected. It was evident that the truce was but a ruse on the 
part of the Iroquois to gain an opportunity to test the truth of the Ton- 
ti's statements, and no sooner had the Illinois retired to their village 
on the north side of the river than numbers of the invading tribes, on 
the pretext of seeking food, crossed the river and gathered in increasing 
numbers about the village. The Illinois knew the design of their foe too 
well, and, hastily embarking, they set tire to their lodges, and retired 
down the river, when the whole band of Iroquois crossed over, and fin- 
ished their work of havoc at their leisure. The Illinois, in the meanwhile, 
lulled into a false security, divided into small bands in search of food. 
One of the tribes, the Tamoroas, "' had the fatuity to remain near the 
mouth of the Illinois, where they were assailed by all the force of the 
Iroquois. The men fled, and very few of them were killed; biit the 
women and children were captured to the number, it is said, of 700." 
many of whom were put to death with horrible tortiu'es. Soon after the 
retreat of the Illinois, the Iroquois discovered the deception of the 
Frenchmen, and only the wholesome fear they bad of the French Gov- 
ernor's power restrained their venting their rage upon Tonti and his two 
or throe companions. As it was, they were dismissed, and bidden to re- 
turn to Canada. 

It was in the wake of these events that La Salle returned in the win- 
ter of UVSO and found this once populous village devastated and deserted, 
surrounded by the frightful evidences of savage carnage. Disheartened 
but not cast down, he at once sot about repairing his fortune. Discern- 
ing at once the means and object of his enemies, he set about building up 
a bulwark to stay a second assault. Retiu-ning to Fort Jlianii on the St. 
Joseph, by the borders of Lake Michigan, he sought to form a detousivo 


league among the Indians whom he proposed to colonize on the site of 
the destroyed village of the Illinois. He found ready material at hand 
in remnants of tribes fresh from fields of King Phillip's war; he visited 
the Bliamis and by his wonderful power won them over to his plans; and 
then in the interval, before the tribes could arrange for their emigration, 
he launched out with a few followers and hurriedl3' explored the Missis- 
sippi to the Grulf. Returning to Michilimackinac in September, 1()S2, 
where he had found Tonti in May of the previous year, La Salle, after 
directing his trusty Lieutenant to repair to the Illinois, prepared to return 
to France for further supplies for his proposed colony, but learning that 
the Iroquois were planning another incursion, he returned to the site of 
the destroyed village and with Tonti began, in December, 1682, to build 
the fort of St. Louis, on the eminence which is now known in history as 
" Starved Rock." Thus the winter passed, and in the meanwhile, La 
Salle found employment for his active mind in conducting the negotia- 
tions which should result in reconciling the Illinois and the Miamis and 
in cementing the various tribes into a harmonious colony. The spring 
crowned his efforts with complete success. " La Salle looked down from 
his rocks on a concourse of wild human life. Lodges of bark and rushes, 
or cabins of logs, were clustered on the open plain, or along the edges of 
the bordering forests. Squaws labored, warriors lounged in the sun, 
naked children whoojDed and gamboled on the grass. Beyond the river, 
a mile and a half on the left, the banks were studded once more with the 
lodges of the Illinois, who, to the number of 6,000, had retui-ned, since 
their defeat, to this their favorite dwelling place. Scattered along the 
valley, among the adjacent hills, or over thi^ neighboring prairie, were ■ 
the cantonments of half a score of other tribes and fragments of 
iribes, gathered uader the protecting asgis of the French — Shaw- 
anoes, from the Ohio, Abenakis from Maine, and Miamis from 
the sources of the Kankakee." In the meanwhile, a party 
was sent to Montreal to secure supplies and munitions to put the 
colony in a state of defense, which, to the disappointment and 
chagrin of the sorely beset leader, he learned had been detained by his 
enemies, who, by a change of Governors, had come into official power. 
Devolving the command of the enterprise upon his faithful Lieutenant, 
La Salle set out in November, 1683, for Canada and I'rance, where he 
hoped to thwart his enemies and snatch success from the very jaws of 
defeat. Triumphant over his enemies, he returned to America in 1685, 
and after wandering ineffectually for two years in the inhospitable wilder- 
ness of Texas, tell dead, pierced through the brain by the bullet of a 
treacherous desperado of his own band. It was not until the latter part 
of 1688 that Tonti, with grief and indignation, learned of the death of 
La Salle. In 1690, Tonti received fi-om the French Government the 
proprietorship of Fort St. Louis on the Illinois, where he continued ia 


command until 1702, when by royal order the fort was abandoned, and 
Tonti transferred to Lower Louisiana. This fort was afterward reoocu- 
pied for a short time in 1718 by a party of traders, when it w.iS finally 


The French early improved the opening thus made for them. From 
1688 to 1697, little progress was made in colonization, owing to the wars 
between France and Great Britain, but after the peace of Eyswick, the 
project was taken up with renewed activity. In 1698, large numbers of 
emigrants, under the lead of officers appointed by the Crown, left France 
for the New World, and in the following year made the settlement of 
Biloxi, on Mobile Bay. In 1700, the settlement of the French and In- 
dians at old Kaskaskia was removed to the spot where the village of that 
name now stands. A year later, a permanont settlement was mads at 
Detroit by Antoine da Lamotte Cadillac, who. in July of that year, ar- 
rived from Montreal with a missionary and one hundred men. and in 
1795 was authorized by the French Government to grant land in small 
qu'iatities to actual settler; in the vicinity of Detroit. In 1703, Sieur 
Juchereau and a missionary named Mermet established a ••poste" at 
Vincennes. Trouble with the Indians, the wet, swampy condition of the 
sun-onnding country, delayed the development of the little settlement 
here, but throughout the early history of the country this post continued 
to be of the first importance. In 1718, FortChartres was erected on the 
Mississippi, sixteen miles above Kaskaskia. About the fort rapidly 
sprang up a village, which was subsequently called Xew Chartres ; five miles 
away, the village of Prairie du Eoeher became a growing settlement, 
while all along the river between Kaskaskia and the fort a strong chain 
of settlements was formed within a year after the fort was finished. 
The erection of Fort Chartres at this point, however, was dictated by 
national considerations rather than by fear of the savages. The col- 
onization of Lotiisiana consequent upon the exploration of the Mississippi 
and the influx of colonists who found a home at Cahokia and Kaskaskia, 
made this section the key tu the French possessions in America, the con- 
necting link between Canada and Louisiana. Here the French settlers, 
but little disturbed by the forays of the Sacs and Foxes, pushed their im- 
provements up to the Illinois, while lands were granted, though perhaps 
never occupied, some distance u]i this stream. The military force found 
occupation in supporting the friendly Illinois tribes against the Iroquois 
and Sacs and Foxes, and in unsatisfactory or disastrous campaigns against 
the Chickisaws. In th;> m>.iatiiu_\ this " n^^k of the woods " w as rapidly 
becoming a spot of national importance. From the southwest the Span- 
iards were jealously watching the French colonists, while the British, 
gradually pushing westward, were building forts near the Ohio aud^Iis- 
sissippi Ilivers. 


The European war of 1741-46, in which France and England were 
opposed, was echoed in these Western wilds, and it was found that the 
fort must be strengthened or abandoned. The former course prevailed, 
and in 1750 the old fortress of wood was transformed into one of stone, 
and garrisoned by a full regiment of French grenadiers. It was from 
this point that an important contingent went out to the capture of 
George Washington aud his forjes at Fort Necessitj', July 4, 1754, and 
thus furnished to George II one of the causes for a declaration of hos- 
tilities and a begiuningof the "Old French war." In the ensuing war, 
a detachment burned Fort Granville, sixty miles from Philadelphia; 
another party routed Maj. Grant near Fort Duqnesne, but. compelled 
to abandon that fortress, set it on fire and floated down the river in the 
light of its destroying flames; again a large detachment, augmented by 
a considerable number oi friendly Indians, assisted in the vain attempt 
to raise the British siege of Niagara, leaving dead upon the field — the 
flower of the garrison. The fort was no longer in condition to maintain 
the offensive, and, learning that the British were preparing at Pittsburgh 
to make hostile descent upon him, the commandant writes to the Gov- 
ernor General: " I have made all arrangements, according to my strength, 
to receive the enemy." The victory on the Plains of A-braham decided 
the contest, but the little backwoods citadel, knowing but little of the 
nature of the struggle, dreamed that it might be the means of regaining, 
on more successful fields, the possessions thus lost to the French crown. 
The news that this fort, with all territory east of the river, had been 
surrendered without so much as a sight of the enemy, came like a 
thunder-clap upon this patriotic colony. Many of the settlers, with 
Laclede, who had just arrived at the head of a new colony, expressed 
their disgust by going to the site of St. Louis, which they supposed to 
be still French ground. 


Though transferred by treaty to the English in 1763, the fort was 
the last place in Norih America to lower the white ensign of the Bourbon 
Kinc, and it was not until the latter part of 1765 that the British for- 
mally accepted the surrender of Fort Chartres. Pontiac, the unwaver- 
ing friend of the French, took upon himself, unaided by his former 
allies, to hold back the victorious English. Maj. Loftus, Capts. 
Pitman and Morris, Lieut. Frazer, and George Crogan, some with 
force, some in disguise, and others with diplomacy, sought to reach the 
fort to accept its capitulation, but each one was foiled and turned back 
with his mission unaccomjjlished, glad to escape the fate of that English- 
man for which Pontiac assured them he kept a "kettle boiling over a 
larc-e fire." "Wearied out with the inactivity of the French, the Indian 
soao-ht an audience with the commandant, and explained his attitude. 


"Father," said the chieftain, "I have long wished to see thee, to recall 
the battles which we fought together against the misguided Indians and 
the English dogs. I love the French, and I have come here with my 
warriors to avenge their wrongs." But assured by St. Ange that such 
service could no longer be accepted, he gave up the struggle, and the 
flag of St. George rose in the place of the fair lilies of France. Thus 
another nationality was projected into this restricted arena, a situation 
which was immediately afterward still farther complicated by the secret 
Franco- Spanish treaty, which made the west bank of the Mississippi the 
boundary of the Spanish possessions. '• It is significant of the different 
races, and the varying sovereignties in that portion of our country," says 
a writer, " that a French soldier fi'om the Spanish city of St. Louis 
should be married to an Englishwoman by a French priest in the British 
colony of Illinois." 

At the first announcement of the treaty, the natui-al hostility of the 
people to the English induced lai-ge numbers of the colonists to prepare 
to follow the French flag, and a hegira followed which swept out of the 
colony fully one-third of its 3,000 inhabitants. There was still a large 
number left, forming the largest colony in the West; but there were 
forces constantly at work which gradually depleted its numbers. Under 
the British rule, an abnormal activity among traders and land speculators 
was developed. The natives were constantly overreached iu trade by un- 
scrupulous persons, protected by the dominant power, and representa- 
tives of land purchasing organizations were acquiring vast tracts of coun- 
try from ignorant savages, who had little comprehension of the meaning 
or consequences of these transactions. These schemes and practices, 
though happily brought to naught b_y the Revolution, rendered the In- 
dians, for a time, savagely hostile, and left their blighting influence 
long after their removal. The Lick of proper sympathy between the gov- 
erning race and the governed, the hostility of the savages in which thev 
were involved with the British, indueeil many of the French colonists to 
leave their old homes as rapidly as they coald make arrangements 
to do so. 

The British garrison had hitherto occupied the old French Fort 
Chartres, but one day in 177'2, the river having overflowed its banks, and 
swept away a bastion and the river wall, the occupants fled with pre- 
cipitate haste to the high ground above Kaskaskia, where they erected a 
palisade fort. This was the principal achievement of the British forces 
up to the beginning of the war with the colonies. In this struggle, re- 
moved from the sci>ne of active operations, the commandant, resortiui-' to 
the favorite means of the British during their entire early history on this 
continent, furnished supplies and munitions of war to the savao-os, and 
thus equipped, incited them to war upon the unprotected frontier settle- 
ments in Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Yiririnia. 


clakk's campaign. 
So disastrous iu their consequences and distraetiug in their intiuence 
were these attacks, that Col. George Rogers Clark earh- set about pro- 
curing the means to effectually check them. Eecognizing the British 
posts at Kaskaskia and Yincennes as the sources of the Indians' sup- 
plies and inspiration, he directed his efforts toward the capture of these 
points, and, enlisting the interest of Patrick Henry, Governor of Vir- 
ginia, secui-ing such help as he could give, Clark was able on June 24, 
177S, to stai-t fi-om the falls of the Ohio with 153 men for Lower Illinois. 
So skillfully did he manage his movements that he caught the garrison 
napping, and captured, on the 5th of July, both force and fort without 
the spilling of a drop of blood. Cahokia fell in like manner without a 

Clark's original plan contemplated the attack of Vincennes as the 
first object of his campaign, but on reaching the Falls of the Ohio, his 
force being so much smaller than he had expected, he found it necessary 
to change his plan of operations. In his joarnal, Clark gives his rea- 
sons ftir the change as follows: "As Post Yincennes, at this time, was a 
town of considerable force, consisting of nearly 400 militia, with an 
Indian town adjoining, and great numbers continually in the neighbor- 
hood, and, in the scale of Indian affairs, of more importance than any 
other, I had thought of attacking it first; but now foitnd that I could by 
no means venture near it. I resolved to begin my career in the Illinois, 
where there were more inhabitants, but scattered in different villages, and 
less danger of being immediately overpowered by the Indians; in case of 
necessity, we could probably make oiu- retreat to the Spanish side of the 
ilississippi ; but if successful, we might pave our wa}' to the possession 
of Post Yincennes," This shrewd forecast of the situation was abun- 
dantly confirmed by the issue of events. His sagacity in dealing with- 
the conquered posts of Kaskaskia and Cahokia was re-enforced by the 
announcement of the treaty entered into between France and the Colo- 
nies, and in August the delegation of French citizens, which had been 
sent from Kaskaskia to Vincennes, retiu-ned bearing the joyful news that 
the whole population had sworn public allegiance to the United States, 
and had displayed the American flag. On the receipt of this intelli- 
gence fi'om Clark, the Virginia Assembly in October erected the whole 
territory thus conquered into the county of Illinois and jDrovided for its 
government. This first attempt to organize the coitntry west of the 
Ohio was thwarted, however, by the descent of the British from Detroit 
in the following December. 

The French population had garrisoned the fort at the suggestion of 
Clark, who subsequently sent Capt, Helm as a representative of the 
American Government and an agent to the Indians. On the approach of 
the British, Capt. Helm and one private alone occupied the fort, who, 


by putting on a bold front, obtained from the besiegers the honors of war. 
This sudden change in the situation boded serious evil to the Kentuc -j 
frontier, and necessitated prompt action upon the part of Col. Clar . 
Learning in December, 1779, that the English Commandant, Henry 
Hamilton, had greatly weakened his force by sending detachments else- 
where, Clark determined to attack the enemy at once with what troops 
he could collect. After enduring almost incredible hardships and over- 
coming obstacles that would have been insui-mountable to any less deter- 
mined officer, Clark found himself once more before the enemy. Here 
his skillful dispositions and unparalleled audacity were again crowned 
with success, and on February 24 he received the capitulation of the 
English garrison. 


The temporary success of the English did not long defer the plans of 
the Virginia commonwealth, and the conquered territory was at once 
placed under control of civil authority, John Todd representing the sov- 
ereignty of Virginia as County Lieutenant. His instructions were broad 
enough to meet the whole case: he was to conciliate the French and In- 
dians; to inculcate on the people the value of liberty, and to remove the 
grievances that obstruct the happiness, increase and prosperity of that 
country. These certainly were the great ends to be achieved if possible! 
but in the nature of things their accomplishment was not possible. The 
French population was easily conciliated, but the education of a life-time, 
and the hereditary characteristics of the race rendered them incapable of 
appreciating the value of liberty. They had gro\vii up under the enervat- 
ing influence of the most arbitrarv manifestations of monarchical gjovern- 
ment, and self-government involved too great a risk for this simple folk. 
The result was a lack of sympathy with the new order of things, more 
decided, perhaps, than under British rule. To this was added a business 
competition, to which they were unaccustomed; -more frequent hostile in- 
cursions of the Indians in which the savages gradually forgot the old-time 
love for the French, and repeated losses by the inundations of the river, 
made up a sum of discouragement which gradually depleted this country 
of the French inhabitants. This loss was but imperfectly repaired by 
the immigration which came in from Virginia and Maryland. Notwith- 
standing the fertility of the soil had been widely published, and a con- 
siderable number had already found much better advantages here than 
the older colonies afforded, yet the Indian depredations that followed the 
Revolutionary war deterred others from following until the geuernl paciti- 
lieation at Greenville in ]70ri. 


On the loth of July, 1787, Congress passed au ordinance I'ov the siovern- 
ment of the territory northwest of the Ohio River, which had been coded to 


the United States "bj' Virginia tliree years before, and in October following 
Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair was elected by Congress as Governor. In July, 
1788, the Governor arrived at Fort Harmar (now Marietta), Ohio, where, dur- 
ing that year, the temporary government of the territory was organized. 
During the first two years of his administration, St. Clair was busily engaged 
■with the details of governmental organization and negotiating with the 
Indian tribes, who found it difficult to understand the principles upon which 
the whites made war. On the 8th of January, 1790, the Governor found 
leisure to proceed to Kaskaskia to organize the government in that quarter. 
In August, 1788, Congress had provided for the adjustment of land dis- 
putes among the settlers at Kaskaskia and Vincennes, and on the arrival of St. 
Clair early in 1790 this matter engrossed the larger part of his attention. 
Among the earliest acts of his administration was the erection of the first 
county, including all the present State of Illinois, extending as far north as 
the mouth of Little Mackinaw Creek, and named St. Clair after the Gov- 
ernor. The general situation is described by the Governor in his report to 
the Secretary of War as follows : " The Illinois countrj', as well as that 
upon the Wabash, has been involved in great distress ever since it fell 
under the American dominion. The people with great cheerfulness sup- 
plied the troops under George Rogers Clark and the Illinois regiment with 
everything they could spare, and often with much more than they could 
spare, with any convenience to themselves. Most of the certificates for 
these supplies are still in their hands unliquidated, and in many instances, 
when application has been made to the State of Virginia, under whose au- 
thority the certificates were granted, payment has been refused. The 
Illinois regiment being disbanded, a set of men, pretending to the authority 
of Virginia, embodied themselves, and a scene of general depredation ensued. 
To this succeeded three successive and extraordinarj' inundations of the 
Mississippi, which either swept away their crops or prevented their being 
planted. The loss of the greater part of their trade with the Indians, as 
well as the hostile incursions of some of the tribes which had ever before 
been in friendship with them ; and to these was added the loss of the whole 
of their last crops of corn by an untimely frost. Extreme misery could not 
fail to be the consequence of such accumulated misfortunes." 


On the 7th of May, 1800, the President of the United States approved 
an act of Congress, entitled " An act to divide the Territory northwest of 
the Ohio into two separate governments." The one retaining the former 
name was composed of the present State of Ohio, a small part of Michigan, 
and a small part of Indiana, being that part in the southeast corner which 
had been ceded to the United States by the Indians, in the treatj- of Green- 
ville. The other district was denominated the Indiana Territory, and em- 
braced all the region east of the Mississippi, and between the lakes and the 
Ohio. The population of all this tract of countrj', by the census of 1800, 


was 4,875, of which a small portion, in Clark's grant, was of English descent ; 
the remainder, mostlj' of French extraction, resided at or near KaskasKia, 
Vincennes and Detroit. William Henrj- Harrison was appointed Governor 
of Indiana Territorj-, and during his administration he discovered and 
thwarted the reckless speculation in public lands, which was greatly inter- 
fering with the prosperit}- of the new Territory. Gov. Harrison thus describes 
the situation in a letter from Vincennes to Mr. Madison : " The court 
established at this place, under the authority of the State of Virginia, in the 
year 1 780, assumed to themselves the right of granting lands to every appli- 
cant. Having exercised this power for some time, without opposition, they 
began to conclude that their right over the land was supreme, and that they 
could, with as much propriety, grant to themselves as to others. Accord- 
ingly, an arrangement was made by which the whole country, to which the 
Indian title was supposed to be extinguished, was divided between the 
members of the court, and orders to that effect were entered on their journal, 
each member absenting himself from court on the da^- the order was to be 
made in his favor, so that it might appear to be the act of his fellows only. 
The authors of this ridiculous transaction soon found that no advantage 
could be derived from it, as thev could find no purchasers, and the idea of 
holding anj- part of the land was b} the greater part of them abandoned. 
A few 3-ears ago, however, the claim was discovered, and a part of it pur- 
chased by some of those speculators who infest our countrv. and through 
these people a number of others, in different parts of the United States, have 
become concerned, some of whom are actually preparing to make settlements. 
The price at which the land is sold enables anybody to become a purchaser, 
one thousand acres being frequently given for an inditlerent horse or rifle 
gun." By the treaty of 1705. the whole of the Indiana Territory was reserved 
to the Indians, and, during his administration. Gov. Harrison was engaged 
in negotiating with the natives for further cessions of their lands. 

In 1805, Michigan was made a separate Territory, and the same vear the 
tirst Legislature for Indiana Territory was assembled at Vincennes. There 
were then live counties in the Territory — Knox, Dearborn and Clark within 
the present bounds of this State, and St. Clair and Randolph within those of 
Illinois. At the session of 180S. the county of Harrison was formed, and 
an apportionment ol' tiie Itepresentatives to the Legislature was made, bv 
which three members were to be elected from the county of Knox, one from 
Harris(in, two from Clark and three from Dearborn — nine iu all. The Terri- 
tory of Indiana was divided in ISOO, and the western part denominated 
llliuois. The boundary then, as now. was the Lower Wabash, and the line 
running north from A'incennes, where it last leaves the Wabash. In ISIO 
the counties of Franklin, Wayne and Jefferson were formed; iu ISl-l the 
counties of Cibson, "Warwick, Washington, Perry, Switzerland and I'osev 
were added, and iu 1815 the law creating Jackson and Orange was passed 
(!ov. Harrison having been ai.pointed. in the fall of 18lL\ to^.ommaud the 
Northwestern army, Thomas I'osey was appointed Governor of tlie Territory • 


and in the following year the seat of government was moved from Vin- 
cennes to Corydon. 


It will be observed that when the colonies had achieved their 
independence, and as a nation, through the cession of Virginia, became 
heir to the vast territory northwest of the Ohio, there existed a 
prior claim to this area of country, and one that was not likely to be 
easily extinguished. Notwithstanding the repeated attempts of the National 
Government to obtain a peaceable possession and its partial success iu 
securing favorable treaties with the various tribes, it required the campaigns 
of Harmar, St. Clair and Wayne, before the Greeuville treaty of 1795 gave 
to the whites the undisputed possession of what is now the State of Ohio. 
But the boundaries established by this treaty gave the Indian nations all 
the territory within the present State of Indiana, except the following tracts : 

1. One tract six miles square, where the city of Ft. Wayne is now situated. 

2. One tract two miles square, on the Wabash River, at the end of the por- 
tage from the Maumee River, about eight miles westward from Ft. Wayne. 

3. One tract six miles square, at the old Wea towns on the Wabash. 4. The 
tract called the " Illinois Grant," made to Gen. George Rogers Clark, near 
the falls of the Ohio, consisting of 150,000 acres. 5. The town of Vincennes 
and adjacent lands, to which the Indian title had been extinguished, and all 
similar lands at other places in possession of the French. and other settlers. 
6. The strip of land east of the boundar}- line, running directly from the 
site of Fort Recover}', so as to intersect the Ohio River at a point opposite 
the mouth of the Kentucky. 

When Gen. Harrison became Governor of Indiana Territory, he was in- 
vested with authoritj' by the General Government to make such further 
treaties as would best extinguish the claims of the Indians. x-Vccordingly 
at Vincennes, September 17, 1802, a meeting of certain chiefs and head men 
of the Pottawatomie, Eel River, Kickapoo, Piankeshaw and Kaskaskia and 
Wea tribes, appointed the Pottawatomie chiefs, Winamac and Topinepik, 
and the Miami chiefs, Little Turtle and Richardville, to settle a treaty for 
the extinguishment of Indian claims to certain lands on the borders of the 
Wabash, in the vicinity of Vincennes. On June 7, 1803, at Ft. Wayne, 
certain chiefs and head men of the Delaware, Shawnee, Pottawatomie, Eel 
River, Kickapoo, Piankeshaw and Kaskaskia tribes ceded to the United 
States about 1,600,000 acres of land. Again at Vincennes, on the 18th day 
of August of the following j'ear, the Delawares ceded their claim to the 
tract of land lying between the Wabash and the Ohio Rivers, and south of 
the road which led from Vincennes to the falls of the Ohio, the Piankeshaws 
relinquishing their claims to the same tract a few daj's later in the same 
month. By a treaty concluded at Grouseland, near Vincennes, August 21, 
1805, the Governor secured from certain chiefs and warriors of the Delaware, 
Pottawatomie, Miami, Eel River and Wea tribes the cession of their lands 
Ij'ing southeast of the line running northeasterly from a point about fifty- 


seven miles due east from Vinceiines, so as to strike tlie general boundary- 
line (running from a point opposite the mouth of the Kentucky Kiver to 
Fort Recovery), at the distance of fifty miles from the commencement on the 
Ohio. On the .30th of December, this year, at Vincennes, the Piankeshaw 
tribe ceded about 2,000.000 acres of land lying west of the Wabash, and at 
Ft. Wayne, September .30, 1809, the chiefs of the Delaware, Eel River, 
Pottawatomie and Miami tribes ceded to the United States about 2.000,000 
acres of land lying principally on the southeastern side of the Wabash, be- 
low the mouth of the Raccoon Creek. Tlie chiefs of the Wea tribe in the 
following month met Gov. Harrison at Vincennes and acknowledged the 
validity of this treaty, which was also confirmed by the sachems and war 
chief of the Kickapoos December 9, 1809, besides ceding a further tract of 
about 113,000 acres of land. 

Thus far the Indians had maintained amicable relations with the whites, 
though it was becoming evident that there was a disturbing element among 
them brewing discontent. In 1805, Teeumseh and his brotner, La-lc-was-i- 
kaw (Loud Voice) resided at one of the Delaware villages on the West Fork 
of the White River, within the present limits of the county of Delaware. 
Sometime during this year, " Loud Voice ' took upon himself the character 
of prophet and reformer, and earnestly inveighed against the use of 
whiskj-, the practice of Indian women marrying white men, and the selling 
of lands, pointing out the deterioration of the natives by their contact with 
the whites and the tendency of the policy adopted. His crusade against 
their evils attracted quite a baud of Shawanoes about him. who about the 
end of this year moved to Greeuville. Ohio. The increase of their num- 
bers and the knowledge of their sentiments with reference to the whites, 
aroused considerable alarm among the settlers, until the spring of 1808. 
when the band removed to the Wabash near the mouth of Tippecanoe 
Creek, where they establisheil the famous Prophet's town. These proceed- 
ings had not escaped the watchful eye of Gov. Harrison, who sent repeated 
remonstrances and warnings to the band. The only result was to call forth 
from the Prophet a deprecatory reply and a profession of friendship for the 
whites. The matter proceeded until in ISIO a rupture seemed likely to occur 
at any moment. In August, Teeumseh, accompanied liy seventv-flve 
warriors, came to Vincennes to have an interview with CrO\'. Harrison. 
From the 12th to the 22d there was a series of couterences whieh developed 
the grievances and determinations of the natives. In one of these confer- 
ences Teeumseh said : '■ Since tiie treaty of Greenville you have killed some 
of the Shawanoes, Winnebagoes, Delawares and Miamis, and von have taken 
our lands from us ; and I do not see how we can remain at peace witli vou if 
you continue to do so. ^- * * * If the land is not restored to us, you 
will see, when we return to our homes, how it will be settled. 'We shall 
have a great council, at which all the tribes shall be present, when wo shall 
show to those who sold that they had no right to the claim thev set up ; and 
we shall see what will be done with those chiefs that did sell the land to 


you. I am. not alone in this determination. It is the determination of all 
the warriors and red people that listen to me." At a subsequent talk Gov. 
Harrison asked Tecumseh, explicitly, if the Indians woald forciblj- resist an 
attempt to survey the lands ceded at Ft. Wayne, and was answered in sub 
stance, that thej' would resist. Said he : " We do not wish you to talce the 
lands." Gov. Harrison replied that his '-claims and pretentions would not 
be acknowledged by the President of the United States." " Well," said 
Tecumseh, " as the great chief is to determine the matter, I hope the Great 
Spirit will put sense enough into his head to induce him to direct you to give 
up the land. It is true he is so far off that he wUl not be injured Ij}- the 
war. He may sit still in his town and drink his wine while you and I will 
have to fight it out." 

In the meantime, this disaffection among tlie Indians was increased by 
the action of the British authorities in Canada, though no positive hostilities 
occurred until the middle of 1811. During the summer of this year, depre- 
dations were committed bj- straggling parties upon the property' of the 
settlers. Several surve3'ing parties were driven away, and others killed. 
During this period, Gov. Harrison was striving by peaceful means to break 
up the confederation of the tribes, and preparing to erect a fort on the 
Wabash for the protection of the settlers in that vicinity. In the latter part 
of June, Harrison sent an address to Tecumseh, and the Prophet, to which 
the chiefs made a lengtli}^ I'eplj', and proposed to visit the Governor again 
in person. In pursuance of this project, Tecumseh came to Vinceunes in 
the latter part of July with about .300 attendants ; but, being met by a 
formidable array of troops, repeated his assurance of amicable intentions, 
and immediately left to draw the Southern tribes into the confederation. 

During these negotiations, the Governor had suspected the design of 
the Indians, and, though at one time partially convinced that the chiefs 
would allow matters to be adjusted without an appeal to arms, had fiuallj^ 
become impressed that the confederation at the Prophet's town must be 
suporessed by force. To this end, acting under the authority of the General 
Government, a force of some 900 men set out in September from Vineennes 
under command of Harrison. The little army moved up the Wabash, and 
erected Fort Harrison on the east bank of the Wabash, above whore the 
city of Terre Haute now stands. Leaving a small garrison here, the remain- 
der of the army moved in the direction of Prophet's town, encamping on the 
2d of November two miles below the mouth of Big Vermillion River, where 
a small block-house was erected on the west bank of the Wabash. Leaving 
a Sero-eant with eight men to garrison it, with orders to protect the boats 
employed in transporting supplies to the army, the rest of the force pro- 
ceeded to the Indian village, arriving at this point on the tith of November. 
The Indians, showing no disposition to give battle, the little army selected 
a site for encampment on the banks of Burnett Creek, seven miles nortlieast 
of the present city of Lafayette. The troops encamped in order of l)attle, 
with clothes and accouterments on, fire arms loaded, and their bayonets 


fixed. The Indians began the attack at quarter past 4 iu the morning, 
immediately after the Crovernor had risen to prepare for the business ot e 
day. But a single gun was fired by the sentinels, or by the guard, m the 
direction of the attack, as they retreated precipitately to the camp. As the 
troops were asleep on their arms, they were soon at their stations, though 
the war-whoop and the attack so soon followed the first alarm, that the hues 
were broken in several places, and one of the companies was driven from its 
position in the line toward the center of the camp. The want of concert 
amono- the Indians, and their irregular mode of warfare, did not allow them 
to take full advantage of their success, or of the blunders of their opponents, 
so that as the resistance was very obstinate along the line, they were in the 
end obliged to retreat iu great haste. The loss of Gen. Harrison's force 
amounted to 37 killed and 151 wounded, of which latter number 25 after- 
ward died of their wounds. The Indians engaged in the battle of Tippe- 
canoe were probably between six and seven hundred, and their loss was 
about equal to that of the whites. After burning the Indian town, which 
had been abandoned by the savages, the army returned to Vincennes on the 
17th of November. The result of the expedition was favorable to the peace 
of the frontiers. Immediately after their defeat, the surviving Indians, hav- 
ing lost faith in their leader, returned to their respective tribes, the Prophet 
taking up his residence among a small band of Wyandots. 


The rupture of the peaceful relations between the United States and 
Great Britain by the declaration of war by the former in June. 1S12, was 
foreshadowed for some time previous, and the Canadian authorities taking 
advantage of the Indian disturbance of the preceding year fouud no diffi- 
culty in securing tlie support of the Xorthwestern tribes. Accordingly, the 
culmination of the international dift'erences was preceded by various acts of 
hostility on the part of the defeated Indians. The American Government had 
not been unmindful of the situation, and daring the spring and summer of 
this year had caused the erection of block-houses and picketed forts through- 
out the Indiana settlements which were exposed to Indian depredations. 
Notwithstanding these precautions, on the 11th of April preceding the 
declaration of war. an attack was made on a settlement ou the west side of 
the Waltash, about thirty-five miles above Vincennes. The wife of Mr. Hut- 
son, his four children ami his hired man were murdered iu his absence, and 
on the 22d Mr. Harrynian, with his wife and five children, was killed ou the 
same side of the Wabash, at the mouth of Embarrass Creek, about five 
miles from A'incenues. About the middle of the i\Iay t'oUowing. a sreat 
council of the Indians was held at one of their villages on the ^lississinewa 
Biver, at wliich nearly all the northwestern tribes were represented. The 
general cx[>ression at this council was iu favor of maiutainin::: peaceful rela- 
tions with the United States, though at the same time refusing to surrender 
those wlio were guilty of the murders meutioued. Tecumseh, dissatisfied 


■with the action of the council, left with his following, and soon successfuUj' 

attacked, with the assistance of the British, the northern forts at Mackinaw 

and Chicago. On the 16th of August, G-en. Hull surrendered Detroit, which 

so emboldened the Winnebagoes, Pottawatomies and Kickapoos that they 

sent out war parties to pre}- upon the frontier settlements. Two men were 

killed while making hay near Fort Harrison on the 3d of September. On the 

4th, an attack was made on the fort, during which one of the block-houses 

was set on fire, the garrison, however, eventually repelling the attack. On 

the 3d, occurred the '■ Pigeon Roost massacre." Two men hunting bee trees 

were surprised and killed by a part}' of ten or twelve Shawanoes, who that 

night attacked the Pigeon -Roost settlement, situated within the present 

limits of Scott Count}-, and in the space of an hour killed one man, five 

women and sixteen children. 

In August, 1812, Gov. Harrison was appointed Major General of the 
forces raising in Kentucky, and in the middle of September arrived with a 
force of 2,700 men at Fort Wayne, where a force of Indians had been 
besieging the place since the beginning of the war. They retreated on the 
approach of the relieving force, (len. Harrison sending out several detach- 
ments in pursuit. These detachments failed to overtake the savages, hut 
destroyed the important village of 0-nox-see, on the Elkhart River, Little 
Turtle's town on the Eel River, and a Miami village near the forks of the 
Wabash. In the latter part of September, Gen. Harrison was invested with 
the command of the Northwestern army, and assigning the duty of operat- 
ing against the Indians on the Wabash and Illinois Rivers to a force of 2,000 
troops stationed at Vincennes, he began preparations for his campaign 
against Detroit. The force at Vincennes, under the command of G-en. Hop- 
kins, set out early in November for the purpose of penetrating the Indian 
country as far as the Prophet's town, which had been rebuilt. This village and 
a large one in the near vicinity belonging to the Kickapoos were destroyed 
and a detachment sent out to destroy one seven miles out on Wild Gat 
Creek. Here the detachment met with a repulse. The whole force then 
prepared to attack the savages, but were delayed by stress of weather for a 
day or two, and when they reached the point, though naturally easy of 
defense, the Indians were found to have deserted the place. The lack of 
clothino- and the severity of the weather made the further pursuit of the 
savages impracticable, and the expedition returned to Vincennes in safety. 

In pursuance of his plans against Detroit, Gen. Harrison had established 
a depot of supplies at the rapids of the Maumee, with the intention of mov- 
ing thence a choice detachment of his army, and, while making a demon- 
stration against Detroit, to cross the straits on the ice and actually invest 
Maiden, the British stronghold in Canada. Before attempting this, how- 
ever it became necessary to break up thcMiami villages on the Mississinewa 
River, and thus cripple any attack that might be attempted from this quarter. 
Although the Miamis professed to be neutral, their participation in the at- 
tacks upon Forts Wayne and Harrison made it probable that a favorable 



opportunity would render them susceptible to the influence of the hostile 
tribes, a' detachment of 600 troops proceeded from Dayton, Ohio, m the 
middle of December, and a few days later surprised an Indian town occu- 
pied by a number of the Delawares and Miamis, anct advancing aown the 
river destroyed three other villages, when the expedition returned and 
encamped on the site of the first village. On the following morning, about 
a half-hour before day, while the officers were holding a council of war, the 
savages made a determined attack upon the camp. In this engagement 
which lasted about an hour, the troops suffered a loss of eight killed and 
forty-two wounded. The Indians, who numbered about 300 and were under 
the command of Little Thunder, a nephew of Little Turtle, suffered a much 
heavier loss, and were forced to make a hasty retreat, leaving the whites m 
possession of the ground and of a large number of prisoners captured in 
the surprise of the first village. The want of provision and forage, the 
severity of the cold, and the rumor that Tecumseh was at the principal vil- 
lage further down the Mississinewa River, deterred the troops from making 
any further advance, and a retreat toward Greenville was begun and accom- 
plished without serious annoyance from the savages. In the following sum- 
mer, Perry's victory on the lake paved the way for Harrison's victory over 
the Indians and British in the battle of the Thames River, on the 6th of 
October, which ended the hostilities in the Northwest. On the 22dof July, 
1814, Harrison concluded a treaty at (31-reenville. Ohio, by which the Indians 
buried the tomahawk, whether the war ceased with tlie British or not, but 
this proviso was put out of the question on the i'4th of December by the 
treaty of Ghent, With the return of peace, further treaties were negotiated 
with the various Indian tribes, and the survey of the lands thus made secure 
was rapidly pushed forward, 


The public lands of the General Government were all surveyed upon the 
same general system. To this end, " meridian lines" running due north 
from the mouth of some river are first established. These are intersected 
at right angles bj' " base lines" running east and west. The " first principal 
meridian" is a line running due north fiom the mouth of the Miami, and is, 
in fact, the east line of the State of Indiana. The " second principal merid- 
ian " is aline running due north from the mouth of Little Blue River, eighty- 
nine miles west of the former. The only base line running through this State 
crosses it from easr to west in latitude 38^ 30', leaving the Ohio twentv-five 
miles above Louisville, and striking the Wabash four miles abo\ e the mouth 
cif the White River. From this base line the Congressional townships of 
six miles square are numbered north and south, and from the second prin- 
cijial meridian all the ranges of townships are numbered east and west, 
except the counties of Switzerland. Dearborn, and parts of Franklin, Union, 
Wayne and Randolph. This part of the State was surveyed in townships 
from a base line of fifteen miles north of the former, and in ranges west of 
the first principal meridian. The '' Clark Grant ' in Clark County and the 


okl French lands in Kuox County- are also exceptions to the regularitj- of 
the general survey of the State. Townships are subdivided into thirty-six 
equal parts, or thirtj^-six square miles, containing 640 acres each, called 
sections. These sections are subdivided into halves, of 320 acres, and 
quarters, of 160 acres each, which last are again subdivided into halves, of 
eighty- acres, and quarters, of fort}- acres each. " Fractions " are parts of 
sections intersected by streams, or confirmed claims or reservations, and 
are of various sizes. The sections of a township are designated by numbers, 
beginning with the northeast corner and following in regular order to the 
west side, the second tier of sections beginning on the west side of the town- 
ship and proceeding east. That portion of the State in the southeast corner, 
which was included in the Ohio survej^, was disposed of at the Cincinnati 
land office. The rest of the public lands in this State were principally dis- 
posed of at offices established at Jetfersonville. Vincennes, Crawfordsville, 
Indianapolis, Fort Wayne and Winamac. 


The restoration of peace with Great Britain, and the pacifica- 
tion of the Indians in 1815, brought a great increase of population 
to the Territory, so that in December of this year the General Assem- 
bly of the Territory adopted a memorial to Congress asking the admission 
of Indiana into the Union as a State. Under an enabling act of Congress, 
a convention to form a constitution was elected, and held its sessions from 
the 10th to the 29th of June, 1816, and, on the 11th of December following, 
the State was formally admitted to the Union by a joint resolution of Con- 

Until the close of the Territorial government, more than three-fourths of 
the State was in possession of the Indians, or had been so recently pur- 
chased as not to have been surveyed and exposed to sale. The maps of the 
State, even as late as 1818, represented the Indian boundary as starting from 
a point in the northern part of Jackson County and running northeast to 
the Ohio line, near Fort Recovery, and northwest to the Wabash, a few 
miles above Terre Haute. Yincennes was then by far the most considera- 
ble town in the new State. The Indian trade was then large ; there was 
generally one or more companies of United States troops at Fort Knox at 
that place ; the business at the land office and the bank, and the inclination 
of the French to settle in a village rather than on a farm, brought together 
a population of nearly two thousand. 

Corydon, the seat of government, had a good stone court house built by 
the Speaker of the Territorial Legislature, who, it is said, was often called 
from the hammer and trowel to the chair. The other buildings there, not 
exceeding one hundred in number, were either cabins or of hewn logs. The 
sites of New Albany and Madison presented here and there a few comfortable 
houses, and perhaps a hundred cabins. Jeflersonville and Lawrenceburg 
had been longer settled, but except the then fine residence of Gov. Posey at 


the former place there was no other good building in eith er, and Charleston, 
Salem, Vevay, Kising Sun and Brookville were then talked of as having 
magnificent prospects for the future. There were ver^- few large farms in 
the State in 181 G, The range of wild grass, the mast and roots were so 
abundant in the woods that hogs, cattle and horses required but little other 
food, and that was in general corn alone. It is probable that a single corn- 
field of from five to tweut3' acres constituted at least seven-eighths of the 
farms then cultivated in the State, 


In 1828, the General Government purchased the '■ ten-mile strip " along 
the northern end of the State, and, in 1832, extinguished the remaining 
claims of the Indians, save the numerous reservations in the northern part. 
In 1835, the greater part of the natives were removed west of the Missis- 
sippi, and b}- 1840 all save a few had emigrated from the special reserva- 
tions. As the State was thus left free for settlement, the Surreyor pioneered 
the advancing civilization, and counties were rapidly organized in response 
to the growing demand of the increasing population. The tide of immigra- 
tion came principally from the South at first, and later from the East, the 
organization of counties giving a pretty clear indication of the nature of 
this development. At the organization of the State government, fifteen 
counties had been formed, and others were organized as follows : 1817, 
Daviess, Pike, Jennings, Sullivan ; 1813, Crawford, Dubois, Lawrence, 
Monroe, Randolph, llipley, Spencer, Vanderburgh, Vigo ; 1819, Fayette, 
Floyd, Owen ; 1820, Scott, Jlartiu ; 1821, Bartholomew, Greene, Henry, 
Parke, Union ; 1822, Decatur, Marion, Morgan, Putnam, Rush, Shelby ; 
1823, Hamilton, Johnson, Madison, Montgomery ; 1821, Allen, Hendricks, 
Vermillion ; 1825, Clay ; 1S2G, Delaware, Fountain, Tippecanoe : 1828, Car- 
roll, Hancock. Warren ; 182'J. Cass ; 1830, Boone, Cliutoa Elkhart, St. Jo- 
seph ; 1831, Grant ; 1832. La Grange, La Porte ; 1834, Huntington, White ; 
1835, Miami, Wabash ; 1836, Adams, Brown, DeKalb, Fulton^ Kosciusko,' 
Marshall, Noble, Porter ; 1837, Bhrckford, Lake, Steuben, Wells, Jay ; 1838, 
Jasper ; 1840, Benton ; 1842, Whitley ; 1844, Howard, Ohio, Tipton • 1850, 
Starke, 1850, Newton, 






PEEHAPS no other county in Indiana has a greater diversity of nat- 
ural features than Warren. On the north and west are " alhivial 
plains, as rich and productive as any on the globe, while bordering the 
A\ abash and the various smaller streams that traverse the county, are vast 
beds of the finest building sandstone and the choicest block coal. Sand, 
gravel, marl, limestone, ironstone, potter's clay, mineral springs, cas- 
cades, valleys, hills, prairie, woodland and numerous views of picturesque 
grandeur combine to render the county one of the best in the State for 
the abode of civilized man. An occasional discovery of virgin gold, sil- 
ver, lead or copper detracts nothing from the general interest felt in 
the county. There is scarcel}' a section of land that cannot be rendered 
fit for almost unlimited production. Even over the summits of the 
bluffs, below which lie the rich deposits of stone and coal, is found a 
mixed soil which yields a satisfactory return to the agriculturist. The 
" barrens " in the valley of the Wabash, Ihough too cold for the cereals, 
are excellent for certain garden productions. 


The entire county is within the valley oi the Wabash, which river 
forms the southeastern boundary. Big Pine Creek, the most important 
intersecting streain, enters the county in Adams Township from the 
north, thence flows southwesterly across Pine Township, thence south- 
easterly through Liberty, emptying into the Wabash at Attica, Little 
Pine Creek flows south through Medina and the eastern part of Warren. 
Kickapoo Creek rises in Medina, flows across southeastern Adams and 
across western Warren, with a general course of south- southwest. Mud 
Pine Creek drains all of western Pine Township and eastern Prairie, 
and joins Big Pine Creek near the northern line of Liberty. Kock 
Creek rises in Liberty and flows south -southeast, forming the boundary be- 
tween Washington and Pike Townships. Eedwood Creek rises in Jordan, 
crosses Steuben and Pike and reaches the Wabash with a southeast course. 
Opossum Run has its source in Steuben, thence it flows southeast across 


Kent and Mound, into the Wabash, Jordan Creek drains southern Prai- 
rie and Northern Jordan, and flows southwest into Vermillion Kiver m 
Illinois. Gopher Creek drains western Kent and the greater portion of 
Mound, and joins the Wabash in Vermillion County. A few smaller 
streams, such as Dry Creek, Fall Branch, Little Creek, Coal Run. Hall's 
Branch, Salt's Eun^ West Kickapoo Creek and Chesapeake Run have 
been properly christened. 


Warren County has many natural scenes to delight the eye. Several 
blitffs along the Wabash, towering up like huge domes far abore the 
water, command a view of over twenty miles along the valley and re- 
veal the sinuous curves of the historical old river and the beautiful 
natural scenery along its banks. One may look down the river from 
above Independence and see live or sis natural horizons of forestry until 
the view is terminated by a long belt of heavy timber over twenty miles 
away. But the most beautiful and picturesque views are along Big and 
Little Pine Creeks. Perpendicular embankments of sandstone, from which 
cascades as airy and bewitching as a bride's vail, leap from forty to eighty 
feet to the rocks below, and rise in mimic clouds of spray like a miniature 
Niagara, kindle in the beholder the highest emotion of grandeur. Nat- 
ural groups of white pine, that most commanding of all trees seen at a 
distance, occur at intervals along the bluiis which skirt the valleys and 
stand like faithful sentinels over the vale below, through which the brook 
runs laughing aloud on its way to deeper bays and swifter currents. 
Even the prairies in early years, with their islands of groves, were the 
grandest sights to those whose view from infancy had been hemmed in 
by heavy bodies of timber. The eye greeted the boundless vista of 
green velvet until sky and prairie met in the far distance as it did the 
immensity of the starry spaces or the sublime expanse of the ocean. All 
this and much more is in Warren County. Many jieople in other coun- 
ties and States would travel miles to enjoy the beauties which too many 
of the citizens of Warren do not ap]n-eciate. Warren has three or fotir 
great natural pleasure resorts. 


The following is taken from the report of John Collet. State Geolo- 

" The topographical features of Warren County are agreeably varied. 
The western and northern parts, embracing more than half its area, pre- 
sent a broad stretch of Grand Prairie. The siirface is undulating, or 
gently rolling, and oifers ample facilities for drainage, withoitt am- or 
but little waste lauds; while from the tops of any of the slight knolls or 
prairie ridges the eye is delighted with miles of coru-tields.'or leagues of 
blue grass pasfjire and meadow land, diversitied with island o-roves or 
their partings of timber. Adjoining the prairie region to the south and 
east is a wide belt of high rolling or hilly land, that descends >i-ontlv to 
the abrujit bluffs which the "Wabash and the creeks that tlow into it have 
cut down through the underlying coai luoasures, conglomerate sand rocks, 
and deep into the subcarboniferous formation. The soil of this belt is 
mostly yellowish clay, the tlocomposition of Silurian, Devonian and sub- 
carboniferous lime rocks, imported by rivers aneiontlv tlowim^ at this 
level. It is rich in tree foixt, and was originally clothed in a dense Cor- 
est of onk, hickory, ash, walnut, pojilar, beech, "maple and other lav^-e 


trees, beech and sugar trees predominating on the reddish clay soils, 
and oak trees on drift clays or sandy soils. The bluffs along the Wabash 
River and the principal creeks are from eighty to 150 feet in height, 
and are of romantic boldness. The tops at several stations are crowned 
with pines and cedars, and the sides are generally curtained with living 
walls of conglomerate or subcarboniferous sand rocks. 


" The surface deposits of this county comprise two members of the 
Quaternary, or more recent of- the geological formation, viz. : Aluvium, 
new or ancient, and the Bowlder drift. The alluvial bottoms owe their 
origin to causes now in action. They are formed of sedimexitary sands 
and clays, torn away and transported by streams at high water stage, 
and thrown upon the flood plain by overflow. The soil is sandy, largely 
intermixed with decayed leaves and other vegetable matter, and is in 
effect a rich garden mold. 

"At an elevation of sixty to ninety feet near the channel of the river, 
are found wide areas of the more ancient alluvial formation, as the 
Mound Prairie, in the southern portion of the county, and the " Barrens " 
south of Williamsport and southwest of Independence. The soil of this 
formation is generally a warm, black loam, bat sometimes sand or colder 
clays predominate. It is underlaid by gravel, sand or the rounded frag- 
ments of sandstone; and from the wide range of the deposit, extending 
miles on either side of the river, and from the great depth and uniform- 
ity of the material, we may date back the age of these terraces to the time 
when they served as flood plains of the Wabash, then a mighty river 
miles in width, which poured, in a broad channel vexed with numerous is- 
lands of conglomerate sand rock, the surplus waters of Lake Erie to the 

" Htiil higher, reaching up to the most elevated point in the county, 
and full L'OO feet above the bed of the Wabash River, are found the 
oldest alluvium terraces and banks of modiiied drift gravels and sand, as 
at Walnut Grove, in Prairie Township. These signalize the infancy 
of the river when, an insignificant and currentless stream with uncertain 
course, the Wabash, traversing all the region for thirty to forty miles 
on either side, sometimes flowing around through Illinois, sought by 
the line of least resistance the easiest pathway to the mouth of the val- 
ley of the continent. 


" The Bowlder drift next succeeds in age. This formation is well de- 
veloped in the west and northern parts of the county, and in fact under- 
lies all the Grand Prairie district. It contsists of tenacious gray and 
blue clays, obscurely laminated, and holding a considerable proportion 
of worn 'and polished pebbles and bowlders. Some of the latter are 
specimens of the Devonian and Silurian rocks in Northern Indiana and 
Illinois, but a larger proportion are metamorphic or transition rocks from 
the neighborhood of Lake Superior, or from still more arctic regions. 
The bowlders and coarse gravel are scattered from near the top down to 
within five to twenty feet of the bottom of the drift; for these clays were 
in a soft and oozy condition, and the heavy granite would naturally sink 
some distance. As a consequence, where bowlders are found on the sur- 
face, we may sfifely conclude that erosive action had carried away the 


finer matrix, leaving bare the heavy rocks. These in return, by then- 
number, are a measure of the amount of denudation. Partings of quick- 
sands and thin lavers of stony fragments from neighboring strata are 
found located at large intervals through this formation, showing that for 
short spaces during the drift period the great ice-beariag stream from 
the North was obstructed or overpowered by currents from the east or 
from the west, thus mingling with the northern di'ift fragmentary mate- 
rials from Indiana, Illinois and Iowa. Near the base of the drift, and 
resting on a broken and irregular floor of coal measure rocks, is gener- 
ally found a bed of potters clay, intermixed with quicksand and black 
muck. A marked bed of the latter was found in sinking the West Leb- 
anon shaft. From the soil here discovered was taken a large number 
of roots of trees, shrubs and plants of pre-glacial age. 


"Conglomerate sand rock, resting on subcarboniferoiis groups of rock, 
containing coal plants and dark pyritous clay, is of irregular formation. 
Upon exposure to the air, it decomposes, washes away, aud gives origin 
to caves, cascades and rock houses, so common in Kentucky. It is cjften 
accompanied by a thin seam of coal. In Warren County, no CL'al was 
found more than two inches thick and a single band of black sla^e at 
Munson's old mill on Little Pine. 

"In the northwestern portion of the coitnty, oittliers of conglomerate 
rock are found capping the highest tables, as at Black Rock aud near 
Green Hill; also at Point of Eocks, below Piainsville, and Island Rock, 
in Mud Pine. It extends to tbe west with a slight dip to the west bank 
of Pine Creek, where the dip stiddenly increases at the rate of twenty to 
thirty feet per mile. Southerly along the line of strike. Pine Creek tiows 
in a deep valley, generally walled by bold mural escarpments or over- 
hanging cliffs of massive sand rock, crowned with evergreen pines, 
cedars and juniper trees, combining scenery at once gr-and, wild and 
beautiful. The valley is from 150 to 200 feet deep, and the narrow mar- 
gin of alluvial soil was originally covered with a tangled mass of thorny 
brush, briers and vines. These feattires made Pine Creek a strong line 
of defense in Indian warfare, well suited to their strategy, and m the 
campaign of ISll, the confederate tribes planned to light here with Gen. 
Harrison. The gallant General, by a quick march fo the left llank, 
crossed higher up to the ojien prairie, and ended the war by the brilliant 
victory of Tippecanoe. The conglomerate is well developed" at Williams- 
port, on the Kickapoo, and in the blult's near the mouth of Red Wood. 
This formation consists of massive, varionslv colored sandstone, and 
rarely in-esents the typical character from which the name is derived, but 
near the mouth of Kickapoo. at Black Rock and at Thompson's .luarrv. 
near Green Hill, si)ecimens are found full of pebbles. These stones are 
easily quarried, freely ctit. but harden upon exposure, making choice 
material for building purposes. '^ 


"The coal measures occur nest in order of time. They lie directly 
upon the conglomerate and in outcrop occupy the regions south and 
west of that deposit, in area more than one-half of the county. The out- 
croi> of coal may be traced from near Ihe Ohio River in Dubois aud 
Pike Counties to the middlc> of Warren Coitnty. Good, clioice semi' Mock 


coal is fouDcl in the lower stream on Possum Run, at Steelj^'s farm, at 
Adamson's and J, Briggs", from two to three and one-half feet thick. On 
Fall Creek, all the banks furnish choice block coal, free from sulphur, 
well suited for smelting iron and with an average of three feel iu thick- 
ness. The dark, bituminous limestone roof is almost invariably pres- 
ent, ranging from one to four feet, sometimes changing to a calcareous 
shale. It is well developed at Main's mill on Red Wood, where huge 
blocks are laid bare in the bottom of the creek. Here the stone is high 
colored, homogeneous and compact. Specimens have been dressed by 
workmen. Locally, it is known as black marble. Fat coking coal, con- 
taining much snlphur, outcrops on Mud Pine, at Briscoe's and at "Wil- 
son's bank, at the head of Fall Creek. The product at this point meets 
a ready mai'ket. The seam ranges from sis. to eighteen inches iu thick- 
ness. The roof of this coal seam generally consists of pyritous slate, 
lean iron stones and concretions of argillite, of no economic importance 
as far as visible in the outcrop. Good coking coal is found at Briscoe's 
Tinkler's Mines, near West Lebanon. Block coal is found at Hooper's 
and Barringer's, on Possum Bun, and nearly as good at Lupold's. on 
Fall Creek. The lower stratmn is generally crowded with leaves, fruits 
and trunks of carboniferous plants, in a remarkable state of preservation, 
Xear the railway station. Fall Branch plunges from the summit of an 
overhanging mass of rock down sixty feet to the valley, and has thence 
cut a narrow outlet to the river, aflbrding a first rate section of the con- 
glomerate sand rock, in massive strata, from twenty to forty feet thick. 
Here a choice quarry is worked by the Hon. B. F. Gregory's heirs. As 
mentioned in the general outlines, it is jjrobable that in the early ages, 
Wabash or Pine Creek, at a high level, flowed through this gap and 
thence south. At that time, was formed the valley and terrace plains 
aloiig the railroad, widening southward to Rock Creek. 

"A chalybeate spring is found on Dr. Boyer's land. The head being 
at an elevation, the water falls in spray or drop)s and in the winter time 
forms fairy grottoes of ice and frost. Near by is a sulphur spring. 
Prof. Cox, State Geologist, analyzed the water of the Boyer Spring- as 
follows- Sulphate of protoxide of iron, carbonate of protoxide of iron, 
bicarbonate of lime, chloride of sodium (common salt), sulphate of 
soda (Glauber salts), sulphate of magnesia (Epsom salts), and free car- 
bonic acid gas. Black Rock, near the eastern line of the county, on the 
Wabash River, is a notable and romantic feature in river scenery. A 
bold, precipitous cliff overhanging rises 140 feet above the bed of the 
river. The top is composed of red, brown or black conglomerate sand 
rock, highly ferruginous and in part pebbly. At the base of the sand 
rock and where it joins upon the underlying carbonaceous and pyritous 
shales, are ■ Pot Rock Houses.' Some of these of no great height have been 
tumbled back under the cliff, to a distance of thirty or forty feet, by the 
force of the ancient river flowing at this level." 


It is a well known and conceded fact that all of Indiana and all 
her neighboring States were once inliabited by a semi -barbarous people, 
known as the Mound-Builders. Some authorities maintain that they 
were the ancestors of the Indian tribes, and that the lapse of several 
thousand years will account for the divergence in habit and osseous 


Bt-ructnre. Others insist that they were a distinct race of people and 
that the lapse of the probable time between the lives of the two races . 
will not acr'.ount for such divergence. All agree that the Mound- Build- 
ers were an agricultural people. They were idolatrous and immolated 
the lower animals and even human being-, to secure the favor of their 
Deity. They cultivated the soil with rude stone implements, wove a 
rude" cloth from bark and reeds, and erected huge stone and earthen 
structures of various forms and uses. Three kinds of mounds are found 
in Warren County— sepulchral, sacrificial and memorial. Within the 
first class are found the crumbling skeletons of this people, besides var- 
ious trinkets or ornaments. Within the second are baked clay altars 
upon which are heaps of ashes, charcoal, and verv often burnt fragments 
of human bones. The sacrifices to the Deity were offered on these altars. 
The third class contain aothing; they seem to have been erected, like the 
Bunker Hill monument, to commemorate some important tribal event. 
Mounds are found in Medina, Pine, Prairie. Adams, Liberty, Mound, 
and possibly other townships. Mound Township received its name from 
this circumstance. 


FiW several hundred years prior to the appearance of the white race, 
all the United States was inhabited by this j^eople. Who they were or 
how they came here is unknown. As far back as definite accounts can 
be had, the Miamis occupied the following tract of country: From De- 
troit south to the Ohio Biver, thence down the same to the mouth of the 
Wabash, thence up the same to about the boundary between Vermillion 
and Warren Counties, .thence north to the southern extremity of Lake 
Michigan, thence east to Detroit. This fact comes from various reliable 
sources, the most noteworthy being from Mish-e-ken-o-quah, or Little 
Turtle, a Miami Indian of great intelligence and renown, who lived in 
Northern Indiana during the latter part of the eiojhteenth centiuw and 
the first of the nineteenth. Warren County was thus on the boundarv 
between the Miamis and the Kickapoos of Illinois. This was the condi- 
tion of things previous to about one hundred years ago. But from ITSO 
to the war of 1812, so great was the rush of white settlers into Eastern 
Ohio that the Indians resident there were compelled to abandon their an- 
cient home and seek a new one farther west, and thus numerous other 
tribes began to invade the domain of the Miamis. The Pottawatomie? 
soon occupied almost all of Indiana north of the Wabash, while the 
Miamis retired mostly south of that river. Thus Warren Countv was 
so situated that Miamis, Pottawatomies and Kickapoos were "found 
within its borders by the French traders who began to come up the 
Wabash from Vincennes in pirogues loaded with whisky and trinkets to 
trade with the Indians as early, iirobably, as the beginning of the pres- 
ent century, and certainly before the "war of 1S12. The^'Wabasb had 
been the highway of trave"l for Frenchmen and missiouai-ies between De- 
troit and the French settlements at Yineennes and at several places in 
Illnois since the latter part of the seventeenth ceuturv. and it is not un- 
likely that temporary trading posts were established in Warren Countv 
at vm-y early periods. 


This man was a French Canadian, who at the age of about sixteen 
years came down the A\' abash to Vincennes, where he lived for a number 


of rears and then began the business of conveying boats or piroo-ues 
loaded with fancy articles and whisky up the river to trade with the In- 
dians for their furs. Nothing is known of these voyagers except what 
he himself told, and as the information comes from various mouths and 
recollections, it should be taken witli some grain of allowance. If 
Cicott's statements were correct, he came to trade with the Pottawato- 
mies and Kickapioos at Independence, Warren County, as early as eight or 
ten years before the war of 1812. So profitable became his trade, es- 
pecially when he could get the Indians under the influence of whisky, 
that he became a comparatively wealthy man. Interesting stories, with- 
out limit in number, could be told regardinc; these trading- vovages. 
Many times Cicott's life was in extreme danger, but he was watchful 
and brave, and managed to secure a confidential Indian, who speedily 
informed him of all plots involving danger to his person or interests. 
Mr. Cicott was a swarthy man of average size, was quick, wiry and very 
strong for his weight, and possessed considerable skill and bravery and 
an iron constitution. He married a squaw of the Pottawatomie tribe, by 
whom he had two children, John Battiece and Sophia At Independ- 
ence were two or more natural springs of excellent water, which cir- 
cumstance had caused that point to become a great place for the Indians 
to encamp. Cicott, in nearly all his voyages, found it profitable to stop 
there to trade, although he occasionally went up to Hackberry Island or 
stopped to trade with the Kickapoos at the mouth of Kickapoo Creek, 
there being quite a large encampment of the tribe there. He erected a 
rude building, probably before the war of 1812, and irsually occupied it 
while trading. On one occasion,* just before the war of 1812 broke out, 
he found the Indians so savage and threatening that he thought it pru- 
dent not to unload his liquor from the jiirogue, but moored close to the 
bank, where he dealt out the liquid for the valuable furs which were 
handed from the bank to him. Finding that his liquor was sure to be 
consumed before all the furs had been secured, he instructed his com- 
panion to cautiously pour water into one end of the barrel while he dealt 
out the mixtm-e from the other. In this shrewd way he got all their 
furs and had considerable liquor left. But the Indians became clamor- 
ous and violent and demanded more whiskv, and were refused because 
they had no more furs and were without money. One savage looking 
fellow, half-frenzied with intoxication, drww a huge knife and shouted 
that he must have more whisky or he would murder the trader, and made . 
preparations to put this threat into execution; but Cicott also di-ew his 
knife and swore that the Indian could have no more unless he were the 
better man. A collision seemed inevitable. Several hundred Indians 
were present, swarming like maddened bees on the bank, the most of 
whom were drunk and all were more or less infmiated at the loss of 
thei-r furs and ready to \\Teak their revenge on the trader, who was care- 
ful tn keep on his pirogue and out of their reach. The old chief Parish 
came forward and bought the remainder of the whisky, and taking the 
barrel on his shoulders, carried it to the top of the bluff, knocked in the 
head, and told the Indians who crowded around to help themselves, 
which they quickly did. Cicott saw that this was his opportunity to es- 
cape, and quickly and quietly pulled out into the middle of the river 
and began to row rapidly down the stream, his departure being greatly 

*Cicott told this iDcident to David ^[ofBt, from whom it was obtained hy the writer 


favored by the approach of darkaess Aboat a milfi doivQ, he stj-jp^i 
under the shade of the opposite shore to listen. He could distinctly 
hear the savage revelry behind him, and finally could hear his own name 
shouted from scores of throats, " Se-e-cott, Se-e-cott." He did not dare 
to retm-n, and continued on down the river. 


A short time before the war of 1812. Cicott received a note from 
Gen. Harrison at Yincennes, directing him to go immediately to that 
point prepared to act as a scout for the army, which was on the eve of 
marching against the Indians. The trader had noticed that the Indians 
of Warren County were in a state of great excitement, and soon became 
aware that some great disturbance was on foot, as they were holding war 
and scalp dances and were arming themselves and ornamenting their 
persons with red and black paint and other horrid paraphernalia A sav- 
age warfare. The note was no sooner received than Cicott began mak- 
ing huri'ied preparations for his departure. He secretly packed every- 
thing of value that he could take in pirogues, and, unknown to the In- 
dians, left Independence at night, pulling rapidly down the Wabash. 
His confidential Indian was left on shore to drive about forty ponies 
around through Warren Couiity on the way down to a place of safety. 
This the faithful fellow succeeded in doing, though all the cattle, sheep 
and hogs were killed. Upon his arrival at Yincennes. Cicott was se- 
lected as a scout for the army, which soon afterward passed northward 
to invade the Indian country. The plan of the Indians was to brin? on 
an encounter in the ravines and timber, where their mode of warfare 
would be greatlv favored, one of the places being on Big Pine Creek, 
eight or ten miles from its mouth; but Han-ison was too prudent and 
experienced to be caught in that manner, and in his march sought the 
open country but kept near the timber, occasionally passing throuijh de- 
tached portions of woodland. His army entered the county in the south- 
western part of Mound Township, thence passing northeastward through 
Kent about a mile east of State Line City, thence on through Steuben 
and southwestern Jordan, and possibly northwestern Pike, thence on diag- 
onally on through the center of Liberty, crossing Big Pine Creek about 
a mile and a half northeast of Carbondale, at^ a place known as the 
"Army Ford," thence on through .idams and Medina Townships and 
into northern Tippecanoe County, Avhere, on the 7th of November. iSll, 
the Indians were subdued in the bloody battle of Tippecanoe. .Jud>^e 
Isaac Naylor, Cicott and several others who afterward lived in the coun- 
ty, were with this army on its march out and at the battle, and after- 
ward, when the county was settling up. wont over the route or' trail of the 
army and identified its camping places and related luanv iuterestin.- an- 
ecdotes. The army encamped in Warren Countv tirst'in Kent T^^^wn- 
ship, in a detached grove, where two of the men" died and were brried 
The spot is used now as the Gopher Hill Cemeterv. Much of the route 
of the army lay along au old Indian trail, and as it was afterward trav- 
eled considerably, it was worn so deep that it can vet be traced in the 
county some ten or twelve miles. In the door yard of G H Luc"^ who 
lives about a, mile east of State Line City, the trail is at lea-^t a foot' deep 
and live or six yards wide. The army also encamped on the east bank 
of Big Piue Creek immediately after crossing the stream. A few traces 
of this encampment were yet visible when the county was tirst settled 



After the war of 1812 had terminated, probably about the year 
1S16, Cicott resumed his voyages up the Wabash to trade with the In- 
dians. The following year* he erected the hewed- log house which is yet 
standing, though on the verge of falling down from neglect and decay. 
It stands on the bank of the river a few rods east of the town of Inde- 
pendence, and is sui-rounded by about four acres of land which were 
cleared by Cicott and used by his family for a garden. A few old apple 
trees planted by the family are yet standing. At the Indian treaty of 
St. Mary's, Ohio, on the 2d of October, 1818, a section of land on Flint 
Eiver, Mich., was reserved for Perig, a Pottawatomie chief, bat at the treaty 
with the Pottawatomies at Chicago on the 29th of August, 1821, the 
claim of Perig was transferred to John Battiece, son of Zachariah Cicott, 
by a Pottawatomie woman, though the section thus reserved was not the 
same, but was to be located by the President the United States, who, at 
the rec^uest of the Cicotts, established it at Independence. The Cicott 
reserve was located on Sections 13, 14, 23 and 24, Township 22 north. 
Range 7 west. Upon reflection, it would hardly seem that Cicott would 
go to the trouble and expense of erecting his large hewed-log house on 
land which did not belong to himself or some member of his family; and 
therefore the writer concludes that Cicott's recollection of the time when 
the building was construtcod, or Mr. Jacob Hanes' recollection of what 
Cicott told him regarding the date, is at fault, and the log house was not 
really erected until after the section was reserved to John Battiece 
Cicott, or probably about the year 1822. Here Zachariah Cicott lived 
until his death, about the year 1850, continuing to trade with the In- 
dians as long as they remained in the county. John B. Cicott could not 
Sell the reservation without authority from the President of the United 
States, but this was finally gained through John Tipton, Indian Agent, 
who certified (when the land passed from J. B. Cicott to his father, 
Zachariah Cicott, in about 1830) that J. B. Cicott was receiving a val- 
uable and sufficient consideration. The recorded consideration for the 
transfer is 11,000, though David MoiBt informed the writer that as a 
matter of fact the consideration was an Indian pony almost thin enough 
to warrant being followed b}' the crows, and a saddle which looked as 
if a thunderbolt had fallen on it. Mr. MofHt is no doubt correct, as it 
would not take much ingenitity to have the pony and saddle valued at 
$1,000. In March, 1830, Cicott mortgaged the reservation to Menard and 
VaJle, French traders of St, Genevieve, for 13,000, which amount was due 
them for merchandise obtained by Cicott for the Indian trade. The 
mortgage also covered the following personal property: Two large two 
horse wagons, one small wagon, two yokes of work oxen, eighteen stock cattle, 
twelve horses, 100 hogs, one cherry bureau, two butt rifle guns, eleven head 
of sheep, four promissory notes of $185 each and Cicott's Indian book ac- 
count."}" This mortgage was afterward largely satisfied by the transfer 
to Menard and Valle of numerous town lots in Independence, which was 
laid out by Cicott in 1832. In his latter years, Cicott was partially par- 
alyzed, the disorder seizing his tongue and preventing speech, which 
made him an object of general sj'mpathy. At last, in 1850, he died at 

*From the recollection of Jacob Hanes, .Sr., of Independence, who obtained the facts from Cicott. 

fThe Indiane were better to pay when trusted tlmu tlie whites, and this fact led Cicott and all other 
traders to keep running accounts with them. His old account boult would be an interesting object if it could 
be (ound. In 1830, he was the wealthiest resident ut the county. 


an a-e of over eighty years, and nov.' lies burie.l in tbe cemetery at In- 
dependence, near the spot made historic by his own energy and darmg. 


At the treaty of St. Mary's, in Ohio, in iSlS, a section of land was 
frranted to or reserved for Mary Chatterlie, a daughter of ^elbust, a 
Pottawatomie chief, and was located on Sections 1 and 2, Township -1 
north, Range S west, on Section 30, Township 2",^ norlh, Eange 1 west, 
and on Section 6, Township 21 north, Range / west. 

In the early settlement of the county, Amos Griffith became the 
husband of Mary, and in about 1S30 a consiaerable portion of the res- 
ervation was sold to John Seaman, the consent of the President of the 
United States having been obtained upon the certificate of A. Finch, of 
La Fayette, and S. B. Clark, of Warren County, who had been appointed 
by the Indian Agent, John Tipton, for that purpose. The remainder of 
the reservation was soon afterward disposed of. 


During the spring of 1832, all the Wabash Valley was thrown into 
a fever of consternation by the reports that the Indians of the Sac and 
Fos nations on Rock River, Illinois, led by the implacable old chief, 
Black Hawk, had taken up the hatchet and were sweeping eastward, mm-- 
derino- and torturing the whites without limit or discrimination. 
Fugitives on horses and on foot scom'ed the country with wildly exag- 
gerated accounts, confirming the reports that fifteen persons had been 
cruelly mru-dered at the Hickory Creek settlement in Illinois,, and about 
the IHth of May the leport spread like wildfire down the western side 
of the Wabash that a large bociy of hostile Indians had killed two men 
within fifteen miles of La l^'ayette. About half the settlers in Warren 
(Jounty west of the river hurriedly packed their handiest vahiables and 
ried across the river, where rude forts and block-houses were quickly 
prepared and guarded. Companies of militia were immediately organ- 
ized to scour tile country for signs of danger and to check the advance 
of the Indians upon the villages and neighborhoods where the women, 
children, helpless and cowards had assembled. A small company of about 
twenty-five men was formed in Warren County. Col. James Gregory 
was elected Captain, and the men, thoroughly armed and provisioned, 
started northwestward on a scouting expedition. A few families in the 
county did not leave their farms nor neglect their daily work; still fewer, ' 
in isolated places, knew nothing of the reports until the alarm was over, 
when they had their scare. The company went as far as the Hickorv 
Creek settlement in Illinois, remaining in that vicinity for a few days, 
when they returned, the a})prehensioii of danger having been cjuieted. 
While the alarm was highest, a man riding along Mud Pine Creek in 
Warren County saw two Indians skulkint; through the bushes oft' some 
distance to one side, and surmising that they were endeavoring to cut him 
off and murder him, he put whip to his horse in a paroxysm of fear, and 
Hed as if pursued by the Furies. The animal that liore him was a s[ilen- 
did one, and he waa soon far beyond the clutches of the savai^es. though 
he still continued to ply wliip nntl spur. The faithful "Minimal wis 
nearly ruined. He told all he met that the Indians were on Mud Pine 
Creek and had chased hiiu some distance, but his own skill and the 


fleetness of his horse had baffled them, but that they would soon be down 
in Adams and Medina Townships, scalping and murdering. The few 
families remaining in the neighborhood gathered together to defend 
themselves and their property. Several men mounted their horses to go 
on a reconnoitering expedition. Daniel Moffit, mounted on a borrowed 
gray mare, being among the number. Away they went, but Mr, Moffit 
soon discovered that his mare was uncertain, for whenever he attempted 
to go too fast, she would stop suddenly, and kick as if her hind legs 
were a perpetual motion. "Whip or spur increased the power and ra- 
pidity of the kicks, while the report of a rifle caused her to buck fu- 
riously as well. Mr. Moffit, though a brave man, became very uneasy. 
Suppose a band of Indians should charge upon them, that old mare 
would stand like a post and kick like a pile driver till the air would be 
tilled with hoofs and sod. But would that stop the Indians? Mr. 
Moffit sorrowfully thought to himself that it would not. He begged his 
companions to go slower and to do nothing that would rouse the old 
mare. Accordingly, they all struck a moderate gait and were soon on 
the ground where the two Indians had been seen. In a short time they 
discovered the Indians in a small grove where they had killed and 
dressed a deer and were resting and eating after their chase. Upon be- 
ing questioned, it became clear they had been following the wounded 
deer when seen by the jnan who had roused the neighborhood with his 
fears and were perfectly friendly to the whites. The horsemen returned 
home, old mare and all. 


Of course, Zachariah Cicott was the first white man to reside perma- 
nently within the present limits of '\^'arren County. Probably no others 
appeared until about the year 18'22, at which time a very few came in, 
and during the succeeding two or three years the settlement was quite 
slow. Amongst those who came into the southwestern part of the coun- 
ty prior to June, 1827, were Samuel Watkins, William Jolly, Thomas Cun- 
ningham, Joseph Thomas. John N. Lew in, Nicholas DeLoug, Lewis 
Evans, John Black, Humphrey Becket, Benjamin Beoket. William 
Becket, John Ferrell, Elias Oxford, Sylvester Stone, Elisha Miles, Hiram 
Miles, James Holmes, James McCune, Robert Mills, Enoch Stran, 
Jacob Ferrell, and others; while farther northeast were J. C. AVatson, 
Thomas Kitchen, Luther Tillotson, James Kitchen, Nelson DeMoss, Peter 
High, Amos Clark, William Hall, Samuel Clem, Henry Coons, Adam 
Coons, Augustus Watson, William Kent, Nathaniel Butterfield, Holder 
Sisson, James Shaw, Lemuel Boyd, Benjamin Cheneweth, John Jones, 
James Forbner and Joseph King. Near the center portion of the county 
were Ransom Wilkinson, Seth Shippy, James Oxford, William Harri- 
son, Nathan Billings, Samuel Harrison, Uriah Dunn, George Billings, 
Marcus Shippy, John Fields, Jr., James Gilbert, Christopher Pitzer, 
David Dickinson, William Harrington, Mathias Redding, John Han- 
kins, John Fields, James Fipps, James B. Harrison, Thomas B. Clark, 
Jonathan Shippy, Daniel and Robert Benjamin, Jonathan Pitzer, John 
Dickinson, Thomas Doan, Joan Seaman, Daniel Clark, Nimrod Harrison, 
David Fleming, Andrew Fleming. William Pugh, Peter Fleming, Ly- 
man Judd, Marshal Billings, Jacob Halstead, and farther east were David, 
White, Constantino Messmore, Zachariah Cicott, Thomas Herron, Solo- 
mon Pitzer, Francis Boggs, M. Hunt, Daniel Tevebaugh, John Teve- 


baugli, Adam White, James McCord, John and Enoch Farmer, J j-eph 
Cox and others, while farther north, along Big and Little Pme Creeks. 
wei- Tames Bidwell, Archibald Davis, Samuel B. Clark, EdwaiM 3iace, 
Samuel Green, Isaac Rains, John Anderson, John Jackson Jeremiah 
Davis. John Gradner and several others, whose names cannot be learned 
with certainty. In 1827, the county was organized, and during the suc- 
ceeding five or six years the settlement was very rapid. The tii'st tracts 
of land entered in the county were as follows: 


Win. A; Jonas Seaman 21 

John lilind 23 

Benjamin Landon ; 22 

.James Barnes : 20 

James Barnes I 20 

.James Barnes 20 

.John Black ' 20 

.John Blaek 20 

Thomas CunninnJiam. 20 
Thomas Cunningham. 20 

Thomas Wright ' 20 

■■^aiiiuel Watkins 20 

Sam\i<T (^reen 22 

William Newell ■ 23 

Silas Hooker , 23 

James ^IcC'une ' 20 

Unknown i 20 

Lewis CoUeyer ■ 22 

Lewis Evans I 20 

Enoch Farmer ' 22 









Ii.vTE C'F Entry. 




w. \ s. e. i. 

Decemlier 16. 1820. 




n. w. i s. e \. 

Septemlier 11. 1822. 




e. +s. e. i. 

September 1.5. 1822. 




e. i n. e. i. 

^'ovember 1.5. 1822. 




e. A s. w. J. 

November 1.5. 1822. 




w. + s. w. i. 

Xovember 1.5; 1822. 




w. + n. e. i. 

November 1.5, 1822. 




e. 4 n. w. \. 

November 1.5, 1822. 




e. i ,s. e. i. 

November 15. 1822. 




w. + s. e. i. 

November 15. 1822. 




( e. 4 s. w. i tt ( 
'( w. fr. s. e. \. \ 

November 18, 1822. 




e. 4 s. e. i. 

September 20. 1823. 



n. e. i n. w. J. 

November 9. 1823. 




e. 4 !;. w. i. 

Januarv 22. 1824. 




u. e. i s. w. \. 

Febniarv 2.5, 1824. 




w. i u. e. \. 

:Mav 29. 1824. 




s -1. 

August 9. 1824. 




u. i s. w. \. 

August 28, 1824. 




s. e. fr. w, i. 

December 27, 1824, 




w. 4 s. e. i. 

December 31, 1824. 

In 1825, the following men entered land: Thomas Bowyer, Town- 
ship 28, Range 6; • WilliaDi H. Mace. Township 23, Range 6; James 
Bidwell, Township 23. Range 0; John S. Reid, Township 23. Range 
6; 'John Cox, Township 22, Range 7; John McCord. Township 22, 
Range 7; -Jonathan Cox. Township 22, Range 7: Samuel B. Clark. 
Township 22, Range 7; Nancy Maudlin. Township 22. Rauije 8: Hem-y 
Coons, Township 20, Range U; Thomas Lewis. Township 20. Range 9": 
Lewis Evans, Township 20, Range 9; Benedict Morris. Township 20, 
.Range y. In 1S2(J. the following men entered laud: Isaac Shelbv. 
Township 22, Range (i: John Stanley. Township 23, Range O;' Jeremiah 
Davis, Township 23, Range 0; Samuel B, Clark. Township 23, Ransje 
I'l; John Rhode, Township 22, Range 7; David White. Township 2''2. 
Range 7: Samuel Ensley. Township 22, Range 7; Henrv AVetchell, 
Township 23. Range 7; William Kendall. Township 22, Range 8; Will- 
iam M'urthiugton, Township 23, Range 8; Levi Osborn, Township 23, 
Range S; Al)el Oxford. Township 20. Range U; Joseph Thomes, Town- 
ship 20. Range 'J; William Henderson. Township 20. Range 9;' Joseph 
Foster, Township 20. Range 9;' William White, Township^'21, Rani-'e 9. 

After this, the settlement was more rapid, A great many f ami lies came 
in — some from neighboring i)lder counties and some direct front Ohio, 
rennsylvania, and other Stiites east. The early settlers sought the tim- 
ber for four reasons: First, because, as they had been reared in a tim- 


bered country they knew nothing of the prairie, and thought the soil 
■was too poor for the production of forests, and consequently too poor to 
be cultivated; secondlj', they thought it imjiossible to survive the cold 
winters in such an exposed situation; thirdly, they preferred to remain 
where wood was abundant; fourthly, they concluded to locate near some 
water- courses which were then the great commercial highway. It is 
therefore seen that the very earliest settlers preferred the timbered land, 
and selected their farms on streams where there was a good mill site and 
where never-failing springs of good water issued from the ground. 
Some of the settlers had learned the value of prairie land, and they res- 
olutely pushed out on the broad expanse despite the scoffs of those who pre- 
tended to be wiser. Many of the earliest settlers squatted upon their farms, 
being too poor to pay the entry price until after the harvest of the first 
or second crop. Others had barely sufficient to enter their lands. 
Others still had considerable means, and found that settling up a new 
country was not so hard after all. Still others were obliged to return 
whence they came. Money was very scarce, and people were often en- 
forced to resort to barter in order to effect exchanges. The comparative 
demand and supply regulated the price of all articles. A yard of calico 
was worth so many pounds of butter; a deer skin was worth so much 
sugar or coffee, and an ax was worth so many bushels of potatoes. The 
tanneries supplied leather, which was obtained and made for whole fam- 
ilies at once into shoes and boots. Sheep were early introduced, and 
those that were not killed by wolves supplied wool, which was taken, 
very often, by the backwoods mother, and washed, rolled, carded, spun, 
woven into cloth, dressed, cut and made into suits without once leaving 
the house where it had been clipped from the sheep. Everybody had 
ox teams. Young men went courting with ox teams, and many young 
couples went gayly off to some old " Squire " to get married, driving a 
span of fast young cattle. If they were fortunate enough to own a 
horse, the}^ would both mount the animal, the girl on behind, and away 
they would go, followed by a sho^-er of old shoes, horseshoes and rice. 
The first marriage in the cciinty was after this fashion. It occurred on 
the 1st of January, 1S2S, between Noble Owens and Catharine Coons, 
Nathaniel Buttertield, Associate Judge, performing the ceremony. The 
second marriage was June 19, 182S, between James Perrin and Cassan- 
dra Clarke, Lemuel Boyd, Justice of the Peace. The third was Novem- 
ber 30, 1S28, between Jonathan Pitzer and Nancy Bivens, by Squire 
Dunn. On this occasion the evening was passed in an old-fashioned 
backwoods dance. It must have been a sight to have seen them whirl- 
ing around the room of the little log cabin, shaking their feet to some 
familiar tune on an old fiddle, 

" As the fiddler touched the string, 
Some youngster cut the pigeon wiug." 

The Scotch, Virginia and other varieties of reel were indulged in; 
old men took the floor under the inspiration, and unlimbered themselves 
Iq a manner to elicit rounds of applause from boys of less skill and ex- 

There v/ere no "stuck-up" people in the new country; all were 
friendly, for all were poor. The latch string hung out for everybody; 
this hospitality was so universal that every settler seemed to keep tavern. 



It would not do to turn travelers away, for the cabins were so if^ ^ 
the night would probably have to be passed in the woods. -Lii"? o^ 7 
question was, can they put up with what we have ':* Traveler- 
backwoods usually could and did. 


The first thing for the family to do was to erect the little log cabin; 
and while this was being done by the men, often assisted by the^ ^^}S}^- 
bors, who came for that purpose often four or five miles, the ramilies 
were obliged to live in the wagon, or in a tent of boughs, bark and 
blankets, or in the cabin of some near neighbor. The cabin, such as it 
was, often without floor or permanent roof, and destitute of door or 
windows, was very often ready for occupancy at night of the day it was 
begun. Blankets served for doors, greased paper for windows, while 
the floor was, perhaps, the bare earth. The next few days were passed in 
getting comfortable. The chinks must be daubed with mud; the chimney 
and tire-place must be made serviceable and reliable; puncheon floors 
and doors must be split out. and the latter hung on wooden hinges, with 
a huge wooden latch on the inside provided with a string which extended 
outside through a small hole in the door. To draw in the string was to 
prevent entrance, and hence the old saying that "the latch-string is out" 
is tantamount to an invitation to all in need of hospitality to enter the 
humble cabin home. After the family had been made comfortable, act- 
ive work was begun to clear a spot of ground for the first crop. The 
men would cut down trees all day and far into favorable nights, while 
the women would often pile and burn the brush. Mrs. "William Eobb 
said she did that many a time and enjoyed it. Her husband. "William 
Eobb, said he would rather live in a log cabin on the frontier with the 
family he loved and with all the sitrrounding hardships and privations than 
to live in a palace amid the gilt and pride of to-day. Many of the old settlers 
think likewise. Those were active, happy times for them — the sunshine in 
their long lives, and now, Avhen the twilight of age comes swiftly on, it 
is haj)piness to see the old times again, even in a momentary vision. 
How nice it was some crisp, bright moonlight night in winter, when the 
snow lay thick upon the ground, to close the house and all take a brisk walk 
through the sharp air a mile or two to the house of a neighbor to spend 
the long evening 1 There is inspiration in the thought of old times. We 
see the jtioneers building their log cabins and cutting down the great 
trees; we hear the echoing axes and the thunder of falling timber; we see 
the blazing brush and the sky is tilled, with the glare of burnino- he;ipsof 
logs, and the sun is darkened with blinding smoke; we hear the sturdv 
])ioneers shouting to their oxen as they roll the logs or tarn the soil for 
the expected crop; we hear the sound of mauls as the rails for the little 
fields are split; we see men and women planting corn with hoes and 
weeding piirapkius and potatoes among the roots and stumps. The au- 
tumn comes and the corn is husked and the potatoes dug. The eveuiuo- 
comes and we hear the ding-dong of the cow-bells — for the cows have re- 
turned from the ]nairie and are standing down by the bars, with dis- 
tended sides, waiting to be milked. The chores are done and nii^ht has 
thrown her curtain upon the earth, and the long-drawn mournful howl of 
the wolf and the weird hootings of the owl are heard down by the swamp 
Now the scene is changed. The crops are gathered, the corii is cribbed 


the potatoes are buried, the great yellow pumpkins are covered with hay 
and vines to protect them from the frost, the prairie hay is cut and 
stacked and great heaps of logs have been hauled into the door-yard for 
winter use. The boys and girls have bright new suits of home-made 
linsey, or the faded old ones have been patched; and each with a new 
pair of cow-hide shoes (which must last a year), is getting ready for the 
winter school in the new log schoolhouse, with a great open fire-]")lace 
and windows of greased paper, and long benches hewed out of split logs. 
There is the old schoolmaster. What an important personage he is! 
How stately he looks, as, with whip in hand, he marches up and down 
the room, hearing the little ones saying their A B O's and showing the 
older ones how to cipher. Occasionally he touches up some of the boys 
who are caught whispering to the girls. How they jump and scratch! 
for their pants are thin, and the whip is hickory, well seasoned in the 
hot embers of the glowing tire. There is the school standing in a long 
row with folded arms, ready to spell — yes, ready to spell every word in 
the old spelling book. How hungry the scholars are at noon, and what 
dinners they have! Johnny-cake, venison, and sometimes a big piece of 
j)umpkin pie, and once in a great while a slice of wheat bread with but- 
ter and a little sugar sprinkled on the butter. Now they are at home, 
gathered around the blazing tire-place. What tires! How they roared 
and snapped those cold winter nights! There sits father, smoking his 
wooden pipe, and mother with her knitting, while the girls are making 
the old spinning-wheel hum as they spin into yarn the rolls which have 
been carded by hand, and there are the boys working their sums, crack- 
ing hickory nuts or whittling puzzles out of little wooden blocks, while 
the gi-eat tire throws out a cheering heat and gleam, and comfort per- 
vades the whole house. Now it is the fall of the year. The poison of 
the undrained swamps has made all to shake and shiver with the ague, or 
lay for weeks burning with fever, without well ones enough to wait on 
the sick. There comes the old doctor, picking his way among the logs 
and swamps, on horseback, with blazed trees for his guide and an old 
Indian trail for his road. What doses of medicine he doles out! Cal- 
omel, jalajj, ipecac, Dover's powders, Peruvian bark, pink and senna 
and snake root, and pills as big as peas. How the patient is vomited, 
purged and bled, and how, after weeks of shaking and burning fever, he 
pulls through, a mere skeleton, a yellow, bilious-looking wreck. 


Warren County was well supplied with early mills, owing to the ease 
with which the water powers along the creeks were made available. 
However, the settlers, prior to 1828 were obliged to go south into Fountain 
County. Henry Stump started a saw mill on Big Pine Creek in 1828; 
Isaac Rains started one soon afterward at what afterward became Kains- 
ville. He conducted a small covn-cracker. Francis Boggs also began 
sawing about the same time northeast of Williamsport, on Big Pine Creek. 
Peter Cristman's mill was started later on the same creek. Enoch 
Farmer started the first saw mill on Kickapoo Creek. Isaac Rains started 
a saw mill lower down on Big Pine Creek, afterward known as the 
Brier Mill, as early as 1828, A small grist mill or corn-cracker was 
conducted at the same place. The Cristman Mill was afterward owned 
by Mr. Dick. William Rhodes built a saw mill on Big Pine Creek, as 


early as 1833, about two miles northeast of Eaiiisville, A coru-cr r 
was also located there, and afterward an excellent grist miu- „ ,, , 
Fincher, Isaac Waymire, William Bogj^s, Jonathan Cox. Levi iJoutliert 
and Frederick Waymire built early saw' mills on Kickapoo Creek, Isaac 
Waymire also started a small Houring mill. S. and O. Munson built a 
saw' and grist mill on Little Pine Creek as early as 1831. Christopher 
Henry built a saw mill on the same creek, and a Mr. Burchren a grist 
mill. Henry Stewart and John Talbert built saw mills on the same 
creek early. Stewart conducted a small carding mill, as did Brier also, 
on Bio- Pine Creek, These old factories were well patronized. 


A few bears have been killed in the county, two or three of them 
being stragglers, in comparatively late years, Eiidy in the "SOs and in 
the monthTf October, Wesley Gray and others were hunting by moon- 
light one night, when the dogs started a bear not far from Eainsville. 
The large animal started northward at a rapid rate, closely piu'sued by 
the dogs and followed by Mr. Gray, who was on horseb.ick. and -who coald 
scarcely keep up with it, awing to the swamp; and woods. But hnally 
he reached the tierce animal near the northern boundary of the county, 
just as it was in the act of killing one 'of his dogs. It had seized the 
dog in its deadly embrace and was crushing the unfortunate animal to 
deatli by repeated hugs Mr. Gray jumped from his horse, which was 
very restless, and threw his rifle to his shoulder just as the bear, with 
mouth open and gleaming teeth, displayed in the moonlight, released 
the dog and made a dash at him. He hred as the animal reared up, and 
a half ounce of lead went crashing into its body near the heart. The 
maddened animal gave a spasmodic bound, fell over on the leaves, and 
after a few feeble kicks was dead. The Grays and some of their nei^-h. 
bors ate bear steak for breakfast the following morning. 

Wolves wore very numerous, especially in very earlv vears, and sone- 
times in winter, when rendered des]ierate by hunger, they would enter 
door and stable-yards and attack domestic animals, and sometimes would 
pursue and attack man himself. This, however, was onlv wlien thev 
were half starved and desperate. A settler in Libertv Township once 
pursued a large wolf, chasing it on horseback. Ho ran over it once, but 
the horse was severely bitten hy the wolf, and would avoid the beast iipou 
subsequent charges. At la<t it was brought to bay. and the settler, hav- 
ing no gun, took otV liis stirrup, intending, if possible, to brain the ani- 
mal by Olio blow. He advanced upon it. and it, in turn, rendere.l furi- 
ous bv the long chase, advanced upon him, showing two rows of teeth 
that a crocodile might have envied, and that suapped ton-ether like a 
sto(^l tra]i. When close enough, he struck it upon the head with the 
heavy iron stirrup, stretching it upon the ground, and tinishino- the work 
by repeated blows ui>on the iiead. Cattle in th.^ woods, becuTiug mired 
down in the swamps at night, ofteu furnished a feast for a ravenous'^pack of 
wolves. Ordinarily the wolves were not dangerous to man. Sheep con- 
stantly UM viciims to their rapacity. The County Commissioners offered 
a heavy bounty, which had the effect of largely ridding the countv of the 
nocturnal marauders They continued, however, to do soriou-^ dam-u^e 
to sheep folds long after the county was quite well populated Fiualh" 
somo time in the early part of the MDs, it was resolved to or.'aui -e "'i 


grand circular hunt in order to exterminate as many of the animals as 
possible. The time came, and the night before a large pole was erected on 
the big mound at "Walnut Grove, from the top of which four wagon covers 
sewed together were spread to the breeze. Eighty acres at this place 
were staked off, the flag pole being the center, and this tract of land was 
to be the center where the game was to be driven, and upon which none 
of the hunters were to advance without orders from the Captains. Bright 
and early the next morning, the settlers started from Benton County, 
Vermillion County, 111., and Tippecanoe County on the east, and 
the AVabash River on the south, and as they moved along they were 
joined by hundreds, until the great circular line was almost solid. They 
made loud and constant noise to scare up all game. The big flag could 
be seen for ten miles, andsteadily toward it the line of excited and anx- 
ious men advanced. Animals could be seen running in front of the line, 
and at last opposite lines could see each other. The circle of men at this 
time was complete, and the fun began. Herds of deer, led by some fine 
old stag, would dash madh' round and round the cii'cle, and were met 
everywhere by volleys of rifles. Sometimes, when made desperate by 
the noise and by fear, they would dash at the line, and, jumping over the 
heads of the hunters, or breaking through the line, would go wildly off 
at full speed and escape. Notwithstanding the care which had been 
used, nearly all the game except deer had managed to escape through the 
lines during the march. A few wolves were hemmed in and shot, and a 
few foxes were seen and, perhaps, a few killed. Several herds of deer 
also had managed to escape during the advance; but there were about 
300 in the circle when the lines reached the limit of march. Many of 
these escaped by breaking through the lines or leaping over the heads 
of the hunters. Many m^n were so excited that they scarcely knew what 
they did, and the line was sometimes very irregular and broken, thus 
admitting the escape of the animals. About 160 deer were killed; also 
six or eight wolves. It had been expected that not less than twenty-five 
wolves would be hemmed in and killed, so that the hiint, as a whole, 
did not come up to the expectations. Fortunately no man was injured by a 
stray bullet. This was the most extensive hunt ever in the county. 
David Mofiit was one of the most successful hunters and trappers ever 
in the county. He enjoys the sport even at this day, and for a man who 
has seen fourscore of years, is remarkably clear mentally, and strong and 
active physically. 


In comparatively early years, when through all this Western country 
the lack of law and measures to bring criminals to justice led to the 
formation of organized bands of horse-thieves and counterfeiters. Red 
wood Point became a notorious resort for their depredations; and at 
times lai-ge numbers of horses and quantities of jewelry, naerchandise, 
etc., stolen farther east and across the Wabash, were secreted in the ra- 
vines and heavy woods until such ^iroperty could be safely disposed of by 
the thieves. So far as known, no bogus coin or counterfeit paper money 
was ever manufactured in the county, although, many years ago, the 
necessary implements for such manufactiue were found concealed in the 
ravine at Redwood Point. Reports were once circulated that a man had 
been murdered not many miles from West Lebanon — an inoffensive ped- 
dler, supposed to have had in his possession a considerable quantity of 


money and jewelry— after wliic^h liis body was said to have been thrown 
into a certain well", and the reports i^retended to point out several ot the 
guilty parties. One dark night, a company of Vigilants called upon the 
alleged guilty persons who lived near by. and informed them that they 
were wanted, and accordingly conducted them to the well, around which 
they were stationed well guarded, while the water was thoroughly 
dragged for the body of the missing peddler. Xo such b^iy was found, 
and the suspected parties were conducted home, no doubt greatly to 
their relief. In consequence of the resort made of the county ravines 
and woods by criminals and the mysterious disappearance of horses, cat- 
tle, goods, etc., various companies "for the detection and arrest of theras- 
calsVere organized and continued to be so until the present. In 1S53. 
two companies for catching horse-thieves and other criminals were or- 
ganized in the county, the Milford Regulators, with a membership of 
thirty-tive, in the eas'tern part of the county, and the Grand Prairie 
Rangers, with about the same membership in the northern part. These 
companies were thoroughly organized, with Captams and Lieutenants, 
and were instrumental in breaking up organized bands of law-breakers. 
These were the first companies of the kind in the county The "Warren 
Regulators were organized in iSoU. Among the memliers were J. L. 
Dick. J. M. Fleming. Adam Troxel, H. L. Gallon , Daniel Meyers. Solo- 
mon Dick, Josiah Clawson, John Stephenson. John Young. John Big- 
ham, J. C. Adams. George Nelson and Austin Heigh. The Grand Prairie 
Rangers were organized in ISOl, for the same purpose, some of the 
members being Wesley Clark, J. R. Marshall. Andrew Brier. Isaac 
Christman. W. H. H. Reed, M. A. Osborn, Elias Thompson. John Mel- 
lott. Thomas J. Cheneweth and Isaac Cheneweth. The Warren De- 
tectives were organized in ISlio, in Liberty and Washington Townships, 
and the Pine Creek Rangers, the same year, in Southern Liberty and 
Southern Prairie and Pine. In lSi>">. also, Warrea Township organized 
the Warren County Minute Men. The State Line Detective Company 
was formed in 18(3(3 in Kent, Mound and Steuben Townships. Soon 
after this, the Liberty Police Rangers, the Warren County ilinute Men. 
the Pine Village Detectives, the Lilierty Guards, the Raiusville Detect- 
ives, the West Lebanon Detectives, the Jordan Rangers, the Ivickapoo 
Guards, and similar companies, were formed, the object being to bring 
criminals, especially horse-thieves, to justice. Such a general oro-auiza- 
tion has had a salutary effect upon the commission of crime. 

m'(^lui;e \\ouKiNiott:x's institute. 

The object of this association, which was organized in 1857. was "to 
procure and sustain a library of useful books, to imin-ove ourselves in 
reading, discussions and lectures, and to acquire useful and practical 
knowledge." The members were composed of those only "' who labor with 
their hands and earn their living by the sweat of their brows." The 
fund to secure the library was left by the ^L^Clure bequest. The mem 
bers wre G. H. Nordutt, ,). jM, Xorduft, P. ^\'. Lew^is, Robert Pearson, 
I'eter Malm, M. P. Woods, G. R Livingood. Samuel Ducket. Levi Mil- 
]or. A. Suhler, E. A. Boardman, J. F. Reiff, -loseidi Jone?.. John Moore. 
Mohn Cox, Henry Wright. A. S. Jones. H. P. Downey, James Park. Alvin 
Hoigh and H, B. Thomas. The organization amounted to Intt little. 



An early enactment of the Legislature provided that ten per centum 
of the proceeds of the sale of county lots should be a library fund, and a 
short time before 1840, a small librarj' was purchased, and added to af- 
terward as the fund accumulated. Many of the books may yet be seen 
in the county. In 1855, the State distributed to the townships what 
became known as township libraries, then considered a most important 
means of disseminating knowledge to poor persons. In 1868, the to^yn- 
ship libraries amounted to 2,199 volumes, some of which, owing to neg- 
lect, were in poor condition. 


The "Wabash Railroad was fully completed through the county in 
1857, but trains ran over portions of the county the year before. In 
1809, the citizens of Mound Township were called upon to vote for or 
against a tax to aid the Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & Danville Railroad, 
with this result — for, 140; against, 1,090 The vote to aid the Northern 
Indiana and Southern Railroad was also unfavorable about the same 
time. The Indianapolis, Bloomington & Western Railroad was built 
across Mound Township, and the coal branch of the Chicago, Danville 
& Yincennes Railroad was graded across Mound, Kent and Steuben 
Townships, but never finished. The coming year, 1883, or at any rate 1884, 
will see the Chicago & Great Southern Railroad constructed across the 
county frooi north to south. Warren County will then be well sup- 
plied with transportation facilities. 


At the Presidential election, November, 1836, in Mound Township, 
at the town of Baltimore, the following settlers polled their votes: 
Joseph Foster, John Wilcox, Carmon Rosshand, Eclmund McGinnis, 
Silas Hall, Joseph Steeley, Hiram Hoagland, Charles W. Loney, Harry 
Johnston, G. W. Dickson, Daniel Hoover, Henry Henderson, J. D. 
Loney, Stephen Osborn, Abraham Henderson, Mark Kinninson, Harris 
Gammon, William Taylor, Sr., Jesse Wright, W. H. Taylor, G. W. 
Alexander, Tarpley Taylor, Shelby Ballot, William Carey, Aaron Woods, 
Georo-e AV. HolDbs, George Dickson, James Parrin, Thomas Johnston, 
Willilim Lawi-ence, Peter Dickson, William Calhoun, Stephen Ames, 
L'ewis Evans, Solomon Long, Nelson De Moss, Barnabas Dawson, J. R. 
Clark, James Rose, G. W. Moore, John Sheets, Henry Dickson, William 
Lee, Thomas Kitchen, Thomas Lewis, William WiJmeth, Jesse Dickson. 
Henry Garrish, W. Y. Taylor, John Starr. Sylvester Stone, Joel Rose, 
J. D."Taylor, Daniel Starry, Jr., John McConnell. Z. Story, Joseph 
Storv, William Henderson, Jacob Stingley, William Henderson, Samuel 
Osborn, Isaac Sturtzer, Thomas Cunningham, Samuel Rosebaugh, T. D. 
Taylor, Sanford Payne, John Taylor, John Killer, S. H. Garrison, Dan- 
iel Beck, John Henderson, Alexander Stewart, B. H. Becket, J. C. Taylor, 
Daniel Henepin, James Black, Nicholas Hizer, George Murphey, Dan- 
iel Riner, David Lockwood, Joshua Lawrence, John Clem, James 
M. Clarke, David Atridge, J. M. Clem, Thomas Miser, William H. Dill, 
Squire Lee, David White, Jonathan Bart, John Hummer,, Daniel Story, 
Daniel Miller, Michael Clem, Lawrence Kinnison, Samuel Starry, 
Jeffrey AVilson, James Bullington, Alfred Beckett, \^'illiam Scroggins, 
G. P. Saunders, Levi Murdock, J. B. King, John Black. John Osborn, 


Egbert Beckett, George Mosier, Eobert Crawford. James Kitcben. David 
Clem, CI. W. Beckett °Amos Clark, James Johnson. John Benjamin, Ja- 
cob Rush. Jesse Hoiichin, Enoch Ballot, James M. Oren and Hezekiah 
Ballot. Total, 119. 


At the Presidential election, November, 1836, held in Pike Town- 
ship, at Lebanon, the following men polled their votes: Jesse Morris, 
James Hickenbottom. Jacob Piatt, Elisha A. Wood, Jacob Tline. C. L. 
Moore, John Stuart, Thomas Lyon, Peter Miller, Benjamin Rodrick, 
Oren Cronkhite, Nehemiah Brodrick, Samuel Peet, J. H. Simpson. Abel 
Cook, Benjamin Smauley, Caleb Train, Ephrai'-ri Norton, John Fleming, 
Hugh Jackson, John Clinton, Robert Lyon, Hiram Hyatt, Josiah Biggs, 
Sr.. James Wason. Chaneey Adkins, Jacob Myera, Alexander Marphet, 
M, L. Mitchell, Eleazur P'urviance, T. P. Kinkmin, Daniel Garrison, 
Bernard Seals, Jacob Stingley, Silas Gan-ison, Alexander Starry, B. 
Payne, Abel Farshey, Cornelius B. Fleming. Samuel Nowls. John Nowls, 
James M. Smith, Jacob Baugh, Levi Fleming, John "Wason, David 
Coon. Samuel Kratzer, .To-^,1- White. David French, J. H. Mcintosh, 
Samuel Adams, Daniel McGregor. Jame^ White. Samuel Woods. Josiah 
Biggs. John Mcintosh, James Piatt. Dauiel D. Hall. Peter Fleming, 
Robert Ringle, AVilliam Smiley. J. H. Simpson, Joseph Ewing, Joshua 
Nixon, Eli Woodard, Nathan Harner, Right Glen, John Eosebraugh, 
John Musgrave and Nathaniel Buttertield: total, 70. 


The following vote was polled in Washington Township at the Pres- 
idential election in November, 1836: Cyrus Pearson, J. M. Rhodefer, 
J. R. Harris, T. R. Irwin, John Shearer, George Folger, C. M. Hughes, 
N. Shefler, James Goodwine, Thomas Brown, John C. Irvin. John F. 
Irvin. H. S. Ludington. John Higginbotham, John Marshall, Jacob 
Wilkinson. Miller Watkins. James Stanford. Charles McAllister, J. K. 
Higginbotham, Henry Lowery, William Search, Joseph Cunningham, 
Thomas Goodwiue, William Brown. James Todd, M. J. Liueolu. Georo-e 
Pugh, Fniucis Davis, J. J. Seaman. Hiram Wilkinson, John Spigard, 
William Bush, William Bunnell, Seth St. John, John Durkev, John 
Russell, Thomas O'Neill. D;;uiel Mace, James B. McDonald, William 
Robb, Aaron Taylor, Ichabod Norton, Abraham Hower_y, C. M. Thomas, 
John Johnson, James Goodwine, Jr.. William Harrington, Closes Case. 
C. M. Woods, C. Rakestraw, J. L. Johnson, Daniel BigiTs. Perrin Kent, 
Abram Hathaway, John Seaman, Roland Harris, J. D^^FlemimT. Free- 
man Marshall, Freouian Dnvis, Jdhu Bush, Samuel Pearson. -James J. 
McAlilly, J. N. Wilson, N. F. Cunningham, William Bristow. John 
Swank, John Wilkinson, Oliver "Wallace, John Merical, James Birch 
James Buckles, William Hough, Aaron Stevensnu, Robert O'Neal. Rob- 
ert Clifton, William Fipps. S^th Wilkinson, Heurv Bucklev, Samuel 
Watkins, Mitchell Gill, J. W. Dickson, Elijah Osborii. Newbold Moore, 
William Barkshire, Sr.. Jacob Houghman. Silas Harris. Robert 
Doughty, Eden Stovall. W. M. Haines, l^.J!. Kathers, Mason Tucker 
Samuel Tucker, Eli Pritihet, Isaac Foruian, David Fleming, Lawrence 
Russell, Peter Dump, Jacob Saum, Adam Troxall, Benjaniin Landou 
Dennis Slanter, John Shwisher, James Stewart, George Tucker, Henry 
Hall, David Forman, Clement Jones, John W. Skilhuon, John' White" 


John Moore, W. C. Holman, Allen Brown, John Keester, Gideon Bailey, 
William Barkshire, George Maines, Dempsey Scott, Reuben Biggs, R, 
A. Chandler, John Landon, John Miller, Nathan Davidson, Thomas 
Doan, Samuel Campbell, Bartlett Cleiii, David Etnire. Hpitw Cont^=. 
Hiram Brawrick, "William Farnsworth, E. F. Lucas, l&aac ileuuett, 
Henrj' Stump, George Pence, Thomas Thomas, James Rowland, Joshua 
Ray, Elijah Fleming, John Williams, C. Tapperry, Aaron Spurrier, 
William Coldren, Je^se Tumbleson, James H. Buell, Caleb Rhodes. 
Henry High, John Kent, William Biggs, James Bell, John Rhodes, 
-D. A. Rhodes, Thomas Rhodes, Obfldiah Little, John Goings, Abner 
Dooley, George Saum, Jonathan Rhodes, James McCoy, Henry Way- 
mire, Thomas Casad, William Cunningham, Robert Person, Joseph S. 
Robb, J. W. Shannon, W. A. Crawford, Asa Spencer, Orvil Cronkhite, 
Reuben Warbritton, T. D. Marshall, Sidney Cronkhite, George Will- 
iams, Augustus W'atson, William Collard, David Shanklin, William 
Boss, Amos Griffith, J. W. Purviaace, Jasper Nixon, Seymour Rhodes, 
Samuel Seeley, William Campbell, Pierce Eggleson, Moses Dooley, 
Peter Forman, Joseph Spooner. Burrell Cameron, Constantino McMahon, 
Horatio Thomas, Luther Tillotson, Jacob Casad, Peter Hickman, Zebu- 
Ion Foster, William Swisher, William Wallace, Jacob Miller. Hosea 
Cronkhite, N. L. Coffinberry. J. T. Cratson, Ellis Casad, John Rhodes, 
Jr., George Oglesby, Jacob Forman, Joseph Wilkinson, J. K. Fleming, 
M. Simpson, William White, Silas Bennett, James Shannon, John Low- 
rey, George Shrawry, Charles Person, Cyrus Stanley, John Slutton, 
Thomas Rakestraw; John Crow, Elias Porter, Stephen Schoonover, 
Thomas Clifton, ^Vesley Waldrup, Richard Purzue, Benjamin Crow, 
Wesley Clark, Michael Harness. Isaac Slanter, W. M. Pugh, Jesse 
Sharrer, Jesse Swisher, Fred Zimmerman, Thomas Clawsou. Nich- 
olas Saum, William Buckles, H. H. Crawford, John Baird, William 
Billings. J. H. Norduft, G. H. Norduft, Jacob Halstead, David Wilburn, 
Oliver Swank, George Brier, Abraham Houser, Andrew Fleming, James 
Hopkins, David Crisman. Asa Wortham, E. B. Tillotson, John Swingler, 
James McCord,Constadt Harris, Solomon Sharret, Jesse Doan, John Stuffle- 
beam, Francis Boggs, VV. S. Simpson, Walter Pawley, Henry Keester, 
John Pritchet, Clement Hopkins, Jacob Miller, William Miller, O. S. 
Hunter, C. Brown, Wilford Pugh, Abel Potter, Daniel Hutson, N. G. 
Crawford, Richard Pitman, Thomas Morris. Jackson Purquo, Isaac High, 
George Owens, W. E. Williams, Jacob Etnire. F. C. Pain. Henry Jack- 
son, Thocnas Brewster, Jacob Hanaway, Peter Chrisman, W. R. Boyer, 
Samuel Williams, Thomas Martin, David Evans, Jarrett Davis, James 
Quick, Jeremiah Pritchet, Henry Jlilby, John Cos, Gilbert Vannatta, 
Robert Robb, Eli Stratton, Isaac Bunnell, Gibson Hurst, Charles Bark- 
shire, and "Unknown;" total, 'iOG. 


At the Presidential election, November, 1836, at the house of Matthew 
Sriver, in Warren Township, the following men cast their votes: Will- 
iam Benson, Benjamin Pike, Moses Clifton, Burnet Frost, ^Michael 
Coffett, David Begertow, Peter Mosmore, Isaac Jones. Andrew Davis, 
Philander Thomas, Jonathan Case; James Jacobs, Isaac Hinsbaw, Jere- 
miah Canaw, John Hall, William Farmer, Moses Michels, Peter Mason, 
Zimri Holmes, John Carey, John Cox, John Campbell, Ephraim Pike, 


John Stevenson, Henry Rittenour, John Tweed, Samuel Thomas, Samuel 
- Murphey, Joseph Little, James Farrel), John Jackson, John McCord, 
Edward' Hemp, John Mitchell, Henry Jackson, Edward Mace, John B. 
J. Mace. Sylvanus Cox. William Young, Henry Jacobs, Adam Sriver, 
Joseph Talbert, Peter Sriver. Jacob Haines. Robert Brady, D. R. Parker, 
Frederick Waymire, Abraham Haines, Samuel Hanson. Job Tev(?baugh, 
Matthew Sriver, Joseph Michler, Daniel Doty, John Debra, D. C. 
Sriver. Joseph Haines, Thomas Dunn. Nathan Jackson. Zachariah Ci- 
cott, Thomas Spray, William Farrell, Daniel Clifton, Robert Campbell, 
John Cassel, Rufiis Wells, Hiram Farmer. Samuel Benefel. Stephen 
Cook, William Fincher, Thomas Kearns, Enoch Farmer. John W. 
Knapp, David Moffit, Daniel McCord, Levi Doutsil. James Smith. Ezra 
Gaskeli, Louis Collier, John Newell. David Waymire. Edward Hemphill. 
Joshua P. Smith, Lemuel B. Pierce, Andrew Franklin. Leonard EUer, 
Job Can-ell, Zedekiah Herley, John Sriver, Valentine Bone and William 
Railsback; total. 90. 


The following persons voted in Pine Township at the Presidential 
election, November. 1S36: Jesse Endicott. Henry Ruble. Isaac Ellis, 
Jacob Bert, James Gregory, Benjamin Longman, Allen Campbell. Jefier- 
son Bartlett, Isaac Brier, Stephen Haneman. Isaac Templeton. John 
Huftman, John A. West, J. B. Harris, iTeorge Brown, Madison Collins. 
Michael Creek] laiuii, i3ranson Sanders. Nathan Beeson. Gideon Cos, 
John Dmwidclie, Silas Hooker, Aaron Coffinberry. Thomas A. Johnson, 
Mauden Cook, John Oilar, Baldwin Heaton. .James Thornton. Samuel 
Jolly, Isaac Rose. Calaway Sanders, John Mulkner, William Moore. G. 
L. Coiiinberry, John Lewis. Thomas Collins. Jesse Sergeant. George 
Sigler, John Cassel. John Jones. William Trullinger. William Lewis. 
James McConnell, Enoch Fenton, Daniel Brier. Martin Beaver. John 
Brier. David Lane. John Lane, Samuel Richards. Lewis Lewis. Will- 
iam S;mith. Thomas Smith, David Dawson. John Orr. John Campbell. 
M. Milford, George Sergeant. Samuel Harris. Joseph Stump. John Melcher, 
John \^'elch. Joseph Welch, Ransom Brown, John Bartlett. Joseph Beeson, 
John Ray, James Richardson, Seymour Cobb. J. J. "Wilson. Jacob Coffin- 
berry, Henry Beaver, Jesse Harlin, Harvey Bobbins, Reuben Mitchell, 
Thomas Bartlett, Abner Mitchell. Fred Fenton, James Brier, Harrv 
Eggleston, William Hickman. Thomas Monell. Henry Manes, James 
Armstrong, Jacob Mills, Benjamin Freeman. Joseph Whituev. Silas Daw 
son, Benjamin Monell. William C:u-,son. Henry Robertson. William Mo- 
nell. Hugh Monell, Sam lel Monell, John Hunter. John Jolly. Reeves 
Lewis. Ira Cobb. William Trueblood, Eli Carmon. Nathan Mendeuhall 
Bazil Jristice, Thomas Smith. Madison Lewis, Stephen Milton. Law- 
rence Rains, Thomas I'ennell. James Rains. Stephen Rains. William 
Hooker. Sr., Samuel Freeman. James Jolly, David Horner, Enoch 
■ Evans. Henry Miller, Isaac Lewis, John Hodson. John Smitli. William 
Gray, Nathan Ballon. Bazil West, Adam Glaze. A. B. Harris. Nathan 
Rains. Trim Sergeant. Jacob Mendenhall. William Smalley. Ebenezer 
Hooker, John Sergeant. William Rhodes. Jr., Carjienter Morev, L. L 
Freeman, James Barnes, Josc>ph Osborn. Caleb Cobb. William Dickson. 
Joseph Clark. Thomas Taylor, Burrell Eggleston, James Muso-rave, 
Jesse Rains. William Hooker. Edward Michel. Jeremiah Williams'^ Na'- 
than Endicott, William Pringle. John Brown. Cliarles Hi.v'h, Jacob 


Dickson, Lawrence Keem, Jonas Heag, and Christopher Pepper; total, 


The following persons voted in Medina Township at the Presidential 
election, November, 1836; ^Y. B, Bailey, William Moore, John Eitten- 
our, Minor Rittenour, B, Iselev. John Peniwell, A. Davis, S, Benson, C. ' 
Henry, E, H, Bailey, G. Little, J. Allen, T. Benson, H. Nichols, I, 
Metsker, A. Stewart", A. Fisher, S. Davis, W, German, T. Literal,- 
J. Truitt, G, Wolf, I. Bowyer, D. Nichols, J. Stewart, R. G. Smith, J. 
D. Bailey, D, McConnell, J. Benson, James Benson, Philip W^illiams, 
William Burk, J. Burk, Moses Doty, J. Coughenour, William Burk, Jr., 
S. White, Eli Mendenhall, G, Argabright, A. More, C. Dawson, Daniel 
Smith, J. D. White, J. W, Newell, G. W. Coffinberry, J. Anderson, 
William Odell, H. C. Benson, J. Ward, William Newell, Orren Munson, 
L. Foster, William Mears, R. Doty, E. Jackson, J. Carswell, William 
Shockley, J. Campbell, W, Pease, S. Munson, G. Reed, N. Lemons, 
Daniel Harp, T. M, Cahan, C. Benson, R. Odell, M. Thomas, G. Davis, 
T. Mitcham, T. Odell, J. Doty, J. Lindsey, J. Clark, J. Simpson, P. 
Brown, J. E. Thompson, I. Myrove, J. Crouch, William Dillman, C. 
Crouch, S. Bone, J. A. Franklin, C. Vredenburg, John Moore, John 
Mathers, J, Southard, T, Dawson, Ed Dawson, Ezra Dawson, E. Allen, 
M, Wagner, S, Green, E. Anderson, T, Johnson, J, B. Foster, G. John- 
son. N. F. Brown, John Macahan, J. McClatchy, J. Smiley, E. Moore, 
T. Bowyer, J. Harmon, P, Randle, J. Dillman, J. Bone, John Bone, 
R. Myers, J. Reed, E. Shockley, H. Bailey, L. Guthridge, W. Smiley, 
W. Carter, W, Doty, A. Bowyer, L Bowyer, P. Woodtield, W. Cantrell, J, 
Dills, John Burk, John Gillom-, L. Williams, G. Burk, and M. Henry; 
total, 125. 




THE territory comprising the present county of Warren, together 
with a large portion of the remainder of Northwestern Indiana, in- 
cluding the counties of Benton, Jasper and Newton, was formerly attached 
to the county of Wabash; but during the legislative session of 1825-26, 
when the act creating the county of Fountain was passed, the following 
TDi-oceedinw. relative to what afterward became Warren County, was made 
Section 7 of that enactment: 

Section 7. All that pai-t of the county of "Wabash 1^ ing north and west of the 
said county of Fountain shall be and hereafter is attached to the said county for 
the purpfise of civil and criminal jurisdiction. Approved Decemljer 30, 1825. 

No further change was made until the session of 1826-27, when the 
following enactment was passed; 

Be it enacted hy the General Asumhly of the State of Indiana, That from and 
after the first day of March ne.\t all that part of the county of Wabash contained 
within the followius boundaries shall form and constitute a new county to be 
designated the county of Warren, to wit; Beginning at the iiortheast corner of Ver- 
million County, on the Wabash River, thence west to the State line, thence north 
to the line dividing Townships 2:3 and 24 north, thence east with said line to the 


western line of Tippecanoe County, tlience soutli on tlie said western line of Tip- 
pecanoe County to the Wabasli l«ver, and tlience with the meanders ot said river 
to the place of liesinninii;. . , --1*5^1 * 

Section 3. The said new countj' shall, from and after the said tirst da.i ot 
March ne.xt, enjoy all the ri^shts. privileges and iurisdictions which to separate and 
independent comities properly appertain. ^ r. , r. 

Sec. 3. Daniel Sigler, of Putnam County, James btrange, of Park Count3% 
Thomas Lampson. of 'Montgomery County, James Paige, of Tippecanoe County, 
and Rohert Wilson, of Vigo County, are hereby appointed Commissioners for the 
jiurpose of fixing the permanent seat of justice of said new county agreeably to the 
provisions of an act entitled -'An act for fixing the seats of justice in all new 
counties hereafter to be laid off." The Commissioners above named, or a majority 
of them, shall convene at the house of Enoch Fanner in said new county on the 
tirst Monday in June next, and proceed to the discliarge of the duties assigned them 
by law. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the Sheriff of Fountain County to notify the 
Commissioners herein above named, either in person or l)_y written notification, of 
their appointment on or before the 10th day of April next, and for such service the 
Board of Justices of the said new county shall allow him a reasonalile compensa- 
tion, payable out of the County Treasury thereof. 

Sec. 5. The Circuit and other courts of the said new county of "Warren shall 
be held at the house of Enoch Farmer, in said county, or at any other place therein 
the said courts may adjourn to until suital.)le accommodations can be had at the seat 
of justice of said county when the courts shall adjourn to meet there. 

Sec. 0. The agent who shall be appointed to superintend the sale of lots at the 
count}' seat of the said new county of Warren shall reserve ten per centum out of 
the proceeds thereof, and also ten per centum out of all donations to said county, 
and shall pay the same over to such person or persons as may be appointed accord- 
ing to law to receive the same for the use of a county library. 

Sec. 7. It shall be the duty of the qualified voters of the said new cuiinty of 
Warren at the time of electing a Clerk, Recorder and Associate Judges for the said 
county to elect live Justices of the Peace within and for said county, who shall 
ronstitute a board for transacting as well the duties heretofore devolving on the 
Board of Commissioners as other regular county l)usiness. 

Sec. 8. The said new county of Warren is hereby attached to the county of 
Fountain until otherwise provided for all judicial purposes except what may be 
within the jurisdiction of a Justice of the Peace. This act to take effect and lie in 
force froin and after the tirst day of March next. 

Approved Januaiy 19, 1827." 


In aecordaiice with the provisions of the above enactment, the Lo- 
cating Commissioners naoiecl above, except Mv. Wilson, met. and after 
viewing the various eligible sites and taking into ccmsideration the dona- 
tions of land, money, services, etc., finally located tlie county seat on the 
east fraction of the southwest quarter of Section 81, Township "i^ north, 
Range 7 west; receiving from Creorge Hollingsworth and Enoch Farmer, 
in consideration of the location of the county seat upon such tract of 
land, certain obligations to donate to the county specified lauds named 
within the papers, after the county seat had been periuanentlv located 
on such land, tind receiving, also, from certain citizens of '\\ aVre.u and 
Fountain Counties, for tlie same consideration, two obligations, con- 
ditioned that certain sums of money would be paid the county of \Varren 
when the stake for the county seat had been permanently "fixed. This 
report of the Locating Commissioners was presented to" the Board of 
Justices; in March, 182 x and formtilly accepted, and the Commissioners 
were ordered paid and discharged. Immediately after this, the county 
seat was laid off on the land above described, and" was named ^V,n■rclltou. 
The details will bo found elsewhere in this vohxiue. 


The 28d of June, 1.^27, was fixed as the date ui-on which an election 



of Clerk, Recorder, two Associate Judges and five Justices of the Peace, 
lor the transaction of county business, should be held, and the county 
was divided into five election districts; the necessary number of In- 
spectors, Clerks and Judges of Election were appointed, and the election 
was advertised and ordered held by Luther Tillotson, Organizing Sheriff. 
The following were the voters in the First District: John N. Lewin, 
Joseph Thomas, Nicholas DeLong, John Black, Lewis Evans Samuel 
Watkins, Humphrey Becket, Benjamin Becket, John Miles, William 
Becket, John Ferrell, William Jolly, Elias Oxford, Sylvester Stone, 
Thomas Cunningham, Elisha Miles, James Holmes, Hiram Miles, James 
McCune, Eobert Mill, Enoch Stran, Jacob Ferrell and William Henoersh; 
total, twenty-three. The voters in the Second Election District were 
James C. Watson, Thomas Kitchen, Luther Tillotson, James Kitchen, 
Nelson De Moss, Peter High, Amos Clark, William Hall, Samuel Clem, 
Henry Coons, Adam Coons, Augustus Watson, William Kent, Nathaniel But- 
terfield. Holder Sisson, James Shaw, Lemuel Boyd, Benjamin Cheneweth, 
John Jones, James Forbner and Joseph King; total, twenty-one. The voters 
in the Third District were Ransom Wilkinson, Seth Shippy, James Ox- 
ford, William Harrison, Nathan Billings, Samuel Harrison, Uriah Dunn, 
George Billings, Marcus Shippy, John Fields, Jr., James Gilbert, Chris- 
topher Pitzer, David Dickinson, Joseph Readine Jonathan Pitzer, 
Robert Benjamin, William Harrington, Mathias Reading, John Han- 
kins, William Harrison, Jr., John Fields, James Fipps, James B. Har- 
rison, Thomas B. Clark, Jonathan Shippy, Daniel Benjamin, John 
Dickson, Thomas Doan, John Seaman, Daniel Clark, Nimrod Harrison, 
David Fleming, AVilliam Pugh, Andrew Fleming, Peter Flemino-, Lyman 
Judd, Marshal Billings and Jacob Halstead; total, thirty-eight. The 
voters in the Fourth District were Constantine Messmore, Zechariah 
Cicott, Thomas Horren, Solomon Pitzer, Francis Boggs, Marshfield Hunt, 
Daniel Tevebaugh, Adam White, John Tevebaugh, James McCase, John 
Farmer, Enoch Farmer and Joseph Cox; total, fifteen. The voters in 
the Fifth District were James Bidwell, Daniel White, Archibald Davis, 
Samuel B. Clark, Samuel Green, Isaac Rains, John Anderson, John 
Jackson, Jeremiah Davis and John Gardner; total, eleven. Grand total, 
108. This election resulted as follows: 





















§ ' t 

> FQ 











7= 1 


s % 



















First District. 
















48 1 







..... 11 

Third District ■ 

21 !.... 

T^^^nrth Distrirf 



Fifth District 


21 I 11 










This was reallv the organizing election of the county and was the 
tirst in the county; of anv description, after the passage ot the act by the 
Legislature which brought Warren into existence. Soon atter this, tne 
officers elected took the oath of office, and entered upon the discharge of 
their respective duties. 


On the 22d of January, 1829, the act was approved to re-locate the 
county seat of Warren County, the Commissioners being Ezekiel McCon- 
nell, of Monto-omery County, Pevton ^Vilson, of Parke County. John 
Porter, of Vermillion County, S. M. George, 5f Tippecanoe County, and 
Jonathan Birch, of Fountain County. All the reasons why a re location 
was demanded cannot be stated. It was soon found that the site was 
not as good as farther west, and even at other points, and. besides, the 
donations did not prove as valuable as expected, or half as valuable as 
might have been obtained. Excellent donations were tendered the county 
by William Harrison and Thomas Gilbert, the tirst of whom had laid out 
Williamsport in November, 1S28, and this induced the citizens to wish 
a re-location of the county seat where the county could receive much 
greater benefit, or a re-establishment of it at AVarrenton if the proprie- 
tors of that town would come down, in a handsome manner, with satis- 
factory donations. These and other matters led to the passage of the 
act of re-location. This act provided that the Commissioners should 
meet on the second Monday of June next (1S21J). at the Clerk's office, ex- 
amine the various eligible sites in the county, and if, in their judgment, 
the donations of any other suitable place than Warrenton werr suffi- 
ciently valuable, and if the sale of lots would probably be sufficiently 
large to defray the expense of erecting the necessary county buildings, 
then the Commissioners wefe to re-locate the seat of justice at that point; 
but nothing was to prevent the Commissioners from continuing the 
county seat at Warrenton, providing the donations were made sufficient- 
ly valuable by the proprietors of that town. The Commissioners met on 
the day fixed, and after receiving valuable others of money and lauds 
from the proprietors of Williamsport and others interested, established 
the seat permanently at Williamsport. The act of re-location provided 
that the lots in Williamsport should be numbered as nearly as possible as 
those in Warrenton, and that persons who had purchased lots in the lat- 
ter town should have the right to exchange thera for lots similarly lo- 
cated in the new county seat, provided the exchange was made within 
twelve months after the re-location. It was also provided that the de- 
preciation in the value of buildings at Warrenton, owing to a change of 
the county seat, should be made good by the county. As soon assuit- 
able buildings could be prepared at Williamsport. the county otlicers 
were ordered to remove there. The provision in the enactment creatiuo- 
the county, regarding the reservation of 10 per centum of the proceeds 
of the sale of county lots for the establishment of a county library. Nvas re- 
affirmed and made binding. William Harrison, Jr., proprietor of the 
county seat, deeded to the county eighty acres of laud, where Williams- 
port had been laid out, reserving for his own use the greater portion of 
tlie original ])lat of 1828, consisting of fom' blocks of eicrht lots each, 
besides one-fifth of the lots that shotild be subsequently laid out from 
additions from the tlonatiou of eighty acres. The first addition was laid 


oiit southwest along the river's bank, in July, 1829, by Thomas Gilbert. 
In August, 1S29, Isaac Rains, County Agent, laid out the celebrated 
West Addition to Williamsport, from a portion of the Harrison donation. 
On the day of the public sale of lots, free whisky was furnished at the 
county's expense! 

cou>;tt bodndaey alteration. 
On the 30th of January,1830. by legislative enactment, the southern 
tier of townships of the present Benton County was attached lo the 
county of Warren for civil and criminal jurisdiction. On the 3d of Feb- 
ruary, 1832, the Legislature enacted that a Commissioner from each of 
the counties of Warren and Vermillion shoald be appointed, to more 
fully establish the boandary between those two counties; but -what was 
done cannot certainly be learned. In January, 1833, the following 
enactnient was passed, and the boundary thus fixed has endured until the 

Be it enacted, etc. , That the following shall form and constitute the dividing 
line between the counties of Vermillion and Warren, to wit: Beginning on the east 
bank of the Wabash River where the township line dividing the townships numiier 
19 and 20 intersects the same, thence west with said township line to tlie range line 
dividmij Ranges 9 and 10 west, thence north with said range line to the township 
line dividing "Townships 19 and 20 north in Range 10 west, thence west with said 
township line to the line dividing the States of Indiana and Illinois. 

Approved .January 1,5, 1833. 


The Board of Justices of Warren County, on the first Mondaj' in 
March, 1828, met and selected the following grand jury to serve at the 
May term. 1828, of the first Circuit Court of the county: Perrin Kent, 
Samuel Watkins, Amos Clark, Robert Hill, Enoch Strawn, Holder Sisson, 
Peter Fleming, Lewis Stephens, John Seamen, Daniel Benjamin, John 
Pugh, James McCord, John Case, of Warren Township, John Case, of 
Medina Township, John S. Reed, Edward Moore, John Jackson and 
James Bedwell. A writ was then issued directing the Sheriff to sum- 
mon this first grand jury to appear on the first day of the May term of 
the Circuit Court, at the hoase of Enoch Farmer, the place selected by 
the State Legislature for the sitting of that court. On that day, the 
jurors were all present, but as the Judges did not put in an appearance, 
court was adjourned until the following day, and as they were still ab- 
sent the court was adjourned " until court in course," which was on the 
25th day of September, 1828. On the first Monday in September, the 
following grand jury was selected: Jacob Clem, Nicholas DeLong 
Gabriel Read, Jub Tevebaugh, Andrew Fleming. James Oxford, Henry 
Stump, Elisha Miles, James Johnson, Samuel Ferguson, Joseph King, 
John A. Lewin, John McCord, Lawi'ence Russell, John King, Joseph 
Thomas, Daniel R. Parker and Jonathan Cox. On the 25th of Septem- 
ber, 1828, the first Circuit Court held in Warren County convened at the 
house of Enoch Farmer; present, John R. Porter, Presiding Judge, and 
Nathaniel Butterfield and Samuel B. Clark, Associate Judges. The 
errand jurors drawn were called, but only the following were present: 
Gabriel Read, Henry Stump, James Oxford, John McCord, Lawrence 
Russell, Job Tevebaugh, Jonathan Cox. D. R. Parker, Nicholas DeLong. 
J. A. Lewin and Samuel Ferguson. As there was not a quorum of 
gi-and jiu'ors present, the coiui ordered those that had assembled dis- 
charged, and then called up the first case before the Circuit Court of 


Warren County: The State of Indiana vs. Elizabeth Connor, charged 
with breach of the peace, under a recognizance returned by Thomas 
Kearns, Justice of the Peace. The court ordered the recognizance dis- 
charged and the case dismissed. The second case was Lewis Dequindi-e 
and Timothy Dequindre vs. Zechariah Cicott, tresi^ass on the case. The 
plaintiffs appeared by their attorney. A. Ingram, and the defendant ap- 
peared " m his own proper person." The latter, by agreement, confessed 
judgment to the amount of $539.69, whereupon, by further agreement, 
the plaintiffs agreed to wait one year for the payment of that sum, upon 
the condition that sufficient security be given. The court then ordered 
judgment in accordance with these agreements, and taxed the costs to 
the defendant. Appended to this order was the following: " Aj)ril 1, 
1830, received this day the balance of the above judgment. A. Ingram, 
attorney for plaintiff'." The third case. John Glasspell vs. Enos Han- 
kins, domestic attachment, on appeal from Justice's coart, the plaintiff' 
appeared by Rogers, his attorney, and the defendant "in his own proper 
person." On motion, the case was continued at the cost of the defend- 
ant. The fourth was an application of Francis Boggs for a writ of ad 
quod damnum: whereupon it was "Ordered, That a writ of ad quod 
dainiinm be issued, to cause an inquest to be held at the place contem- 
plated by said Boggs for the erection of a mill dam, across Pine Creek, on 
the east fraction of the southeast quarter of Sectioir 36, Township 22 
north. Range 8 west, on the third Monday in October next. " The fifth 
case was a petition for divorce, Polly Broady vs. Azariah Eroady. Law- 
yer Patterson appeared for the complainant. Evidence was introduced 
to prrive that the defendant was not a resident of Indiana. The pen- 
dency of the suit was ordered published in the Western Register and the 
Terre Haute Advertiser, to the effect that if the defendant did not ap- 
pear at the next term of the court and answer the bill, the charo-es would 
be taken as confessed. The case was accordingly continued, and the 
court then adjoiirned " until the court in course.'^ Thus the tirst term of 
Circuit Court in Warren County was at an end. At this term, a 
" scroll " was adopted as the seal of the court, until otherwise ordered. 


This term began May 7, 1829, the Presiding Judge not being present. 
Peter H. Patterson, Albert L. White, David Pattonr Jacob Au'glin and 
Theodore C. Caw were sworn in and admitted as counsellore at law. 
The case of John Glasspell (\s\ Enos Hankins was dismissed, on motion 
of the defendant, for want of a sufficient affidavit in the proceedings 
below. The divorce case, Broady (>\ Broady. was dismissed on motion 
of the complainant, upon whom the cost was taxed. A petition for 
divorce was presented by Elizabeth Barnes rs. Elijah Barnes, the former 
appearing by her attorney, D. Patton. The defendant was "absent and 
the pcmdency of the case was ordered published. The .^rand jurv re- 
tm-ned the following " true bills: " The State r.s\ Seth'^Shippv, for an 
assault and buttery; the State r.s\, John Dixon, for auling and assistim-' 
in assault and battery. The jury was then discharged. In the case 
John Conner vs. David AVhite, domestic attachment, the followiu>^ petit 
jury was called, sworn and given the case: William KusselJ S^imuel 
Enderly, Jonathan Cox, John Cox, David '\^-hite, Constantino :McMahou 
John E. Smith, Francis Boggs, John Jackson. Luther TiUot-^on Law' 



'M? ' 

' i 




rence Rains and Isaac Eains. The juiy gave the plaintiff 8194.62^ 
damages and the costs, amounting in all to 8286. The case of Boggs, 
for a writ of ad quod dainnun was dismissed, and the costs assessed to 
Mr. Boggs. The second session of Circuit Coiirt was thus at an end. 


At the October term, 1S29, John R. Porter, President Judge, and 
Nathaniel Butteiiield and Samuel B. Clark, Associate Judges, were pres- 
ent. At this term came up the case in (.'hancerv, Milton Gerard vs. 
Emily Gerai'd, et al. The case was ordered published and continued. 
Five cases were considered at this term, and two bills of indictment 
returned bv the orand iurv. On motion, the following seal was 
adopted: " A brass die. on the outer circle of which the letters 'Wan-en 
Circ. Courts,' with thirteen stars, all on the inner circle except two, one 
in the center and the other on the outer circle." The court, up to this 
period, had been held in the house of Enoch Farmer, in Warrenton; 
but in April. 1S30. it convened at the house of "U^illiam Harrison, at 
TVilliamsport. though no session was then held, owing to the absence of 
the President Judcre and one Associate Judge. On the 7th of October, 
1S30, the court convened at the court house, all the Judges being pres- 
ent. Moses Cos, Edward A, Hannegan and Aaron Finch were admitted 
as attorneys. In the Gerard Chancery case, after the evidence was all 
in, it was " Ordered, adjudged and ^decreed by the coui-t now here, that 
the bill of the said complainant be taken as confessed;" whereupon cer- 
tain lands were orderd conveyed to the complainant. Fourteen cases 
were disposed of at the October term, 1830. The session of April, 1831, 
was held at the house of William Harrison. Peter Christman. upon 
petition, was given permission to construct a dam and mill on Pine Creek, 
on the northwest quarter of Section 22. Township 22 north, Eange 8 
west. This was in response to his petition for a wi-it of ad quod dam- 
num, which had been issued the preceding October. Thomas J. Evans, 
Joseph Tatman and Isaac Pearson were admitted as attorneys. Twenty- 
sis cases were disposed of at this teiTQ of the coiirt. A decree of divorce 
was granted Polly Broady, though the defendant was absent. This was 
the hrst decree of the kind granted in AVarren County. The last ses- 
sion held at the house of William Harrison was in April, 1831; after 
that the " coui't house " was used. Actions during these years were 
case, trespass on the case, debt, assault and battery on aiapeal. affray, 
adultery against Mathias Bedding, domestic attachment, divorce, re- 
plevin, "to convey land, scz'. /a., on transcript, chanceiy cases, gaming, 
breach of peace," presentment, etc. E. A. Hannegan was Prosecuting 
Attorney in most of the State cases. Other attorneys admitted about 
this tinae were David Wallace, .1. B. Patterson and E. A. Chandler. 
In 1833, manv indictments for retailing liquor and foreign and domestic 
groceries and" merchandise were returned. Isaac Naylor and T. E. 
Brown were admitted to the bar, 1833; David Brier and Henry D. Lane 
were admitted in 1834; John Bryce, E. A. Lockwood were admitted in 


The firit Court of Probate of WaiTen County was held at the house 
of Enoch Fai-mer, on the 2d day of Xovemher, 1829; present, William 
Willmeth, Judge-elect, who presented his commission, signed by Gov. 



James B. Kay, and was sworn by James Cunningliam to faithfully dis- 
charge the duties of that office. About the first act of the Jndge was to 
adopt a seal, of the "letters L. S.; W. P. C, with a scrawl aro-ind 
them." Letters of administration, which had been issued by the Clerk 
in the preceding August to John Cox, for Jonathan Cox, deceased, were 
confirmed. Kebecca Dawson, widow of David Dawson, was appointed 
guardian of her children, the minor heirs of her deceased husband, and 
required to file her bond as such. Thus ended the first term of Probate 


This term was held at the house of Enoch Farmer the 4th of Janu- 
ary, 1830; but in the afternoon of the first day court adjourned, to meet 
at the home of William Harrison, in Williamsport. Samuel Ensley and 
Abram Ensley were apjDointed administraters of the estate of Thomas 
Haslett, deceased. At the Mai'ch term, 1830, this order was revoked, 
and Elizabeth Haslett, widow of Thomas Haslett. was appointed admin- 
istratrix. In May, James Cunningham was appointed administrator of 
the estate of the late Joseph Thomas. Xo business was before the court 
in July. In September, Charity Cox, widow of Jonathan Cox, was 
selected as administratrix of the real estate of her deceased husband, 
and Israel Boswell was selected as administrator of the personal prop- 
erty. At the same time, a citation was issued against John Cox, requir- 
ing him to appear and show cause why settlement of the estate should 
not be made. Upon the application of Sally Shiji^py, widow of Jonathan 
Shippy, Lyman Judd was appointed administrator of the personal 
estate of Jonathan Shippy. deceased. In 1831. John B. King was made 
administrator of the estate of Phipps "SValdo. deceased, and Abraham 
Stewart of the estate of William Williams. John Cox appeared, and 
stated that though he had made great exertions, he had been unable to 
settle the estate of Jonathan Cox. and he was granted two months of ad- 
ditional time. B. M. Hays was appointed administrator of the " ^roods, 
chattels, rights, credits, moneys and eftects " of Jonathan Pitzer, de- 
ceased. John P. Hays and John Jones were appointed guardians of 
the minor heirs of Jonathan Pitzer. ^ 

The following is a list of the early Justices of the Peace of Warren 
County, with the date of their commencement of service: Lemuel Bovd 
1827; Thomas Kearns, 1827; Edward Mace, 1827; Thomas Cunuiiicr- 
ham, 1827; Samuel Merrill. 1828; Levi Cronkhite, 1828; Jonathan 
Shippy, 1828; Lawrence Rains. 1828; Benjamin Cheneweth US'^'o- 
David McConnell, 1830; Thomas Robb. 1830; Benjamin Crow 1831 •' 
William Newell, 1831; Eleazur Purviance, 1831: John Tweed ' 183l'- 
John Jones, 1831; Simon Suyder, 1831; James H. Buell, 183'^- John's' 
King, 1832; Isaac Rains. 1832; William Harrington, " 1833"" Nicholas 
Shafler, 1833; '\\ ilham Allen, 1833; Abraham. Howrey 1833- William 
Coldreu, 1834; Bernard Seals, 1834; William Cunuiuo-ham 1835- 
Michael Creokpaum, 1835; David Lockwood, 1835; John Lvous 1835- 
John Foster, 1835; Jacob Miller, 1835; John Clinton. 1835- Boniamiu 
Crow, 1830; George Pence. 1830; Abraham Timmons 1837- W ili.,n 
Harrington, 1838; E. B THlotson 1838; N. ShaflVr, 1838; Peter Scho^n 
over, 1838, John Campbell, 1838; Silas Hooker, 1838- J\r H T .«-,■ , 
1838; Rufus Webb, 1838; J. C. Taylor, 1838; Courtland HaiSs 1S39. 
Sanford Payne, 1840; F. C, Webb, 1840; John CuwgiU, 1840. " 




On the 6th of November, 1827, the second day of the tirst session of 
the first Justices' Court, the county was divided into the following town- 
ships: Mound, bounded east by the Wabash River, south by the south 
line of the county, west by Illinois and north by the north line of Town- 
ship 20. Pike, bounded east by the Wabash, south by Mound Town- 
ship, west by Illinois and north by the north line of Township 21. 
Warren, bounded south by Pike Township, west by Illinois, north by the 
north line of Township 24, and east by the line dividing Sections 4 and 
5, Township 24 north, Range 7 west. Medina, bounded east by Tippe- 
canoe County, south by the Wabash, west by Warren Township and 
north by the north line of Township 24 north. The southern tier of 
townships of the present Benton County (Township 24 north) was then 
a part of Warren County. 


At the March session of the Board of Justices, in 1830, Washino-ton 
Township was created, with the following limits: Beginning on the 
Wabash River, at the mouth of Big Pine Creek; thence up said creek 
to the line dividing Townships 22 and 23 north; thence west on said 
line to the State line; thence south to the line dividing Townships 21 and 
22 north; thence east on the north line of Township 21 to Rock Creek; 
thence down said creek to its junction with the Wabash; thence up said 
river to the place of beginning. At the same time, the following territory 
was attached to Pike Township, being taken from Mound Township: 
Beginning on the Wabash, where the ,line dividing Sections 10 and 15, 
Township 20, Range 9 west, intersects the same; thence due west to 
King's Creek; thence up said creek to the north line of said Township 
20; thence east with said township line to the Wabash; thence down 
said river to the placeof beginning. This territory was taken from the 
northeastern corner of old Mound Township. At this time, also, Pine 
Township was created, with the following limits: Bounded east by the 
line dividing Ranges 7 and 8, south by the north line of Tovvnship 22 
north, west by the State line and north by the north line of the county. 
The township then included the present Prairie and Pine Townships, 
and the southwestern portion of the present Benton Count3'J At this 
time, also, all of old Warren Township remaining, lying east of the line 
dividing Ranges 7 and 8 west and in Township 23 north, was attached 
to Medina Township; and all of old Medina, in Township 22, was at- 
tached to Warren. It was also ordered that all the territory on the 
north attached to Warren County by an act approved January 30, 1830, 
and lying west of Big Pine Creek, should be attached to Pine Township; 
and all that portion of such territory east of Big Pine Creek should be 
attached to Medina Township, the order to be in force after July 80, 
1830, at which time the enactment of the Legislature took effect. A 
little later, in March, 1830, all of Warren east of the line dividing Sec- 
tions 2 and 3, Range 7 west, was attached to Medina Township. 

In May, 1830, the following re-arrangement of the township bound- 
aries took place: Mound, beginning on the Wabash River, at the Ver- 
million County line; thence west to the Illinois line; thence north to 
the line dividing Townships 20 and 21 north; thence east to King's 
Creek; thence down the same to the line between Sections 7 and 8, 


Township '20, Range 9; thencR east to the Wabash; thence down the 
same to the place of bej^inning. Pike, beginning at the northeast corner 
of Mound Township; thence west to King's Creek; thence up the same 
to the line dividing Townships 20 and 21; thence west to the State line; 
thence north to the line dividing Townships 21 and 22; thence east to 
Rock Creek; thence down the same to the Wabash: thence down the 
same to the place of beginning. Washington, beginning on the Wabash, 
at the mouth of Rock Creek; thence up said creek to the line dividing 
Townships 21 and 22; thence west to the State line; thence north to the 
lino between Townships 22 and 23: thence east to Pine Creek; thence 
down the same to the Wabash River; thence down the same to the place 
of beginning. Warren, beginning at the mouth of Pine Creek; thence 
up said creek to the line between Townships 22 and 23 ; thence east to 
the line between Sections 2 and 3, Range 7; thence south to the Wabasli; 
thence to the place of beginning. Medina, beginning on the Wabash, 
where the eastern boundarj' of Warren Townships intersects the same; 
thence north to the line dividing Townships 22 and 23: thence west to 
the line dividing Ranges 7 and 8: thence north to tlie county line; thence 
east to the northeast corner of the County; thence south to the Wabash; 
thence to the place of beginning. Pine, beginning at the northwest cor- 
ner of Medina Township; thence south to the line between Townships 
22 and 23; thence west to the State line; thence north to the northwest 
corner of Warren Count3'; thence east to the place of beginning All 
the attached territory on the north, west of Big Pine Creek, was attached 
to Pine Townshipi and all of such territory east of such creek was at 
tached to Medina Township. A few months later, all of Medina Town- 
ship in Township 22, Range 7, was attached to Warren Township, and 
the eastern boundary of Warren was made the line dividing Ranges (3 
and 7. and its northern boundary was made the line dividing Townships 
22 and 23, from the east side of Range 7 to Pine Creek. 

In March, 1S34, all of Pine Township, south and west of Redwood 
Creek, was created as Steuben Township. In January, 1S35. all of the 
county in Township 22, Range ('), was attached to Warren Township; 
and in May all the attached territory on the north of Warren Coiintv 
(Benton County, etc.\ was created as Madison Township, and the elec- 
tion of a Justice of the Peace was ordered. In March. lS+3. Libertv 
Township was created as follows: Beginning on Bio- Pine Creek, where 
the line between Townships 22 and 23 crosses the same; thence west to 
the State line; thence south to the line between Townships 21 and 22; 
thence east to the southeast corner of Congressional Township 22, 
Riinge S west; thence north to Big Pine Creek; thence up the same to 
the place of beginning. In December, 1S43, all of Township 22, .Rant^e 
N east, of l>ig Pine Creek, was severed from Warren and att;iched"to 
Liberty. In hSiS. Adams Township* was created, with about the same 
limits it has at present. In March, IS'iO. Jordan Township was created 
as it is ;it present, from the western part of Libertv. Xnmerous small 
changes were made in the boundaries of the townships from time to time 
—so numcirous tliat they canuot be followed in these pages. The last 
township cre;ited was Kent, iu September, 1S()4, from the northern p'ai't 
of Mound, the creation to take elt'ect April. ISlio. This gave the count v 
of Warren about its present shape. 

* Tlui full iM.moot" this lOTviiBlilp, na craiti'd, was " J. Q. ,Vdiim,<; " but the t.'iia.'uov ,\,„i„ .1 
»cor,Miry.'ar», h»« lnuMi I,. ilr,H) llie initials, unj to cull tlio tovvueliip ■• Adums." ' ' *~ ' >'"•' 



The first act of importance was the division of the county into town- 
ships and Commissioners' districts, and the appointment of the necessary 
local officers. Elections were ordered held, and a " scroll " was adopted, 
as a temporary seal for the County Board. The viewing and establish- 
ing of county and State roads was immediately commenced, and as time 
progressed county affairs greatly multiplied. The county seat question, 
the taxes and finances, the local administration of justice, the erection 
of jiublic buildings, the regulation of various licences, the establishment 
of roads and the general welfare of the county soon engi'ossed the atten- 
tion of the Commissioners and the county at large as well. Constant 
alterations in the boundaries of the townships and of road districts were 
necessary, to meet the demand, as the centers of population shifted. 
Early in the thirties, the county jail and county court house were built. 
■Tohn Seaman was Census Taker in 1830. In May, 1831, a public pound 
was built at Williarasport, the first in the county. A set of standard 
weights and measures was purchased, and kept at the county seat, that 
commercial people might have the advantage of a uniform system of the 
estimate of quantity. Circuit Court sat in houses owned by Harrison 
and Price. A bounty of II was offered for wolf scalps. In 1812, Ben- 
jamin Crow put a new roof on the court house for -f 125. Horse-thieves 
were too numerous and daring to suit the settled condition of things, and 
numerous associations for apprehending them were . formed, receiving 
the approval of the County Board. The court house was used for pub- 
lic !ecttu-es and religious services. Ferries at various points on the Wa- 
bash, and on Pine and other Creeks, were established very early. Young 
men were selected, upon application, to represent the county in the In- 
diana University. Various wooden bridges were built across the streams 
of the county at the public expense. One over Big Pine Greek, near 
Brier's Mill," built in 1853, cost about $1,000. About 1850, the ques- 
tion of gi-anting license for the sale of intoxicating liquors was submit- 
ted to the townships for settlement at the polls. Pike Township cast 
thirty-five votes against the license, and only two for it, while Washing- 
ton cast sixty for'^it and twenty-four against it. The result in other 
townships is not known. In 1852, the Commissioners ordered paid to 
William Kent the sum of $300, to assist in the survey of the Lake Erie, 
Wabash & St. Louis Railroad, provided the county might be credited 
with that amount of stock if the road was completed. By June, 1855, 
the engine had entered La Payette. Daring the war of 1861-65, vast 
sums w^re paid out for bounty and relief. The question of aiding the 
Northern Indiana & Southern Railway, by a county tax, was submitted 
to the citizens in 1869, with the result of 140 votes for the tax and 1,090 
ao-ainst it. Mound Township voted upon the question of aiding the In- 
dTanapolis, Crawfordsville & Danville Railroad, to the amount of about 
$5,000, in'l869, but rejected the aid by a vote of twenty-four to forty- 
four. Kent Township voted upon the question of aiding the Evansville, 
Terre Haute & Chicago Railway, with what result is not known. Early 
in 1871, a reward of 1400 was offered for the arrest and conviction of 
the person or persons making the unsuccessful attempt to rifle the 
County Treasury, April 19, 1870, and again December 18, 1870. No 
discoveries were made. In 18/1. Charles Seldon, of Cincinnati, was or- 
dered paid $1,500 for the right to use his system of keeping the county 


accounts. The amount expended for countj- iron bridges, during the 
year ending June, 1S75, was .? 


The first building in which the Board of Justices met, or. in other 
words, the first " court house," if the term is not too dignified to be ap- 
plicable, was a hewed-log structui-e standing ^at "Warrenton, the first 
county seat, and owned by Enoch Farmer, who, with others, had made 
such miinilicent offers of money, lots, lands, services and donations as 
to induce the Locating Commissioners appointed by the State Legisla- 
ture to establish the seat of justice of the new county of Warren, to Hx 
such seat of justice ou lands owaed by ilr. Farmer. This building was 
nothino- better than a rude building in which the family of Mr. Farmer 
resided, and was used for general court and county purposes until the 
removal of the county seat to Williamsport, when all public transactions 
of the county officials were conducted in a memorable old hewed-log 
building owned by William Harrison, the proprietor uf the town of Will- 
iamsport. This house of Mr. Harrison's was first used in July, 1829, and 
continued to be used until the autumn of 1S30, at which time a buildino' 
owned by Samuel Ullery, Bolly B. UUery. J. C. Irvin. Malinda Beard 
and Eliza C. Finch was rented for county purposes, but, owing to some 
unforeseen circumstances, was not occupied until the following March. 
Within a year from this time, the first steps toward the erection of a re- 
spectable court house were taken. John Merical was employed to clear 
the public square of timber, etc., for SlO. For some reason, the ITllery 
building was used only once or twice, the courts and Commissioners re- 
occupying the Harrison building. But in 1S3L the County Board felt 
too poor to order the erection of a court house, and the subject was post- 
poned. County business had been conducted by the issuance of couutv 
orders, which had accumufated since 1S27. The orders had sold at 
about 'j5 cents on the dollar, and had depreciated even lower than this. 
There was no money in the country. What little was brought in was in- 
vested in hind, until three-fout'ths of the settlers were s^'arcely able to pay 
their taxes. The orders circulated like money, a ad were receivable at 
the County Treasury for taxes, public labor, etc. Coumv officers were 
obliged to take them as a consideration of their services. " The verv low 
assessments of taxes were met with long deliucpront lists. Monev could 
not be obtained; time alone could remedy matters. Tue enormous immi- 
gration into the county during the year,s 1S31 and 1S82 soon served to 
redeem the county orders, replenish its empty treasury, and inspire the 
Commissioners to order the erection of a court house. Specifications were 
prepared and placed on public exhibition in May. 1N:]2, and bids were 
solicited from contractors. The building was to be of brick, forty feet 
s(piare and twenty-three feet high. Arrangements were completed iuJulv, 
18:)2, whereby E. W. Jones and Soth Flowers contracted to build the 
house. They were to receive S:!Ol) on the 1st of September, and the bal- 
ance was to be paid in installments as the work progressed. The court 
house was to be ready for occupancv .'Vugust, 1S38. 

Among the .lonations to the county at the time of the re-location of 
the county seat, was one of oO.ll:)!^ bricks from Thomas ailbert. who had 
agreed to furnish them at the time of the erection of the tirst coiii-t 
house. Mr. Gilbert was u.nv called ui>ou to redeem his promise, but 


postponed doing so until at last the County Board ordered the County 
Agent to contract for such quantity of brick with any responsible party. 
This was in May, 1833. Suit was begun against Mr. Gilbert to recover 
damages for his failure to comply with his agreement, and a judgment 
was recovered and steps were taken to satisfy the judgment by a sale of 
his property, but at last the judgment was compromised, upon what 
terms cannot be stated. These and other matters postponed the comple- 
tion of the building until about June, 1834. Disinterested committees 
were appointed to investigate and report on the work, and a deficiency 
of S64.60 was returned, which was accepted by Mr. Jones, the contract, 
or, The cost of the building was about $2,000. B. H. Magee was paid 
$129 to paint it. It was found necessary, in 1835, to strengthen the 
house, provide it with certain floors, stairways, etc. ; but the county 
officers were compelled to look elsewhere for room. Among other build- 
ings, they occupied one owned by James Cunningham. In June, 1845, 
the Board contracted with Richard Treadway to build a structure on 
the south side of the square, which was to contain two rooms for county 
offices. This was done, and Mr. Treadway was paid $868.50 for the job. 
Three years later, he was paid $627 for building brick fireproof safes for 
the county records. In 1853, a second building, for Clerk's and Re- 
corder's offices, was erected; James Jones taking the contract for $1,050. 
These buildings were used until the erection of the present court house. 


In 1870, a committee appointed to examine the condition of the old 
court house reported it unsafe, and about the same time B. F. Gregory 
and others made certain tenders of land and other j^roperty, provided the 
Commissioners would immediately erect anew court house. Considerable 
opposition was encountered at the time, although speciiications were pre- 
pared and bids from contractors were called for. Mr. G. K. Randall, 
architect, of Chicago, was employed. Sessions of court were held in 
store rooms and elsewhere. Still, a majority of the Commissioners de- 
feated any further progress of the work at that time. The question was 
renewed early in 1871, B. F. Gregory leading the movement, and bids 
were again called for from coatractors. After an examination of such 
bids, in March, 1871, the contract was awarded to Hays & Evans, of 
Bloomington, 111., for $48,400. Mr. Randall was given the superin- 
tendency of the work, his compensation to be 2i -per cent on the cost of 
the building. There was considerable money in the County Treasury at 
this time, but not enough to comiilete the work, and accordingly $10,000 
worth of county bonds were issued. The old court house was sold to 
Cyrus Romine for $325. The new house, a fine brick structure, with 
native stone trimmings, was accepted in December, 1872, and the con- 
tractors were paid in full for their labor. This house is yet in use, and, 
doubtless, will last many years to come. 


The county was provided with a jail before a court house was built. 
As early as the siimmer of 1830, the contract to erect such a building 
was advertised. The contract was awarded to Benjamin Crow, for $560, 
and work was commenced without delay. The building, a heavy, hewed- 
log structure, well protected with stone, was accepted in November, 1831, 


with a deduction of 120. This jail answered the purpose until 184S, at 
which time Richard Treadway was employed to construct a new one 
which he did, completing the work in the fall of 1S49. The oontract 
price was $2,500, but Mr. Treadway, claiming that he had lost boUU by 
the lob, asked the Commissioners to reimburse him. which they partly 
did to the amount of §200. This old jail is yet used by the county. 


In 1830, the total population of the county _was 2,861: in 1S40, 
5,656; in 1850, 7,387; in 1860, 10,057, in I8<0,10,20i; in 1880, 
11,497. The county was named in honor of Gen. Joseph Warren, who 
was killed at the battle of Bunker Hill. 


:.The first assistance furnished by the county of Warren to her indigent 
and poor was in 1831, when Levi Murdock was paid §20. upon the 
order of the Commissioners, for keeping John Campbell, a transient 
pauper, five months. After this, orders of a similar natui-e are found 
with great frequency. Each township had Overseers of the Pour, whose 
duty was to see that the helpless of his township were provided with 
the necessaries if life, and given a Christian burial upon their death. 
The bills of expense, when properly authenticated, were paid by the 
County Board. Occasionally, in more than one township of Warren 
County, the township otficers would order poor persons to " depart the 
township forthwith," that they might uot become a " township charge." 
But that barbarous custom soon gave place to one of broader charity and 
humanity. The custom of "farming out" the paupers to the lowest bid- 
ders took the place of all others, and was continued many years. Some- 
times the poor fell into cruel hands, and received rough treatment and 
fare from the " farmers" who had taken the charge solely to make 
money. Generally, however, the humanity of the early settlers provided 
the county poor with comfortable homes. Ln 1S33, Seymour Cobb was 
paid quite a sum for furnishing Elizabeth Bell, a pauj^er. with comfort- 
able clothing and a home. James foreman, a pauper, was buried at 
county expense in 1837. Thomas Thomas built the coffin. The annual 
county expense for the poor, during these years, ranged from about 820 
to $70; but about 1837, the figures began to grow. The following is one 
of the early bills paid by the County Board: 

NovEMBEK THE 20th. A. D. 1838. 
Board of Commissioners of ^Yarren Ooiuity, l>r. to Isaac Uigli for keepiui; 
Eliphalut Lovclelt, a poor boy, four months, ^,'7; nursing by .Toruslia Ford for 
three months, f :30; board for tiio nurse tliirtoeu weelvs, $13 T doctor bill paid to Dr. 
J. H, Bucll, |15; total debits, $8.'). Credits— One chest and one riddle, §4; one 
coat and one pair of pants, ij^T; total credits, §11, \Vhole amount due, sTl. 

Personally appeared before us, .Tames S. Crawford and Ephraim Xortou, Over- 
seers of the Poor in Steuben Township, Warren County, the said Isaac HiLch. and 
bcinn- by us sworn, says that the above amount is just and unpaid this Ist'^day of 
September, 184."). his 

Isaac X High. 
We, the Overseers of the Poor of Steuben Township, "Warren County, Ind.. 
after examining several disinterested Avitnesses under oath, allow the aboveamount 
to be legal and just this 1st day of September, 184."i. 

.Tames S, Crawford, } ,, . , „ 

Ei-iiHAiM NouTON. \ Oftrseers oj the Poor. 


This was the largest pauper bill paid up to November, 1838. Provis- 
ion was made for a period, in each township, for the care of paupers at 
township expense, instead of at county expense, but to what extent can- 
not be stated, as the township records have been destroyed. As early 
as IS-tO, physicians in the county contracted by the year to doctor the 
poor of townships, and finally of the entire county. The pauper ex- 
pense of the county for the year ending June, IS-tS, was !5337.20, and 
for the year ending' June, 1848, was §495.43; for 1849, it was 1398.06; 
for 1850, §878.14. 


In December, 1853, a farm of 120 acres, being the west half of the 
northeast quarter of Section -!9 and the southv?est quarter of the south- 
east quarter of Section 2U, Township 22 north, Eange 8 wesl, was pur- 
chased of a Mrs. Brown for §2,000, to be used as a County Poor Farm. 
Upon the farm was an ordinary dwelling, which was fitted up for the re- 
ception of the public poor. Buildings were erected, barns built, and 
James Quick was employed to take charge of the farm and the paupers. 
These arrangements were not completed until the autumn of 1854. For 
some reason unknown, the contract with Quick was canceled and Keuben 
K. Ranson was appointed Superintendent of the Poor Farm. The Commis- 
sioners directed the paupers scattered in private families throughout the 
county to be taken to the poor house, but only about half were thus provided 
for, as many preferred to remain in private families, or in their own 
families, provided their necessary expense was borne by the county. In 
March, 1855, Dr. J C. Book contracted to doctor the paupers in the 
poor house sis months for 137.50. The j^oor expense for the year end- 
ing June, 1856, was §1,720. 72. This included some expense in fitting 
the farm. Owing to unexpected expense, in this and other directions, 
the Commissioners, in 1856-57, borrowed $2,000. C. R. Rogers con- 
tracted, for §100, to doctcn- the poor during the year 1856. E. A. San- 
ders became County Physician in 1857. Ranson remained Superintend- 
ent until 1859, when he was succeeded by Daniel J. Doty. In 1859, 
the paupers cost $2,000.16; in 1862, $2,640.52; in 1863, $2,310.82; in 
1864, §3,479.15; in 1866, $3,819.58; in 1867, $5,004.83; in 1870, 
15,700.86; in 1874, $3,714.98; in 1878, $7,535.90, and in 1882, 
$5,468.65. John Berry became Superintendent in 1864, and Andrew 
Cole in 1865, In 1869, Alexander Mehaffy took charge, and in 1870, J. 
S. Howland. Howland and David Moore took the farm together in 
1871 and 1872, and Howland, in 1873, rented it for three consecutive 
years, but Alexander Mehaffy was employed in 1875. Howland went in 
again in 1876, continuing until 1879, when Mehaffy again took charge, 
remaining until his death, in 1882, since which time his son tldward has 
been Superintendent. In 1869, a fine farm, of aboat 440 acres, lying 
near- the center of Liberty Township, was purchased of Thomas J. 
Cheneweth, to be used as a Poor Farm. The old one had become too 
small to meet the demands of the poor, and the buildings were often 
overflowing and still others requiring home and shelter. The farm was 
no sooner "purchased than arrangements were made to erect thereon a 
county asylum of suitable dimensions. Jacob Holtz was employed to do 
the cellar and foundation stone work for §3 per perch, and the cut stone 
work for 65 cents per linear foot. Bids were called for from contractors 
for the contemplated building and that of James R. Shatell, of §10,282. 


was finally accepted. The old farm of 120 acres was sold to Samuel 
Warrenfelts for $1,000 down, Sl,400 ou the 1st of March, IbiZ, bl,^UU 
on the 1st of March, 1873, and $1,200 on the 1st of March, 18^4. The 
present f=ne brick building is a credit to the county. The number of 
paupers in the asylum at one time has e-ceeded forty. Warren County 
deserves great praise for the care she has taken of her poor. 


In 1853, the farmers of Warren and Fountain Counties organized an 
agricultural society, and on the 6th and 7th of September iield the first 
fair, at Independence, Warren County. J. J. Schermerhorn was Presi- 
dent of the society. There was quite a large display of live stock, 
grains, vegetables and fancy articles, and between three and four hun- 
dred men and women were present. The following year the fair was 
held at Attica, many of the farmers of Warren County participating; 
but after that as it continued to be held in Fountain County, and as the 
farmers of Warren gradually dropped out fi-om participating in it, the 
further consideration of that society will be omitted. In 1856, the 
farmers in the northern part of the county organized the Grand Prairie 
Agricultural Society, and held the first fair in the autumn of that year 
on ground just east of Pine Tillage, that was rented of Ichabod Boyer. 
George Wagner was the first President, and Thomas Atkinson first 
Treasurer, and a premium list of about S600 was oii'erod. The rent of 
the ground was mostly paid in fences, etc., built by the society. After 
two or three years, the society bought ten acres south of Pine Village, 
using the same for a fair ground a few years, when the land was sold 
and the proceeds used toward bu.ying thirty acres for a new ground, near 
the village. Some years the fair was very successful, nearly §1,000 
being paid in premiums. A fair was held at Pine Village for nine con- 
secutive years, the last being in 1861, after which time the society went 
down, to rise no more in the old place. West Lebanon, however, came 
to the front soon afterward, and effected an organization which has en- 
dured until the present. James Crawford and Hudson Wood headed the 
movement. A large subscription was raised, amounting, it is said, to 
$6,000, and a strong organization of the leading citizens of the county 
was perfected, under the euphonious designation, " The Warren County 
Agricultural Joint Stock Association." After a time, thirty acres o'f 
woodland, about half a mile northwest of West Lebanon, were purchased 
for $2,550. which amount was furnished by the County Commissioners 
from the county treasury, upon the solicitation of numerous citizens. 
It was largely due to James Coodwine and William Crow that this 
amount was secured from the county. But the ground needed great im- 
provement before it could be used, and work was begun in 1875. ^ow 
there is no better county fair ground in the Stat?. It is stated that more 
than $16,000 have been spent upon the ground. There are more than 
two hundred excellent stalls for stock. A floral hall, an ai^-ricultural 
hall, a large, fine amphitheater for spectators, and various other build- 
ings for the use and convenience of officers and citizens have been erected. 
A fine stream of water courses through the ground, over whicli the race track 
has been built, at great expense. The entire ground is clothed with tine 
native timber, and surrounded with a tight board fence, which is painted 
white, as are also all the buildings. The county may well be proud of its 


fair ground. James Goodwine was first President of the new organiza- 
tion; William Crow, Vice President; George T. Bell, Secretary; John C. 
Lincoln, Treasurer, The highest receipts for an_y one 3'ear were about 
$3,500, and the lowest about |,2,000. Much of this is paid out annually 
in premiums. In 1872, an effort was made at Pine Village tore-organize 
the old agricultural society, but the attempt was soon abandoned. 

OLD settlers' association. 

The "Warren County Historical Pioneer Association was organized at 
Williamsport in July, 1876, at which time the following first officers 
were elected: Bolivar Robb, President; Eobinson Fletcher, Vice Pres- 
ident; H, C. Johnson, Secretary. The first regular meeting was held at 
the county seat in August of the same year. There was a large assem- 
blage of old men and women present, besides many of their descendants, 
and many more curious spectators. Eev. Jewell, of Danville, 111., was 
the orator of the day. A most enjoyable occasion was passed in talking 
of old times. The second annual meeting was held in August, 1877, 
at West Lebanon, Rev. Hargrave officiating as orator. The third was 
held at Williamsport, the orator being Judge Gregory, of La Fayette. 
The fourth meeting was held in 1879, at Pine Village, H. S. Lingual 
being the speaker. The fifth was held at Independence, in 1880, the 
speaker being Rev. Colbreath Hall. The sixth was held at Carbondale 
in 18S1, Judge Davidson, of Covington, delivering the oration. The 
seventh and last was held at West Lebanon in 1882, the orator of the 
day being Col. John Lee, of Crawfordsville. The meetings have been 
greatly enjoyed by young and old. Bolivar Robb has been President of 
the association every year but one. The great error the association is 
making is not placing on record the corrected stories of the old 
settlers. They meet, have a good time, but their experiences, trials, 
labors in making the county what it is, are thoughtlessly permitted to 
pass into forgetfulness. A competent Secretary should be apj>ointed for 
each annual meeting, who should be required to put on record all such 
items. He should be paid for such service, and then the work would be 
done. The crowd would furnish the money. 

county statistics of 1840. 
Number of persons in agriculture, 694; in commerce, 24; in manufact- 
ure and trade, 185; learned professions or engineers, 25; military pen- 
sioners, 2; blind, 2; insane or idiotic, 6; number of primary or ;common 
schools', 8; number of scholars, 185; number over twenty years who can 
read and write, 465; total population, 5,656; bushels of coal, 25,420; 
men employed, 11; capital, Sl,50l>; horses and mules, 3,288; neat cattle, 
7,936; sheep, 9,5J5; swine, 15,851; value of poultry, $4,275; bushels 
of wheat, 32,198; bushels of barley, 150; bushels of oats, 89,955; bush- 
els of rye, 1,447; bushels of buckwheat, 422; bushels of corn, 414,046; 
pounds of wool, 18,556; pounds of wax, 225; bushels of potatoes, 
15 543; tons of hay, 2,277; tons of hemp and flax, 17; pounds of 
tobacco, 830; pounds of sugar, 8,200; cords of wood sold, 1,550; value 
of dairy products, 110,300; value of orchard products, SloO; value of 
home-made goods, $21,361; retail dry goods, grocery and other stores, 8; 
capital, $25,000; value of brick and lime, $800; men employed, 6; cap- 
ital, $300; tanneries, 6; sides of sole leather tanned, 1,500; sides of 



apper leather tanned, 2,100: men employed, r, capital, 83,050; value 
of iiianufactui-ed articlt^s, $2,000; distilleries, 1; gallons produced, 
2,800; men employed, 2; capital invested, §300; value of wagons and 
can-iages manufactured, $1,350; men employed, 5; capital, S^OO; flour- 
ing mills, 1; barrels of flour manufactui-ed, 300; grist mills, 4; saw- 
mills, 19; value of manufactures, §7,100; men employed, 27; capital, 
$17,700; number of wooden houses built, 10; capital in all manufact- 
ures, $30,193. 


It did not take long to develop a political antagonism in the adminis- 
tration of county affairs. The settlers had come from older localities, 
where the political waves had run high, and they could not forget their 
old exciting habits so easily. The following vote of August, 1827, dis- 
plays a decided political division: 





^ ^ ^ 

-7. = 9^ 

^. < ". 

Samuel Watkins' (1)* 13 

John .Jones' (2) 9 

Schoolhouse (3) Si 

David White's (4) 10 

Jobn Read's (5) 10 

17 19 

.5 16 
... 10 







38 ' 




Total -Sd 

66 31 6 31 

11 34 28 103 


e county was organized in good season, to take up 
ign of November, 1828, and although news of the 

the Presidential 
outer world was 
hard to get, and when it did come was deticient, owing to the fact that 
the settlers had weightier matters on their raiuds to c'ontend with, and 
took no pains to inform themselves: still, what .little came kindled con- 
siderable interest, and neighbors met to discuss political events which 
had transpired several months previously, and the news of which had 
just reached them. About this time, the parties opposed to the Demo- 
cratic organization were known as National Republicans, Whi^v^.; or Anti- 
Masons, and in 1828 the Democrats brought forward a veiy popular 
man, Gen. Jackson, wlio was confronted with John Qaincv Adams, who 
had been placed in the Presidential chair in 1824 bv the House of Kep- 
resenlatives. There was scarcely any excitement "in the countv o^er 
the contest, but the citizens met to enjoy the privilege of freemen'iu the 
Gxereiso of the elective franchise. 

The electors in Medina Township at the November electi'^n, 1828, 
were as follows: Samuel Hart. Aaron Stevenson. Edward M-ioe Joseph 
Mooro, John E. Smith. John P. Mace. Edward Moore, John S Reed 
Freeman Fishback, Curtis Smith. John Jackson, Jer.Muiah D ivis John 
Morris, Zachariah Cicott, Matliew Sriver, Andrew R ibb. D. R. Parker. 

I,,, ,,;' '■''''"'' uuinbers con-espo.ul will, the distrii-ts of tUe first eleclk.n iu tlio couiuy pvon .1 low lucos 


Adam Sriver, Jesse DoutJiward, Samuel B. Clark, Thomas Dawson, John 
Anderson, William Franklin, Thomas Boyer, Elisha Dawson and John 
McGhan; total, 26.- The voters in Warren Township at the same elec- 
tion were William Harrington, Jonathan Cox, George Willard, Christo- 
pher Pillser, Job Tevebangh, Joseph Cox, David Beeves, William Har- 
rison, Moses Finch, A. W. Finch, Francis Boggs, Thomas Kearns, 
Jonathan Shippy, AMlliam VVillmeth, William Harrison, Sr., John 
Whelkel, David White, Joseph Tolbert, William Price, Daniel Benja- 
min, Kobei;t Benjamin, Adam White, John Seaman, Eben Smith, James 
Birch, Alois Smith, James Goodwin, James Quick, Jonathan Pillser, 
Daniel Clark, Abraham Tweed, William F. Becket, Hiram Clark, Sam- 
uel Kains, John McCord, Alexis Jackson, Enoch Farmer, James McCord, 
Samue) Ensley, James Cunningham, John Pugh, John Cox, Hiram 
Farmer, William Anderson, A. S. Smith, Thomas Cunningham, Isaac 
Eains, Constantine McMeehan, Joseph A. Franklin. Daniel Mace, James 
Bedwell, Archibald Davis and Charles Dawson; total, 53. The voters 
in Pike Township at this election were Silas Garrison, John Gari'ison, 
David Fleming, Alexander Hanson, William Pugh, Thomas Garrison, 
Luther Tillotson, Lewis Stephens. John Fleming, Allen Wykoff, Marcus 
Shippy, Andrew Fleming, Levi Cronkhite, Seth Shippy, Holder Sisson, 
Peter Fleming, John High, James H. Simpson and John Jones: total, 
19. The voters in Mound Township were Daniel Miller, Nelson De- 
Moss, Enoch Straun, George Coonse, John King, Henry Coonse, Amos 
Clark, Ferguson Moorehead, Nicholas DeLong, William Hall, William 
Woods, Joseph Foster, William Henderson, John Ferrill, David Ganack, 
Humphrey Becket, Thomas Kitchen, Samuel Clum, Thomas Lewis, 
John Black, Noble Owens, Lewis Evans, Joseph Thomas, Elisha Miles, 
Benjamin Becket, Benjamin Cheneweth, Perrin Kent, William Jolly, 
Jennings Wilkinton, Thomas Rittenhouse, Isaac Switser, Jacob Clem, 
Nathaniel Butterfield, Sylvester Stone, David Coonse, James Watson, 
Augustus Watson, Ebenezer F. Lucas, John Bay, Abner Gan-ison and 
James Perrin. The result of this election, by townships, was as follows: 
Adams and Eush, National Eepublican ticket — Mound, 16; Medina 16; 
Warren, 26; Piks, 19; total, 77. Jackscyi and Calhoun, Democratic 
ticket— Mound, 26; Medina, 10; Warren, 27; Pike, none; total, 63. 

It will be seen from this that whatever may be said of the majority 
at that time in the county, it was certainly not Democratic. But the 
opposers of Democracy could scarcely boast of a uniform and settled 
policy or rule of action, except that of protective tariff; they were op- 
posed, generally, to Democratic principles ; and all united, as they some- 
times do yet, after the fashion of " anything to beat Grant." ^ It was 
this lack of definite policy, and the positions taken on the tariff, that 
contributed mainly to the 'success of Jackson and the party of which he 
was the chosen standard-bearer. His administration was so satisfactory 
'' that in November, 1832, he was re-elected. The following was the vote 
in "Warren County; Clay and Sargent, Whig ticket— Warren Township, 
33; Washington, 151; Pike, 28; Mound, 39; Medina, 34; Pine, 16; 
total, 301. Jackson and Van Buren, ■ Democratic ticket — Warren, 13; 
Washington, 81; Pike, 5; Mound, 79; Medina, 57; Pine, 32; total, 


The county still remained anti-Democrat. In 1834, a coalition was 
formed between the various fragments, resulting in the formation of the 


Wliio- part)', which began an active canvass for political supremacy. 
It was during this canvass— that of 1830— that the first really distinct 
partisan lines were publicly drawn in ^Varren County. Candidates for 
political honors were to be seen shaking hands with the dear people, and 
perambulating the county, offering to sacrifice themselves for the public 
good, very nmeh after the fashion of the present day. The meetings 
were 'well attended, for the settlers not only received valuable instruction 
regarding political events of which they were very much in the dark, 
but they^wero highly entertained, likewise, by the rude sports which 
seemed an indispensable adjunct of such occasions, and without which 
it is doubtful whether a respectable assemblage, numerically, could have 
been secui'ed. 

The vote of the county, by townshii:)s. at the November election, 
1836. was as follows; Harrison and Granger, Whig ticket— Warren, 56; 
Washington, 207; Medina, 85; Mound, 49: Pike. 50; Pine, 90; 
Steuben*; Madison,y 4; total, 541. Van Buren and Jolinson, Demo- 
cratic ticket— Warren, 36; ^Vashington. 89; Medina. 40; Mound. 69: 
Pike. 20; Pine, 63; Steuben: Madison, 12: total. 329. 

Again the county went anti-Democratic, by an increased proportion- 
ate majority. 

But the Presidential campaign of 1840 was destined to ecUpse any 
troine before it in AYarren Countv, in interest and activity. Public 

too * ' 

meetings were held in various portions of the county, clubs were formed, 
and at last, just before the election, a large proportion of the citizens 
went informally, in wagons and on horseback, to the Tippecanoe battle 
ground, where a vast crowd assembled to do honor to " Tippecanoe and 
Tyler too." More than one canoe, or log cabin, was placed upon wheels 
and hauled around, and more than one barrel of " haj'd cider " (^they 
called it by that name) was tapped to elevate the spirits of the enthusias- 
tic Whigs. The vote in WaiTen County was as follows: 

Harrison and Tyler, Whig — AVashington, 248; Pine, 77; Mound. 67; 
Pike, 41: Warren,' 1(33: Steuben. 42: Medina. 102: total, 740. Tan 
Buren and Johnson, Democrat — Washington, 104: Pine. 53: Mound, 63: 
Pike, 20; Warren, 73; Steuben. 3: Medina. 32; total, 348. 

It was about this time that the question of an increase of slave ter- 
ritory began tc warmly interest many citizens of Warren County, and a 
limited abolition sentiment was manifested here and there, wliich was 
usually laughed down by some ridiculous allusion Early in 1844, it 
was well known that the efforts of the Democracy would be" directed, in 
the coming camjiaign, toward the election of a President who favored 
the admission of Texas into the I'uion, and thereby an increase of slave 
territory; while the Whigs, on the contrary, took an opposite stand, op- 
posing the admission of Texas, in order to limit the domain of slavery, 
and they accordingly nominated Henry Clay, while the Democrats 
selected James K. Polk. These were the prineijial tickets, thouo-h not 
the only ones. The Liberty party placed in the field Birney and Morris, 
the ])latform dift'ering, somewhat, from that of the Whig's, but resem- 
bling it in opposing an increase of slave territory. The vote in the 
county in November, 1844, was as follows; 

t lU'iitoii CtMuity. 




Clay and Fre- 


Polk and 



Birney and 



























In the Presidential campaign of 1848, the first extensive Free-Soil. 
movement was made. The violent debates in Congress on questions 
growing out of slavery, attracted universal attention and interest. In 
1846, David Wilmot, of Pennsylvania, had introduced in Congress what 
became known as the Wilmot Proviso, which prohibited slaverj' in any 
territory which might be acquired from Mexico or elsewhere. Though 
the measure was defeated finally, some of the most eloquent and pas- 
sionate speeches in American history were delivered in Congress while 
it was pending. Neither did the excitement die out with the campaign 
of 1848, but continued until 1850. The interest in Warren County led 
to the partial organization of a Free-Soil party, which conducted a 
spirited campaign, many citizens who had formerly figured prominently 
in both old parties joining its ranks. The full vote in the county, No- 
vember, 1848, was as follows: 



Taylor and 


Cass and But- 

Free Soil. 
Van Buren 
and Adams. 















After this election, there was no abatement of interest throughout the 
country, nor any cessatiou of hostile activities in Congress, until the 
passage of the celebrated Omnibus Bill, introduced by Hemy Clay, the 
"Great Pacificator," in 1850. The question of the admission of Cali- 
fornia into the Union had come up, and had stirred to intense bitterness 
the sentiments of both parties in Congress, and in all portions of the 
country, and when Henrv Clay came forward with his celebrated com- 
nromise, which provided," among other things, for the admission of Cali- 
fornia into the XJnion as a free State, and for the return of fugitive slaves 
to their masters, both Clay and his compromise were hailed by all, ex- 
cept the abolitionists, with universal joy. The Free-Soil party was de- 
termined, and kept the South violently nettled. The party constantly 
grew in strength in Warren County. The vote of November, 1852, was 
as follows: 














Scott and 


Pierce and 


Free Soil. 

Hale and 














30 ■ 










But the excitement liad not yet reaiihecl its climax. The Fugitive 
Slave law was intensely odious to all the Xorth. except a few who were, 
by nature and training, slave-holders and slave-catchers. Xumerous out- 
breaks occurred, and abolitionists who had violated the law were con- 
cerned therein. In 1853, the straw which broke the camel's back was 
added. Stephen A. Douglas introduced the Kansas-Nebraska bill, 
which supported the doctrine of " Squatter Sovereignty," that each State, 
upon its admission into the Union, might decide by ballot whether 
slavery should be introduced and propagated within its borders. It was 
the repeal of the compromises of 1S20 and of IS.jO, and its passage in 
18D4 roused the North to a state of fury bordering on open rebellion. 
The "Kansas war" occurred, and the pitiful tragedy of John Brown, a 
few years later, kindled a flaaie that was not wholly quenched until Ap- 
pomattox was reached. The Republican party spr/ing into life, and con- 
ducted one of the most exciting campaigns in the history of the nation. 
The vote in Warren County in 1856 was as follows; 



Fremont and 





Fillmore and 





























Total .... 




The Democratic party, of which the Southern wing, havim^ the ma- 
jority, held control, was content to remain in the Union as lou>-' as the 
institution of slavery was not interfered with, even though it was deprived 
of the executive head of the Government. It had been "the custom of the 
South, for one or more generations preceding ISOO, to threaten that, in 
case any serious danger menacing slavery should prove victorious, suffi- 
cient cause would have arisen to dissolve the Union. For a few veai"s 
preceding 18(30, the sentiment on both sides had become so bitter! and 



the North, and especiallj' the Republican party, had been so outspoken 
against slavery, that the South instinctively felt that the election of Mr. 
Lincoln meant serious interference with their favorite institution, if not 
the adoption of steps leading to its total and eventual abolition. The 
election of November, 1860, was scarcely over ere ordinances of seces- 
sion were passed, and preparations for war were made. During all this 
period, the excitement in Warren County was very great. Unfortunate- 
ly, the vote of November, 1860, cannot be given, as the election returns 
have been misplaced or destroyed. Of course the county went strongly 

In 1864, the contest was really upon the question of continuing the 
war. As the States in rebellion were out of the contest, the question 
was decided wholly by the Northern States. Lincoln's re-election de- 
veloped the fact that the country was in favor of continuing the war, and 
the struggle for supremacy was vigorously renewed. The election in 
Warren County, November, 1864. resulted as follows: 



Lincoln and 



McClellan aiid 


Mound (1) 






Mound (3) 

























The Presidential election of 1868 placed Gen. Grant at the head of 
the nation. The election returns in Warren County, like those of 1860, 
seem to have been misplaced. In 1872, Grant came up for re-election. 
The Republicans who opposed him united with the mass of the Demo- 
cracy, and placed Horace Greeley in the field. The Straight, or Bour- 
bon Democracy, nominated 0"Conor. Warren County voted as follows: 


Grant and 


Lib. Rep. 

Greeley and 


BouE. Dem. 

U'Conor and 
















Medina . 

Steuben . 










Soon after this election, the Greenback party was formed. Its origm 
was due to the hard times growing out of the depreciation of values at 
the close of the war. The party favored an abolition of National iianks, 
opposed refunding or re-issuing Government bonds except withm certai n 
limitations, and declared against a return to specie payments, 
tickets were placed in the field in November, 1S76, as will 
the following return for Warren County: 

be seen from 



Hayes and 


Tilden aad 


Co'tper and 





i i 



















Pine . 





The rapid strides of the country in prosperity, the successful return 
to a specie basis in 1879, and the conciliatory policy of President Hayes' 
administration were the means of carrying the election of November, 
ISSO, for the Republican party. In the meantime, however, the Green- 
back X'arty grew to respectable proportions, continuing to augment, even, 
for a tinDe after the return to a specie basis. A general reform of the 
civil service was demanded, and many particular evils were pointed out. 
The (.piestion of specie resumption was dropped, the National Banks 
were assailed with renewed vigor, and a strong sentiment hostile to cor- 
porations was developed in all parts of the country. The election in 
"Warren jrave the followintr retui-n: 



Gavfleld and 



Haneooli and 


Green HACK. 

^Veaver and 






































Thus it will be seen that Wtirren County has been, from the tirst 
either Whig or Republican, and that, too, by a majority which numerous 

It has frequently boon the 

disasters have been unable to overcome. 


case that numbers oi other parties have been elected to important posi- 
tions in the county, but this was due to the forbearance of the Eepubli- 
can party, owing to the recognized prominence and worth of the candi- 


In 1S07. the Pine Creek Grayel Road Company was organized, with 
a stock of 1,200 shares, of S25 each, the road to extend from the county 
seat northward on the Chicago road to the county line. The company 
afterward became the "Williamspm-t A: Carbcmdale Gravel Eoad Com- 
pany, with a stock of about 85,000. About three miles of the road was 
built, next to "Williamsport, and then further work was abandoned. S, 
B. Knour & Co, owned fifty-two shares and Kent & Hitcbens forty 
shares when the project was first undertaken. lu 1S69, the West Leb- 
anon A: AValnut Groyo Grayel Eoad Company was formed, the stock 
amounting to 820,000. with shares of S25 each. The route was to ex- 
tend du.e north, or nearly so, from the old town of Iiebanon eight and 
one-half miles. The heaviest stock-holders were C. J. Tinkler, twenty 
shares, and A. C. & F. Goodwine. twenty shares. A short portion of the 
road was completed. A company also organized to extend a road from 
Independence northward to the county line, and, like the others, was 
only partially completed. Sections of various public roads in the county 
have been graveled. The tendency now is to accomplish this excellent 
work at the public expense, and not through the efforts of a company. 
Warren County has abundant and excellent gravel beds. 

In 1850, the Independence & Oxford Plank Eoad Company was 
granted the right to put down plank on the Independence & Oxford pub- 
lic road. The company was large, and had a declared capital of over 
S20.000. Saw mills were erected, old ones were set at work and a num- 
ber of miles of plank were soon down, and travelers began to " ante up " 
to toll-keepers; but within a year the work was abandoned, as the sub- 
scribed stock could not be secured. Some of the old plank may yet be 


About eight years ago, there was organized at "Williamsport the 
Eeaper & Mower" Cutter Bar Manufacturing Company, with announced 
capital stock of §300,000, the principal stockholders being Daniel and 
Edward Bowlers. Martin Schoonover, S. F. Messner, E. AV. Smith, J, 
\V, Sutton, "William .Moflitt, E. W. Claypool, L. T. Miller and Alvin 
High. The company was formed to manufactui-e " Oxer's improvement 
in cutter bars and Oxer's improvement in harvest cutters," but nothing 
was accomplished, and the organization soon became a thing of the past, 
owing largely to the fact that the inventions of Mr. Oxer were not re- 
ceived with as much favor as had been expected. 


In May, 1S75, the Warren County Medical Society was organized, 
" any graduate in medicine of a respectable medical school, or licentiate 
of a"ny regularly organized medical society " being allowed to become a 
member. °Among the incorporators were A. M. Porter. W, N. Sherman, 
Justin Eoss, C. W. Osborn, J, G. Blanehard, J. De Hart, S. N. Osborn, 
and perhaps others. Many of the physicians in the county have since 
joined the society. Dr. Orin Aborn is President of the organization at 


this writing. The couuty phy.sicians at pre.sent are, Orin Aborn, O. D. 
Benson, E. K. Birch, T. B. Campbell, Jacob De Hart, J. Fleming, S. C. 
Fenton, C. H. Hoffman, A. J. McAdams, A. Y. Moore, J. W. McMullen, 
S. N. Osborn, C. W. Osborn, A. M. Porter, G. W. Higgle, Justin Boss, 
J. C. Stewart, J. C. Simpkins, E. J. Simpkins, T. H. Trent, W. B. 
Vick, B. H. Wicoff, James B. Webb and Walter E. Wilson. 


In Marcji, 1876, many of the farmers of Warren County, with head- 
quarters at Williamsport, organized the Warren County Co-operative 
Association, with a capital stock of S10,000. This movement was made 
by the Grangers, and was designed to effect the purchase of farm im- 
plements of all descriptions at much less than ordinary rates, by dealing 
directly with the manufactiirers, and thus doing away with " middle 
men." The organization was abandoned before any movement of note 
was made, but the Grangers — and there were many in the county — ac- 
complished a great deal of good, in a general manner, by example. 


Commissioners — The first Board of Justices, in lS2i, consisted of 
Lemuel Boyd. Thomas Kearns, Thomas Cunningham and Edward Mace. 
Levi Cronkhite began in 1828; Samuel Merrill, 1828; Jonathan Shippv, 
1828; Laurence Eains, 1828; Benjamin Chenoweth, 182'J; Daniel Mc- 
Connell, 1830. In November, 1830, the county management passed to 
three Commissioners — Josiah B. Magie, one year; Isaac Switzer, two 
years, and James Goodwine, three years. James McCord began in 1831; 
Isaac Switxer, 1832; James Goodwine, 1833; Luther Tillotson, 1833; 
Seth St. John, 1834; James Goodwine, 1830: Samuel Watkins, 1836; 
L. D. Osborn, 1837; Seth St. John, 1838; Nathaniel Buttertield, 1S39: 
Carpenter Morey, 1840; John Jones, 1841; Seth St. John, 1S41; John 
E. Stufllebeam," 1842; David Shankland, lS43; Ozias Deyo, 1844; 
Elijah Thomas, 1846; E. B. Tillotson, 1847; William Crow, 1848; 
Elijah Thomas, 1849; J. E. Johnson. 1851: Isaac Bowyer, 1852; Isaac 
Slauter, 1853; Sanford Payne, 1854; Sidney Cronkhite, June, 1856; 
Thomas J. Chenenweth, 1856: C. V. White, 1857; Alfred Fisher, 1858; 
T. J. Chenenweth, 1859; Elisha Eogers, 1860; David Moftitt, 1861; T. J. 
Chenenweth, 186)2; Elisha Eodgers, 1803; David Motlitt, 1864;' T. J. 
Chenenweth, 1865; W^illiam Haines, 1800; David Moffitl, 1867; L. E, 
Van Eeed, 186)8; Samuel \V. Frame. 1869; D. A. Messuer, 1S70'; Zimri 
Atkinson, 1870; Andrew Brier, 1871; S. M. Frame. 'l872;' Zimri 
Atkinson, 1873; Andrew Brier, 1874; S. M. Frame, 1875; Zimri Atkin- 
son, 1876); E. W. Alexander, 18(7; S. M. Frame, 1878; Z Atkinson 
1879; E. W. Alexander, 1880; George T. Buell, 1881; James I Barr' 

Clerks of the Circuit Court — James Cunningham, 1827-38; Thomas 
O'Neal, by api)ointment, A])ril, 1838; William Eobb, bv aiipoiutment 
1838; E. F. Lucas, 1838; William E. Bovor. 1841; H." E Pomerov' 
1856; William C. Smith, 1863; Fry Bryant, 1870; Henry C. Johnson^ 

Auditors— Prior to 1848, the business of this office was done bv the 
Clerk or Treasurer. ^\"altor B. Miller. 1848; Isaac S. Jones 1852 ■ 
James H. Bonebrake, I860; ^\'. H. Thomas. 1864; William :Nromtt ISOS' 
George Adams, 1S;6; A\'illiam Moffitt, 1881. ' " ' 


Recorders — James Cunningham, 1827; Thomas O'Neal, 1838; Henry 
J. Parker, 1841; William R. Boyer, 1845; Robert M. Allen, 1852; John 

B. Wright, 1856; William H. Thomas, I860; George Adams, 1864; J. 
D. Livingood, 1872; Thomas J. Graves, 1880. 

Sheriffs— William F. Beckett, 1827; John Seaman, 1829; William 
Robb, 1833; Aaron Stevenson, 1839; Nicholas Sheffer, 1841; Isaac 
Templeton, 1846; John P. Pugh, 1847; William Robb, appointed 1849; 
George Oglesby, 1849; George W. Armstrong, 1851; C. V. White, 
1853; Abram S. Jones, 1857; George Miner, 1861; W^illiam L. Hamil- 
ton, 1862; Samuel Clark, 1862; Henry C. Dawson, 1865; H. M. Bill- 
ings, 1867; Asa J. Fisher, 1868; Mahlon J. Haines, 1872; M. H. Pear- 
son, 1876; Joseph L. Stump, 1880-84, 

TreasTirers— Enoch Farmer, 1828 ($1,000 bond); John C. Irvin, 
1831; James Todd, 1832; James H. Buell, 1834: William B. Boyer, 
1838; B. F. Gregory, 1840; E. F. Lucas, 1842 ($15,000 bond); James 

C. McAlilly, 1844 (died in office, 1852); Samuel J. McAlilly, 1852; 
Benjamin F. Gregory, 1852; James H. Buell, 1855; Lewis Haines, 
1857; Samuel P. Messner, 1859; George Hitchens, 1863 ($100,000 
bond); Alvin High, 1867; Cyrus Romine, 1871; Samuel Bittinger, 
1875; Phillip Gemmer, 1879. ' 

Agents of three per cent fund — James H. Buell, 1831: Nicholas 
Sheffer, 1832; B. F. Gregory, 1838; E. F. Lucas, 1839; Benjamin 
Crow, 1840. 

Surveyors — Perrin Kent, 1828; Ferdinand Woodward, 1852; Isaac 
N. Taylor, 1862; Ferdinand Woodward, 1866; Thomas J. Webb, 1872; 
John L. Trimble. 1874; Samuel Smith, 1878. 

Circuit Court -Judges — John R. Porter, 1828; Isaac Naylor, 1838; 
William P. Bryant, 1853; John M. Cowan, 1802; Thomas F. Davidson, 
1870; Joseph M. Rabb, 1882. 

Probate Judges — William Willmeth served in 1828; John B. King, 
1836; Edward Mace, 1840; Peter Schoonover^ 1846. In 1852, the 
CommoQ Pleas Cimrt assumed jurisdiction of probate matters. 

Common Pleas Judges — This court was created in 1852. Daniel 
Mills served as Judge in 1853; William R. Boyer, 1856; Isaac Naylor, 
1861; James Park, 1867; John M. La Rue, 1867. In 1873, the Com- 
mon Pleas Court was abolished, the Circuit Court assuming exclusive 

School Commissioners or Superintendents — Daniel R. Parker, 1828; 
James J. McAlilly, 1831; James Todd, 1837; .JohnB. Harris, 1837; Wesley 
Clark, 1840, resigned 1845; B. F. Gregory, 1845; J. R, M. Bryant, J. H. 
Buell andE. S. Thomas, three "Examiners," appointed 1847 ; B. F. Greg- 
ory, 1848; James J. McAlilly, 1849; J. O. Wade, B. H. Boyd and Sanford 
Payne, 1853; Amos Jones,'j. O. Wade and Andrew M. Shepard, 1854; 
Delos Warren, J. O. Wade and Joseph Franklin, 1855-56; * * * 
William P. Rhodes, 1860: M. T. Case, 1866; John L. Boyd, 1868; 
James W. McMullen, 1869; Henry Rittenour, 1871; C. M. Parks, first 
"County Superintendent," 1873; Alonzo Nebaker, 1875; John Bow- 
man, 1877; Alonzo Nebaker, 1881. 

Coroners— William Search, 1829; J. R. Coffin, 1832; Charles Mc- 
Alister, 1836; Samuel Campbell, 1840; * * * Josiah Tharp. 1851; 
Aaron Lesley, 1853; John Cox, 1855; E. A. Sanders, 1863; Phillip W. 
Lewis, 1863; Isaiah P. Ross, 1872; John Jordan, 1874; P. W. Lewis, 


Associate Judges— Nathaniel Butterfield and Samuel B. ClaA, 1828; 
Isaac Rains, 1831; James Crawford and David McConnell. 1833: Hugh 
M. King, 1834; Thomas Collins, 1830; Levi Jennings, 1840; A\ illiam 
Coldren, 1840; Eleazur Purvianee, 1845; Josiah Tharp, 1847; Silas 
Hooker, 1847; Peter Schoonover, 1851. The office was abolished m 

County Agents— Luther Tillotson, 182/; Holder Sisson, 1828; Isaac 
Eains, 1828; J. J. McAlilly, 1829; Samuel B. Clark, 1830: Charles 
Barkshire, 1830; Lemuel W." Joiner, 1839; Benjamin Crow. 184G: Elisha 
Hitchens, 1848. There were many others, but t|ieir names cannot be 
learned with certainty. 


The alteration, during the years since the organization of the county, 
in the receipts and expenditures necessary to carry on public aflairs, 
affords a fruitful theme for contemplation. The county began without 
money by issuing " county orders," which passed about as currently as 
the paper money of that period. They bore no interest, were transferrable 
at will and were placed upon the market at a discount of from 1 to 8 
cents on the dollar. In their passage from hand to hand, a further de- 
preciation of value took place. The tirst order paid by the county of 
^Varren was $28, early in 1828, to James Page, one of the Commission- 
ers to locate the county seat: Xo. 2 was for S32, to George Hullings- 
worth, for the same service; No. 3 was for §15, to Luther Tillotson. for 
services as Sheriff; No. 4 was for §12.02. to Holder Sisson, Deputy 
Sheriff: No. 5 was for 2.50, to Andrew Fleming. Deputy Sheriff. A total 
of twenty-eight orders was issued in 1S2S, aggregating §377.3 li^. The 
cash receipts for the same period (the year 1828) were §185. 43|: orders 
received at the Treasiuy and canceled, §174.25, leaving a cash balance 
in the Treasury of §11.1S|, with orders still in circulation, §203.06^. 
The tax assessed for thii year (1828) was as follows: Poll tax, 37^ 
cents; hoi'se, mule or ass, 371 cents; stallion, once the season rate; ox, 
12i cents; silver or pinchbeck watch, 25 cents; gold watch, §1: brass 
clock, §1; pleasure carriage, §1.5(V, 100 acres of first-class land, 50 cents; 
100 acres of second-class land. 40 cents; 100 acres of third class land, 
30 cents. A portion of tlie receipts was from the sale of town lots, and 
another considerable portion was from store and tavern licenses. A 
small ex])euse had been incurred in 1827, and the total expense of the 
county for the years 1827 and 1828 was §392. 81-^: truly a wonderful 
amount for the entire expense of Warren County for nearly a year and 
a half. During this entire period, §11.93^ had been received "for town 
lots; 75 cents had been paid for whisky,* furnished on the day of r.he 
sale of the lots; county orders of §10.25 had been received as license to 
vend merchandise; and county orders of §1(U had been received in pay- 
ment of county revenue. 

In 1829, county orders of §353 were issued, of which §190.93 .\ worth 
were paid off. Up to January, 1830, fifty-six orders had been "issued, 
amounting to §55(5, 00.\. Of these, §220.G8,J worth had been liquidated! 

« A i.ul.lir sail, nf Inlswilhoul wliisky was a.lnll all'air.and was sraivolv I'vor soon U was woU- 
kiM.u,, lo all Ihal ir whisky ,vns iVor a„,l ahu n.lani , I ho hi,l,lin>; was nu.oh Uvol .I,- a, , hi j or ml ha 
-"-■ ":-'"l;l :,"-" '-11' '.' '•>;"'" ""'1... ou.lay >„ ll,o ,M-oa,or ,„„nl,or un.l h\,h p I'o , V lol, o' 

;.|;;;o:;iin;^:anXart;J:r^ ko,s„r.hohi,Mo.s,asso,„hioaia,.,oo :isM.,i';;ii;:;'^;::oo: 


This M-as considered, 
at the time, a hea\'y indebtedness, and perplexed the Commissioners to no 
small extent. In 1S30, orders to the amount of §342.181 were issued, 
increasing the debt to S677.56i; but $625.95 worth were liquidated, 
leaving the debt, on the 1st of January, 1831. S51.C)1J. In 1S31, orders 
to the amount of 81,084: 80^ were issued, increasing the debt to SI. 136.- 
41^: bnt during the same time, 81,064. 52i of orders were canceled, leav- 
ing the debt, on the 1st of January, 1832^ 871. 89^, By May, 1833, 256 
orders had been issued. 

On the 6th of Xovember, 1837, there was on hand 8416.22. During 
the year ending Xovember 6, 1838, there was received 83,091.16; the 
expenses were 82,006.73, leaving a balance in the Treasury of 81,501.10. 
At last the county was on a firm financial foundation. At the begin- 
ning of the year ending June. 1843. there was on hand 8954, 23; received 
dmlng the year, 83,629.83; expenses, 83,659.50; balance on hand, 
81.024.56. For the year ending May 31, 1848, on hand, 82.S97.75; 
receipts, 86,378.16; expenses, 86,786.67; on hand, end of year, 82,389,- 
24. Among the receipts were merchants' license, 862.47; peddlers, 
license, 810; clock sellers' license, 813; grocery license, 845; ferry 
license, $19. Among the expenses were officers' salaries, $839.80; 
paupers' account, $495.43. For the year ending May, 1850, the receipts 
from merchants', grocers' and peddlers' licenses were $154.87; an impor- 
tant force of revenue. The receipts in 1856 were $17,517.58. This sum 
included about $2,500 which remained in the Treasury from the previous 
year. The expense was $15,151.37; leaving a balance of 82,376.21. 
For the year ending May 31, 1859, the county receipts were $24,771.32; 
expenses. $24,561.40. For the year ending May 31, 1862, there was on 
hand at the beginning 83,438.07; receipts, $25,684.21; expenses, $19,- 
995.99; balance on hand, $9,126.29; officers' salaries, $2,713.54. For 
the year ending May 31. 1870, there was on hand at the commencement 
of the year, $24,377.29; receipts, $90,584.85; expenses, 882,580.63; 
balance "on hand, 832,381.51: orders outstanding, $9,530.70; county 
officers' salaries during the year, 86,078.51; bridge expenses, $10,373.- 
68. Before the war, the county's financial condition was comparatively 
dormant; but the demands for bounty and relief became so great, that 
heavier assessments were levied, and the Treasm-er's report showed much 
larger amounts collected and expended. For the year ending June, 
1874, the total receipts, including what was left over, were $91,804.88, 
and the expenditures were 864,967.35; the county officers cost 85,118.84; 
the geological survey of the county, 8638.50; the poor, 83.714.98. and 
fox 'scalps, $154.50. In June, 1S"78, the receipts were $42,045.59 on 
hand at the beginning of the year, and $107.7 1 8. 84 collected, giving a 
total of $149,824.43; the expense was $99,726.52; the county officers 
cost 85,091.28 

The following is a full statement of the receipts and expenditui-es of 
^an-en County, Ind., for the year ending May 31, 1882: 





County Revenue : |14,o63 41 

Township Revenue I 3,510 93 

Road Revenue ! 3,087 59 

Special School Revenue 6,595 38 

Dog Revenue 923 79 

Common School Revenue 5,259 19 

Tuition Revenue ■ 6,780 10 

Corporation Revenue 172 59 

Additional Special School Revenue 

Redemptions : 131 n 

Refunders — " Taxes Refunded " 

Estray Fund 15 23 

Docket Fees 

Three Per Cent Fund .'.'.', 

Railroad Tax 2,192 75 

Common School Principal , 80 66 

Common School Interest 

Town 22, Range 8. principal 

Town 21, Range 8, principal 

Town 23, Range 6, principal 

Town 22, Range 7, principal 470 r; 

Town 20, Range 9, principal 45 97 

To-svn 20, Range 10, principal 68 11 

Town 23, Range 7, principal , i-U iQ 

Town 22, Range 9, principal 

Town 21, Range 9, principal 5il(i (in ' 

Town 21, Range 10, principal /_ 

Town 23, Range 8, principal 

Town 22, Range Id, principal ' . . . ' 

§24,060 57 
3,377 22 
9,583 36 
7,283 94 

917 83 

11,84.5 36 

8,664 80 

1,093 63 

1,358 67 

880 06 

$38,623 98 

6,888 15 

12,670 95 

13,879 32 

1,841 62 

17,104 .55 

15,444 90 

1,266 22 

1,858 67 

1,011 17 

17 00 

32 23 

54 00 

54 00 

56 78 

56 78 

869 56 

3,062 31 

2,511 75 

2.592 41 

1,472 10 

1.472 10 

461 10 

461 10 

87 85 

87 85 

752 38 

752 38 

470 77 

46 89 

92 86 

68 11 

60 6i 

204 47 

466 00 

9. principal 
8, interest . 

8, interest . 

6, interest . 

7. interest . 

9, interest . 

Town 23, Range 
Town 22. Range 
Town 21, Range 
Town 23, Range 
Town 22, Range 
Town 20, Range 
Town 20, Range 10. interest 

Town 23, Range 7, interest 

Town 22, Range 9. interest 

Town 21, Range 9, interest 

Town 21, Range 10, interest 

Town 23, Range 8, interest 

Town 22, Range 1(1, interest . 

Town 23, Range 9. interest 

Town 22, Range 6, interest .. . 
Town 22, Range 10, reiits. 

Town 23. Range 10, reiits 

Town 21. Range 10, surplus principal 


Common School Rents 

1.475 no 

46 82 

15 79 

147 33 

253 42 

103 56 

122 60 

184 49 

6 56 

134 50 

147 50 

38 71) 

163 70 

827 29 

378 90 

300 no 

34 00' 

3,690 00 

2.118 75 

126 25 

67 46 
111 87 
305 30 

92 38 

32 53 
155 47 

15 96 
107 70 
283 13 

64 46 

856 69 

1.127 82 

55 04 


437 63 

^^-j 40 'oo' 

148,922 20 §85,609 30 

500 00 
466 00 

3,690 00 

3.593 75 

173 07 

83 25 

259 20 

558 73 

,195 94 

155 13 

339 96 

22 52 

242 20 

430 63 

103 16 

1,020 39 

1.955 11 

55 04 

378 90 

300 00 

437 63 

34 00 

40 00 

1134,531 50 




Amouut Amount ^^ , , 

Overpaid Overpaid J^^Pi?"ded 
May 31, 1SS2 .June 1,1881. During 

Balauee in 
Year. Treasurv. 

Countj' Revenue 

Township Revenue 

Road Revenue 

Special School Revenue 

Dog Revenue 

Common School Revenue 

Tuition Revenue 

Corporation Revenue 

Additional Special Schpol Revenue. 


Refunders — " Taxes Refunded ". . . . 

Estray Fund 

Docket Fees 

Three Per Cent Fund 

Railroad Tax 

Common School Principal 

Common School Interest 

Town 2i, Range 8. principal 

Town '31. Range S. principal 

Town 23. Range 6, principal 

Town 22, Range 7, principal 

Town 20, Range 9, principal 

Town 20. Range 10, principal 

Town 23, Range T, priucipial 

Town 32, Range 9, principal 

Town 21, Range 9, principal 

Town 21, Range 10, principal ; 474 00 

Town 23, Range 8, principal j 

Town 22, Range 10, principal ! 235 00 

Town 23, Range 9, principal 

Town 22. Range 8, interest 

8, interest 

6, interest 

7, interest 

9, interest 

Range 10, interest 

Range 7, interest 

Range 9, interest 

Range 9, interest 

Range 10, interest 

Range 8, interest 

Range 10, interest 

9, interest 

6. interest 

§148 51 $148 51 

$20,801 84 
4.199 58 

10,661 es 

9,007 99 
791 52 
11,883 88 
11,079 66 
666 65 
636 13 
870 71 

73 38 

Town 21. Range 
Town 23, Range 
Town 22. Range 
Town 20, Range 
Town 20^ 
Town 23, 
Town 22, 
Town 21, 
Town 21, 
Town 23, 
Town 22, 
Town 23, Range 
Town 22, Range 

Town 22, Range 10, rents 

Town 23, Range 10, rents 

Town 21, Range 10, surplus principal. 


Common School Rents 

§11,823 14 

3,688 57 

2,009 27 

4,871 33 

1,050 10 

5,221 17 

4,365 24 

599 57 

722 54 

140 46 

15 23 
54 00 

2,192 75 
2,440 00 

460 00 

87 85 

679 05 

450 00 

91 94 

500 00 
940 00 

3,915 00 
3,150 00 

30 09 
245 96 
236 77 
164 97 
1.55 13 
305 55 

152 49 

259 18 

64 46 

1,361 08 

437 63 
34 00 

17 00 

56 78 

869 56 

153 41 

1.473 10 

1 10 

20 77 


68 11 

204 47 

443 75 

173 07 

53 17 

13 24 

321 95 

30 97 

" "34'4i 
22 52 
89 71 

171 45 

38 70 

1.030 39 

694 03 
55 04 

878 90 

300 00 

40 00 

Totals $847 51 

Deduct amounts overdrawn ; 

$331 84 i=;94,933 37 $40,334 90 
847 51 

Balance in Treasmy, provided all 

orders were redeemed 

Add outstanding orders 

, $39,387 39 
3,135 36 

Actual balance in Treasury. 





On account of assessing S 1,.346 00 

On account of attorneys 30 00 

On account of bailiffs '-•'^0 50 

On account of books and stationer}' I,i69 10 

<^n account of blind at blind asj'lum _ T.5 

On account of bridges ^'Z^- ^^ 

On account of count}' officers' salaries 3. .572 33 

On account of criminals 4^9 '^o 

On account of Circuit Court Si'24 70 

On account of elections 98 40 

On account of equalization of assessments 20 00 

On account of fuel 288 85 

On account of inquests 84 70 

On account of insane 318 .59 

On account of jurors 1.394 So 

On account of poor 5,468 65 

On account of poor farm 1,458 01 

On account of printing 509 35 

On account of public buildings 940 08 

On account of returning fines 17 00 

On account of roads and highways 816 35 

On account of County Superintendent's salary l.OOi 20 

On account of teachers' institute " 50 00 

On account of war — " tombstones for soldiers " 54 00 

On account of fox scalps 153 00 

On accouiit of wolf sculps 23 00 

On account of special judges 70 00 

On account of insurance ." 920 00 

On account of ditch 3ii 00 

Total . 

.S26.8ol 84 


Philip Gemmer, Treasurer. 

R. W. Alexander. 
Geokoe T. Bell. 
James I. Bark, 




o i . 



i . 

, _. 





« = a 



-^ r ~ 




i = s 



f"" h^ 






' >=: 





6 7r.ii 



SI, 400 











770, ',(0.-. 


.Mound . 















.'i 1.7 10 
71. r.v. 






Aanins .. 

^ ,1.'-, 

, 0-l,,l,l,T 

.Inrdiin .. 





107 (r'5 

7. HI 

5S((. 415 



>ovl .. 







I'riiii'iL' .. 








■J, IS.'. 












Total ., 





! 1,355 









5 - 





K < 

> t- 







c ^ 

S570 38 

765 02 
433 53 

1,037 46 
523 72 
56S 93 

766 26 
93D 65 
704 64 
759 48 
423 48 
937 64 
299 62 
19.3 08 

63 10 

? 89 23 

113 25 

66 42 

154 08 

79 87 

84 32 

107 12 

141 19 

104 94 

110 08 

57 91 

143 10 

43 18 

24 68 

7 93 

E 748 84 
991 53 
566 3S 
1,343 61 
683 47 
733 o7 
980 50 

1.242 03 
914 52 
991 65 
339 31 

1.243 85 
386 00 
244 43 

83 97 

Sl,631 64 

2,152 94 

1,232 39 

2,9i2 34 

1,486 73 

1,597 63 

2,121 70 

2,695 8:3 

1,986 44 

2,157 42 

1,166 50 

2,702 39 

836 78 

325 S8 

179 85 

$1,2.55 46 
1,757 68 

638 17 
1,992 77 

976 71 
1,087 22 
1,833 08 
2,214 89 
1,349 40 
1,296 74 

?S49 40 
232 11 

1,309 66 
399 36 

1,084 50 
803 45 
917 75 
787 05 
495 82 
434 35 

1,717 28 
215 93 
270 28 
218 83 

?4,295 55 
7,974 98 


§169 88 
166 05 
231 12 

199 68 

200 80 

«1,175 28 
498 17 


3,933 22 
8,993 04 


683 47 

1,0.54 00 

964 14 

1,058 93 

824 55 

343 24 

434 33 

1,073 30 

539 84 

232 09 

119 00 

5,033 01 


6,420 97 


7 576 '^5 

141 19 
767 05 
290 21 

9,371 46 

7,458 59 

6,455 64 


5,775 01 

214 66 
323 90 

2,184 84 
593 88 

10,237 06 


3,239 13 

West Lebanon 

Star Line City 

1,862 63 

836 35 


9,030 99 

1,333 30 

11,697 66 

25,393 46 

2,734 54 

[ 9,005 36 

17,180 84 

9,835 77 

89,462 89 

\'OTE — Additional special school tax— Willlamsport, $1,523.84 ; West Lebanon, S370.19 ; State Line 
City, ■;39.67. Corporation tax— Williamsport, 51,196.27 ; State Line Citj", S119. Total delinquent tax, 




THE life of this defunct village was very short. It was laid out by 
the County Agent.Luther Tillotson, early in ,July,lS28, on a tract 
of land which had been donated to the county by a Mr. Hollingsworth, 
in consideration that the county seat should be located there. It ap- 
pears that Enoch Farmer had some interest in the land, or at least in 
land that had been donated by him to the county. Seven full blocks of 
eight lots each, and a public "scjuare of one and eight tenths acres, and 
four half blocks, each containing four lots, were laid out on the east 
fraction of the southwest quarter of Section 31, Township 22 north, 
Eano-e 7 west. Perrin Kent was surveyor and was assisted by Luther 
Tillotson, John Whelchel, Francis Boggs and Job Tevebaugh. Enoch 
Farmer boarded the men and also assisted in the survey. It was in 
Mav, 1828, that the Board of Justices ordered the survey and at 
the' same time thev ordered that on the 5th of August, 1828, a 
certain portion of the county lots should be sold at public auc- 
tion, one-fourth of the purchase money to be paid in advance and the 
remainder in three semi-annual installments. This sale took place as 
advertised, and free whisky was furnished for the occasion, at the coun- 
ty's expense, probably to loosen the tongue of the auctioneer or " crier " 
and the generositv of the buyers. Lots sold for from $10 to $20, ac- 
cording to the location. The cash receipts of the sale were $1L93|. 
Francis Boggs was paid 75 cents for whisky furnished. If any baild- 
inos were erected in' Warrenton, such fact could not be learned. David 


Moffit says there were none. In January, the act was approved re-locat- 
ing the county seat, which proved the death kiiell of Warrenton and 
stopped every improvement, if any had been commenced. The provis- 
ions of this act may be seen in another chapter. One was that men who 
had purchased lots should be permitted to transfer their claim to lots 
similarly situated in the new county seat. Several availed themselves of 
this provision. Farmer, Hollino^sworth, and others who had donated 
land, money, or other property, or service in consideration of having the 
county seat located at Warrenton. were released from all such obliga- 


In November, 182S, William Harrison, owner and proprietor, em- 
ployed Perrin Kent, surveyor, and laid out Williamsport on the south 
end of the east fraction of the northeast quarter of Section 11, Township 
21 north. Range 8 west. Fom- blocks of eight lots each were laid out, 
the streets extending back from the river being Water. Second and 
Third, while in the center, extending southeast and northwest, was 
Main, and on the northeast. Warren. The town is said to have been 
named for the owner, William Harrison, by annexing " port " to the 
given name in the possessive case — William's port, or Williamsport. 
The re-location of the county seat did not take place until June, 1829, 
and before this and after the news was received that a re-location had 
been ordered, but little improvement took place, owing to the uncertainty 
of the place to be selected b_v the Ee-locating Commissioners. Harrison. 
Seaman, Gilbert, aad perhaps others, made valuable donations to secure 
the county seat. William Harrison was no doubt the lirst resident of 
the town. About the time he laid out the first lots (November. 1828), 
he built a log dwelling on the bank of the river at the foot of Main 
street, where he began selling whisky and a few notions. p>aying a li- 
cense of $5 per annum. He also obtained a horse ferry-boat, which he 
began running aerciss the river to and from hi? " port," and which he 
conducted several years. Mr. Harrison donated 810 toward the payment 
of the Ee-locating Commissioners, which amotint was paid in Julv, 
18211, but was refunded a few years later. The tirst addition was laid out by 
Thomas Gilbert, owner, in July, 1829, at which time four blocks of eio-lit 
lots each and one half block of four lots, were laid out on the southwest 
side of the original plat along the Wabash Eiver. The addition shows the 
same streets running back from the river as the original plat, but run- 
ning southwest are Washington and Jefl'erson streets. Perrin Kent was 
Surveyor. Esudy in August, 1829. Isaac Raius, County .Vgeut. laid out 
the celebrated " West Addition " to Williamsport, on laud that had been 
donated to the county by Mr Harrison. Twelve blocks of eight lots 
each, including a public square, were surveyed northwest of the original 
plat, and back farther from the river. This afterward became thelnisi- 
nesa portion of the town, the stores and other business houses being 
mostly on the southeast side of the square and along Main street. Pei-'- 
riu Kent was surveyor, and William Russell, John Seamau, William 
Search, James Watson, and John Regan assisted him. On the tUh of 
August, 1829, occurred the tirst public sale of lots in the uc^w county 
seat. John Seaman was the " crier '■ of the sale. The foUowim^ men 
were the purchasers: Sylvester Stone, Benjamin Cheueweth, "^ Isaac 
Martin, Samuel Rogers, E. W. Jones, Henrv Boston, Elijah \^4xim 


William Hanon, Jennings, Levi Cronkliite, Samuel Connaway, 

James Cunningham, William Pugli and John Marlott. The total foot- 
ings of the sale were $635.38*. Onlj two or three of these men lived in 
Willi amsport. Other sales were ordered from time to time as the needs 
demanded. Thomas Gilbert laid out a continuation of his South Addi- 
tion in June, 1831, and in October, 1831, Thomas B. Clark, County 
Agent, laid out the Northeast Addition. Soon afterward, a continuation 
of the West Addition was also laid out. In May, 1832. Thomas Gilbert 
had surveyed another addition, and in March, 1836, the County Agent 
added about sixty new lots from the donated lands. A public sale of 
county lots occuiTed about once each year, and whisky was invariably 
furnished at the expense of the county, pursuant to an order from the 
County Board. 

Merchants and Mechanics. — Isaac Martin sold the first dry goods 
in Williamsport. He was licensed to " vend foreign and domestic mer- 
chandise" in July, 1829, paying ^10 for his license for one year. His 
stock of goods was worth about |600. At the same time, William Har- 
rison renewed his license to retail spirituous liquors. Martin did not re- 
main more than two years, and might have left at the end of about a 
year. His stay was so short that but few reinember him at all. It is 
possible that no other families located in town until the following year, 
and even then not more than half a dozen came in. If any others came 
in 1829, one must have been James Cunningham, who officiated in a 
multiplicity of county transactions, and was a sort of sun around which 
lesser satellites revolved. William Search was probably the next resi- 
dent. Or it may be that he came about the time Cunningham came, as 
the office of the latter was a portion of the time, at least, in his house. 
Harrison kept a tavern, and in addition to liquor sold from a small stock 
of groceries. Search also kept a boarding house. Cunningham quite 
early began to buy corn for shipment on tiat-boats down the river to New 
Orleans. He employed a C(5nsiclerable portion of his time in this manner 
and employed a young man named Sanford C. Cox, who was one of the first 
school teachers in Williamsport, to write on the county records. Cunning- 
ham constructed his own fiat-boats, bought enough corn to load them and 
then sent them down the river to New Orleans, usually, where boat and cargo 
were sold. Dr. J. H.BueH was the first resident physician, and became one 
of the county's most promiLent and honored citizens. Thomas Gilbert, 
William Harrington, Cyrus Pearson, Joel James, William Covington, 
Thomas Kobb, Samuel Ullery, "Wildcat" Wilson and Eussell were 
among the residents of the few earliest years. Thomas Gilbert began 
selling liquors and "foreign and domestic" groceries about the middle of 
the year 1831. His stock was worth less than 1500. About the same 
time, Samuel Ullery opened the same kind of an establishment. It was 
an almost every-day sight to see Indians passing through the town and 
stepping at the liquor shops for whisky, tobacco, etc. It was the com- 
monest sight to see deer feeding in herds near the town or cropping the 
twigs or grass near glades or clumps of bushes. The winter of 1831-32 
was very severe on all wild animals, as, early in the season, a deep 
snow came, which lay on the ground all winter. A heavy crust was 
formed on the surface, through which deer broke, but which sustained 
the weight of man. Hundreds of deer were killed on the bottoms and 
near the town, often with clubs, for they could not run. On more than 


one occasion the poor, half-starved creatures came timidly into stable- 
yards to feed with domestic cattle. 

During- the winter of 183 1-32, there were about twelve families re- 
siding in the county seat. The names of all cannot be given. After 
that, the population rapidly increased. In 1832, Samuel Hardestie 
opened a store of wet and dry groceries, and the following year Cyrus 
Pearson brought in an excellent stock of general merchandise. It may 
be that Harrison did not open his tavern until 1832 or 1S33. (^ourtlandt 
Lawson began with foreign and domestic groceries in 1834. Henry 
Lowrey was selling merchandise as early as 1833. his license being .SIO. 
Merchants, tavern-keepers, ferrymen, clock peddlers, etc., were obliged 
in those days to pay a license. Lawyers and doctors were placed in the 
same category. It w^as thought very sensibly then that pursuits that 
would furnish comfortable incomes should be placed on the same basis 
of taxation as land or personal property, and. accordingly almost every 
profession or pursuit was taxed what seemed a proportionate amount. 
Silver and gold watches, and other valuable jewelry or ornaments, were lev- 
ied iipon to assist in paying public expenses. These various direct tax- 
atiouM were one of the most important sources of county revenue, that 
would have been difficult to supply had they been omitted. "William 
H. Covington opened a store of general merchandise in 1834, and Jos- 
eph ilcMurter commenced selling liquor and groceries the followino- 
spring. Harrison was yet kee]iing tavern and conducting the hoi'se 
ferry across the river. McDonald & Hayues began merchandisino- later 
in the year of 1835, as did C. M. Thomas. James Todd & Co., and, per- 
haps, others. -John F. Irwin, John E. Hai-ris. Berkshire \- Joiner, J. L. 
Johnson, Hayes & Dickson. Milby A: Boyer. and. perhaps, others, bec^an 
business in some branch of merchandising during the vear 1830. Of 
course, all mentioned above were not yet in business. Some had left the 
county never to return; others had engaged in diflerent piu'suits. while 
a few yet held forth at their old places of business. The town had 
grown quite rapidly up to this period, and now consisted of about twenty- 
tive families. There were blacksmiths, carpenters and the usual number 
of mechanics, artisans and idlers. The town had a flourishing school, 
and various religious organizations had been represented by pioneer 
ministers. Lawyers and doctors had begun to cut quite a tio-iure and the 
portly figure and imposing dignity of a Judge of the Circuit Com-t had 
became a periodical and expected sight. The old horse-ferry, which was 
operated by Israel Canby, was kept busy transferring teams of new set- 
tlers across the river. A few hogs were bought, and, after bein^^ packed 
were shij.ped down the river, usually on tlat-boats. but often on f'l-ei-'ht or 
keel-boats or barges. Grain had begun to tiud a steady market. Money 
was scarce. Merchants received but little, and were generally oblio-ed to 
take some farm production for goods. The productions were tiieu shipped 
to distant markets, and the proceeds were used in replenishing- the 
supply of goods. Commercial transactions were effected bv exch'Uio-es 
and even balances were left for time to settle iu the same manner" 
\\ ihamsport was a thriving little town. 

Moses Cox opened a tavern iu 1830, and Hiram ^Vilkinson n --nloou 
at the same time. In 1837. Stei^hon Schoouover and Daniel Cristmnu 
were selling merchandise in the village. The date when the first 
oQice was established at ^\-illiamsport cannot be detiuitelv ascertained 


but was prior to 183G, as at that time G. W. King was liandlino- the 
mails of Uncle Sam, His duties were not burdensome, and not more 
than a dozen assistants or deputies were required. D. Jennings & Go. 
and "William Eobb & Co. began selling from a general stock in 1838. 
H^nes & Dickson, Samuel Harris, J. L. Jtihnson, McDonald & Haynes, 
Stephen Sohoonover, Robert Pearson, Charles Berkshire, Henry Lowery 
and others were yet in business. Morris Watkins began making wagons 
about this time or soon afterward, and Francis M. Dowler conducted a 
cabinet shop, where many chairs were manufactured. Thomas Thomas 
was also in the cabinet business before this period. He made coifins for 
several paupers who had died, and was paid from the county funds. 
One of these paupers was James Foreman. Aaron Stephenson was man- 
ufacturing chairs as early as 1837, In 1838, he was paid §18 for two 
dozen chairs for the court house. G. W. King, Schoonover & Berkshire, 
McAlilly & Joiner and Robert Pearson were selling goods in 1839 and 
184:0. If the stock of goods exceeded 81,000 in value, the license was 
raised above §10. Pearson, Haynes & Dickson, McAlilly & Joiner and 
Schoonover & Berkshire paid each from §25 to §37 license. The heav- 
iest stock of goods then ran up to nearly §1,000, At this time (1840), * 
the town had an estimated population of about 250. 

The principal business men early in the '40's were James Stewart, G-. 
TV. & M, King, Haynes & Dickson. King & Treadway, Schoonover & 
Berkshire, McAlilly & Joiner, McDonald & Spears, ColDlinson & Klean, 
Ebenezer King, J. L, Johnson, William Cessna, King & Dewalt, Stephen 
Cessna, and in 1848 Samuel F. and W. Messner, Dimmick & Allen, 
Kent & Hitchens and Cessna & Miller were also in business during the 
'40b. The town had grown from a population of about 250 in 1840, to 
about 350 in 1850. The grain trade and the pork-packing had grown 
to much larger proportions, as in 1847 the canal boats had begun to run 
on the other side of the river; but although the buyers lived in Will- 
iamsport and in many instances bought grain there, the warehouses were 
in Attica and other places on the canal, and the trade of Williamsport 
was much smaller in comparison than any place on the canal which had 
the great advantage of easy shipment. This was early seen by the citi- 
zens to be a serious drawback to the growth of the town, and as early as 
1848, the subject of having a side-citt canal was broached. The citizens 
were all anxious to have the side cut, but the cost would be enormous, 
and it was several years before all were worked up to the pitch of sub- 
stantial help. In 1849 or 1850, a subscription paper was started to raise 
the necessaiy funds to carry the scheme into effect, and William Kent 
headed the list with §1,000. and many others followed with amounts up 
in the hundreds, and the lists were circulated in the country and sub- 
scribed to liberally by the famiers in the vicinity of the county seat and 
by others in more distant portions of the county who would be benefited 
by the side cut at TYilliamsport. It took a year or more to raise the 
amount which an experienced engineer had stated would be necessary to 
complete the work. The contract of digging the cut was given to a man 
named Barcus. The entire cost of construction was about §16,000; but 
when the work was finished and boats began to run up and down the out 
to and from the warehouses, Williamsport received the greatest " boom" in 
all her history. Every branch of business was greatly augmented, and 
the builders of the out were more than repaid for their outlay. This in- 


crease began in about 1851. Among the business "finns early in the "oO's 
were Havnes & Dickson, Wan-en, Kegar & Co., B. H. Boyd & Co.. ^ark 
& Claypool, Kent & Kitchens, Allen & Bay, Cessna & Warren, McAlilly 
& Son, Bush & Templeton, Hanlev & Haynes, Cessna & Miller, Hayes & 
Landon, James Thomas, Sturgeon & Landon and others, or the same under 
different combinations. In the spring of 1853, the town had six dry 
goods stores, one clothing store, one drug store, one hardware store, 
three grocery and provision stores, three large warehouses, a steam mill, 
a newspaper, and numerous mechanics and manufacturers. 

Tnder the activity and prosperity created by the side-cut canal. -steps 
were taken in March, 1854, to incorporate the town. A petition signed 
by J. E. M. Bryant, Samuel Sturgeon and fifty-seven others was presented 
to the County Board, praying for the incorporation. The question was 
submitted to the voters as required by law, and carried by a majority of 
forty-two votes, there being a total of fifty-two votes polled on the 
question. The population of the town at the time the petition was 
being signed the 8th and 9th of February, 1S54, was as follows, 
the figures after each name being the total number of persons, rela- 
tives or (jthers. in the family: J. R. M, Bryant, 7: John \V. Dick- 
son, 7; Samuel Sturgeon, 5; E. A. Chandler, 7: W. M. Haynes. 5; 
Isaac N. Dickson, 3; John Cos, "2; Eobert M. Allen. 6; James 
Thomas, 4; Peier Dimmick, 2; Ai'chibald Shockley, 6; William Kent. 4; 
Elisha Kitchens, 9; B. F Boyd, 6; Stephen Cessna, 4: Francis Kail, 
6, Jacob Feld, 7; Leonard Eowland, 2; Washington Wynn, 2; Samuel 
Landon, 4; Lewis Haynes, 5; Jacob Farris. 5: Eobert Pearson. 7; G. 
K. Norduft, 10; Mrs. Eussell, 3; Enos Canutt, S: Isaac Jones. 3; 
James Jones, 4; John Shafer, 4; H. J. Parker, 6; William Hopkins. 5: 
Morris Watkins, 3; George Livingood, 5: B. F. Gregory. 5: K. K. 
Pomeroy, 4; Henry Eegar, 7; Mrs. Schoonover, tl; Mrs. Stephens. 1; 
Mrs. Swingler, 3; Peter Mahn, 7; John Shode, 5; Isaac Swartz, 3; John 
Long, 6; Jacob Eay, 3; T. W. Swigart, 2; Miles Jones, 3: J. G. 
Whitehead, 4; Dr. Fennimore, 7; Perry Shafer, 5: R. Robinson. 4: 
Daniel Bush, 6; William Blangea, 4; Mrs. Teaman. 5; Cain Blangea, 
2; Francis Walls, 4; G. W. Chirk. 2; John Kankins. 7; George Call. 
8; John Wynn, 4; Henry Conner, 3: Mrs. Littlewood, 4: Vincent 
Virgin, 4; Delos Warren, 4; Joseph Spencer, (3; Jonathan Walls, 6; 
Thomas Templeton, 14; Eobert Hop^ue. 2; Mrs. Hughes, 5; Mrs. 
Fume, 1; Daniel Swartz, 45; Mrs. Johnson, 7; S. J? .^NL-Alilly, 4; 
Isaac Covington, 1; James Whitaker, 3; James Martin. 7; Mrs. Jackson, 
7; Christian Homau, 2; Mrs. Laslie, 9; Daniel Holvcross, 5; Peter 
Struble, 12; j\[rs. Moliero. H; Ur. Dalglish. 4; Jacob" Goodman, 4; J. 
W. Bash, 0; Mrs. Jones. 3; Mr. Ridoi\ 5; John Howard. 4; Edward 
Maxwell. 15; Mr. Brelgn, 7; J. B. Wright. 7; Mr. Dickson. 5; Abra- 
ham Jones, 5; Calvin Slaughter. 0; Mr. Pearson. 0; total. 532. The 
section incorporated comprised alxiut 1 1<3 acres of the oldest portion of 
the town; also Kent & Kitchens' Addition ou the north. At this pe- 
riod Williamsiiort was familiarly known as the Side Cut City, It was 
very prosperous, its trade comiiig from as far north as the " Kankakee 
River, and from far over on the fertile prairies of Illinois. 

In June, 1S53, the surveyors of the Lake Erie. Wabash .'v- St. Louis 
Railroad appeared and located the route of the proposed road throuo-h 
Warren County. This had the efl'ect of arousing great public interest 


and added no little to the growth of Williamsport. The County Com- 
missioners donated about $500 conditionally toward assistinj^ the survey, 
and when a subscription of stock was called for, to commence the con- 
struction, the citizens responded as liberally as their means warranted. 
Many thousands of dollars' worth of stock were taken in the county, to 
be paid in 5 and 10 per centum monthly installments as the work pro- 
gressed. It was not until 1856 that regular trains began running across 
the county, and soon after this the old side cut canal began to decline in 
usefulness. In a comparativly few year's, its field of importance was 
wholly usurped by that more progressive means of effecting commercial 
transactions — the railroad. 

It seems a matter of historic imi^ortance to notice somewhat in detail 
the development of trade and industry in the " Side Cut City " late in the 
'40's and during nearly the whole of the "50's. The Wabash Commer- 
cial, established in 1848 by Enos Canutt, assisted much in placing Will- 
iamsport among the list of important commercial centers of Western In- 
diana. The beneficial influence of the canal as a means of augmenting 
commerce had already increased the population and inspirited the re- 
lations of supply and demand. The side-cut canal had just been built 
by popular and organized subscription of stock, giving Williamsport all 
the advantage of location on the great highway between the producer and 
the consumer. Enormous warehouses had been erected, mills and fac- 
tories had begun to roll their busy wheels, and retail merchants had re- 
ceived wholesale patronage. All this gave great encouragement to the 
future of the county seat 

Late in the '40's, the packing and shipping of pork and the shipment 
of grain assumed mammoth proportions. James Goodwine packed 
about 3,000 hogs annually for several years, shipping the same to mar- 
ket via canal. He also bought considerable grain, as did Geoigo 
King and others. 

Earlv in the '50's, Kent & Kitchens, Haynes & Dickson and Cessna 
& Warren built three large grain and pork warehouses, each about 40x80 
feet, and three stories in height. Here for a number of years these firms 
bought and shipped an average of more than 250, 000 bushels of wheat, 
oats and corn. Scores of teams would stand for hours waiting their 
turn to unload. Before the warehouses had been built or the side-cut 
made, grain, although bought extensively at Williamsport, was taken to 
Attica for storage in the warehouses there, to be shipped more readily .on 
the canal. But in about 1852, when the side-cut canal was completed, 
and the location of Williamsport thus rendered as advantageous for pur- 
poses of shipment as that of Attica or any other town or point on the 
canal, the three large warehouses were built and the trade and activity of 
the county seat were multiplied many fold. Several of the firms owned 
canal boats. The three firms mentioned above and others began to buy 
and pack pork. Slaughter yards were soon in full operation. Some 
seasons about 11,000 hogs were cut up, salted down, and sent off to mar- 
ket via canal. Often five or six canal boats could be seen at once load- 
ing with pork or grain. The old Wabash Commercial noticed that in 
the fall of 1852, although the toll on the side-cut canal was only the 
fraction of one cent per hundred weight of pork or per bushel of grain, 
a total toll of over $100 was received in one week. In May, 1853, War- 
ren, Eegar & Co shipped 11,000 bushels of corn at one time, and Kent 
& Hitch'ens and Haynes & Dickson did almost as well. About this time. 


the celebrated Jack Stinson aijpeared in the paper with the following 
characteristic letter: 

The liarvest is great, the laborers are few in consequence of the canal; steam- 
boats and towns and cities now arising amidst the once dreary forest, better pros- 
pect fo> fruit and crops was never witnessed in Warren County. I have lived m 
good old Warren when there were pre-emption rights on coon tracks. 
J. Stephensox. itliiis Jack STissoif, 

Christian Philosopher of the nineteenth century. 

This was published in June, 1S53; at the same time the paper said: 

Williamsport is the county seat of Warren, one of the best counties in tlie State, 
but as to churches and schoolhouses we are entirely behind the times. The popula- 
tion of our town has almost doubled within the last twelve months. 

In two days in Nove/uber, 1853, Warren, Eeojar & Co. sold to Illinois 
customers S2,000 worth of goods; a portion of this .sale was wholesale. 
It was a common thing during those days for three or four of the prin- 
cipal merchandising houses to retail SoOH worth of goods daily. '\[r. 
' Hitchens says that he himself sold as high as -SSUO worth in one day, 
and at night felt completely worn out with the effort. The packing of 
hogs began about November and ended about March. Many of the hogs 
packed were purchased already slaughtered and dressed. During the 
winter of 1S53-.5-1:, 7,300 were packed in Williamsport. In the spring 
of 1854, flour was worth ST. 25; wheat, Sl.LI-Ti: corn 37 to 40 cents; oats, 
27 cents; salt, 13, and butter, 15 cents. At this time there were seveh dry 
goods stores, one drugstore, one hardware store, two grocery stores, one bak- 
ery, two wagon factories, one plow factory, two saddlery stores, one steam 
saw, lath and stave mill, two tailors, four blacksmiths, two hotels, four 
lawyers and foiu- doctors. At no time during the history of the county 
seat w^ere the times more prosperous than during the first half of the 
decade of 'DO's. The town enjoyed a trade over a tract of country ten 
times as extensive as at present. The population was not as dense then 
as now, btit the trade was greater, 

MiUs and Factories. — The saw-mill was built early in the "50"s by 
the Nordufts, but after a few years it was destroyed bv tire, though soon 
after another was built. Late in the "oO's. Myers i Co. obtained the old 
Haynes & Jjickson warehouse and fitted it up with a tirst-class set of 
machinery for grinding grain. Within about two years, it was sold to 
the Jones Brothers. Mr. Hn_\nes at one time had an interest in the mill. 
It was tinally burned to the ground in about 1S65. Soon after this, the 
Jones Brothers erected a new mill near the depot, at a cost of not less than 
$18,000, but in a short time the brothers failed in business, with liabili- 
tie.i amounting to nearly $100,000. Many of whom they had obtained 
money cm credit, paying as high as 20 per centum interest, suftVred se- 
verely and lost all they had loaned. B. F. Gregory. S. F. Messner, 
Norduft & Kennard, and several others, some twentv or twentv-tive veai-s 
ago, erected a brick building, 3()s40 feet, in which tive looms and other nec- 
essary machinery for carding, spinning and weaving wool were placed. 
Flannels, blankets, jeans, satinets, yarns, etc., were furnished to the pa- 
trons of tliK factory. Asa Fisher was for a time connected with the fac- 
tory. It was operated aboat lour years. Bennett Hoxton carried on the 
same business afterward. Cyius Sylvester built the foundry structure 
in about 18()1, and did general repair work there for a few years. Syl- 
vester manufactured wagons about this time. The Nordufts for many 
years have had an excellent steam saw-mill in the old town. Durini^- We 
'50's, Livingood & Wood mauufactured plows and wagouJ on quite au 


extensive scale. It is said they built not less than eighty plows per an- 
num, besides about twenty wagons, and employed four or five regular as- 
sistants. The Dowler Chair Factory was for many years an important in- 
dustrial feature of the town. Many of the old chairs may yet be seen in 
the dwellings of the older citizens. The packing of pork led to a 
strong demand for hogsheads or barrels, and as a consequence, various 
excellent cooper shops were established, several of the most extensive 
being in the country in the vicinity of \\^illiamsport. John Bush man- 
ufactured at "Williamsport, and '\\'illiam Wilson, Nathan Gallimore and 
Norton & Mcintosh in the country. The stocks of goods kept by the 
merchants did not exceed in value about f 15,000. At the time of the 
heavy pork-packing in the '50's, the merchants conducting the same 
could do nothing with the offal, which was thrown away or given to 
those who were willing to take it for the lard which it contained. The 
back bones and valuable portions of the heads and feet were likewise 
thrown or given away. Now-a-days nothing is lost. Bones, hair, intes- 
tines, toe-nails, blood — all are utilized. How wonderful it all is, any- 

The New Toirn. — The completion of the Wabash Railroad in 1856 
was the signal for the disuse of the canal and the river and the gradual 
decadence of the "Old Town" of Williamsport. William Kent laid out 
the tirst lots in the new town soon after the railroad was finished. 
Amonc the earliest residents of the new town wore Robert Pearson, 
Charles Pitcher, William Fox and a man called H. D. Thomas. Kent & 
Kitchens erected the big warehouse, or rather brought the material from 
the old town and after a short time bought as high as 212,000 bushels 
of o-rain. At one time, seventy-eight teams were waiting to unload. Other 
early resid'^nts were W. P. Muore, Joshua Cantrell, Parker, Mil- 
ton Whinery, R. Hunter, Levi Moore, and, John Reif . Grain has been 
bouo-ht by W. P. Moore, Phillip Gemmer, W. B. Brownley and Mr. 
Breckenrido-e. R. W. and E. P. Claypool began in 1876, and are yet 
in the business. They buy about 100,000 bushels of grain annually. 
The old warehouse built by "Kent & Hitchens has been owned by the 
railroad" company for a number of years. Gradually the business inter- 
ests have been transferred to the new town. Dm-ing the last war, among 
the business men were Isaac S. Jones & Co., drugs; William M. Haynes 
& Brother, general merchandise; F. M. Dowler, furniture; P. Dimmick, 
boots and shoes, Frank Weiner, boots and shoes, C. F. Damrow, mer- 
chant tailor. R. M. Allen & Co., general merchandise; John R. Moore, 
stoves; Wolf & Waltz, furniture; Jones, Miller & Co., general merchan- 
dise: Isaiah Whinery, jewelry; P. Mahn & Son, bakery; E. A. Board- 
man, hotel. The first brass band was organized during the war, and 
was called out at all the military meetings and other public gatherings. 
At present, the business portion of the old town is almosf. wholly de- 
serted The new has grown up at the expense of the old. 

The incorporation of the town in 1854 died out in two years, and re- 
mained dormant for some time, but was finally revived, and has endured 
since until the present. The municipal olficers now are as follows: 
Trustees, John Hodgson, Charles H. Porch and Samuel Bittinger; Clerk, 
T. B. Harbaugh; Treasurer, T, R. .Harbaugb; Marshal, John R. Him- 
ter. The present population of the town is about 1,000. It has a 
bonded debt of 110,000, incurred in building the brick school structure. 

Postmasters and Attorneys.^Among the Postmasters at the county 


seat have been G. W. King, 1834; Robert A. Chandler. 1840; * * * 
Lewis Haynes, 1853; H. J. Parker. 1855; Delos Warren, 18o6: J. M. 
Ebodifer, 1857; B. S. Wheeler. 1862; Elisha Hitchens. 18(3 to 1883. 
Among the lawyers who have practiced at the county seat, have been Da- 
vid "Wallace, A. B. Patterson, Robert A. Chandler, Isaac Naylor, Joseph 
A. Wright, John R. Porter. James R. M. Bryant, Benjamin F. Gregory, 
J. H. Buell, Lewis Wallace. W. C. AVilson. J. J. Taylor. E. A. Saunders, 
S. C. Fisher, G.H. Aysworth, Jonathan Birch, J. H. Beckwith, T. C. 
W'. Seele, H. T. McKee, G. A. May, V. A. Cobb, L M. Hall. R. F. Fah- 
nestock, J. M, Butler, Michael A^'"hite, A. C. Durborow. G. O. Behm, 
H. M, Nourse, Levin Miller, W. P. Rhodes, Richard DeHart, Richard 
Nebeker, Levi Cronkhite, John Benson, D. B. Beers, Frank Goben. Jesse 
Harper, James Park, Luke Riley, R. A. Vance, John B. Yeager, Charles 
McAdams, a man called MeCobe and another called Bryant. 

Secret Organizations. — Williamsport Lodge, No. 38, A.. F. & A. M., 
received its first dispensation May 29. 1844. the first otficers being R. A. 
Chandler, W. M. ; Levin Miller, S. W. ; James H. Buell, J. W. The 
organization seems to have about died out after a few years, for in May, 
1849, it received another dispensation to work, the following being the 
officers: R. A. Chandler, W. M. ; J. H. Buell. S. W. ; J. J. McAliUy, 
J. W. In May, 1850, the charter was received, the following being the 
officers at the time: E. A. Chandler, W. M. : J. H, Buell. 8. W.;''j. J. 
McAlilly, J. W. ; William Hopkins. Secretary: Samuel M. Bush, 
Treasurer; John Ray, S, D. ; Isaac Lutz, J. D. : Robert M. Allen, Tiler. 
From that day to this the lodge has enjoyed great prosperity. It has 
had a total of 188 members, and at present has forty. It is one of the 
best lodges in the State. In 1878, the members erected the brick busi- 
ness building in the second story of which is their fine hall. Every 
other Masonic Lodge in the county was founded ui:ion elenjents from this 
lodge. It is in excellent financial condition. Its present officers are G. 
W. Barget, W. M. : William M.iffitt. S. W. ; Ellis Rouse. J. W.; Philip 
Gemmer. Treasurer; Jitstin Eoss. Secretary; S. C. Fisher, S. D. ; G P. 
Swartz, J. D. ; William Hirliuger, Tiler: William Moffitt and William 
Waltz. Trustees; John H. Messner and William Waltz, Stewards, 

Warren Lodge. No. 57. I, O. O. F., was organized in September. 
1848, with the following first officers: Thomas Templeton, N. G.; W. 
H, Thomas, V. G. ; S. J. MeAlilly. Secretary: John Kent. Treasurer. After 
about ten years, tho lodge so ran down that it finally surrendered its 
charter in December, 1859, and was dead or inactive until ilav, 180)6. 
when it was revived and re-chartered with the following first I'uember- 
shi]i: A, S. Jones. Henry Held, G, R. Livingood, Jacob Held and M. 
\\ Woods. The first officers of the re-orgauization were: W. H, Thomas, 
N, (i.: G. R. Livingood. V. G, ; William Moffit. R. S. ; M. P. Woods', 
P. S. : G. T. Uichardsou. Treasurer. Since 18(i(). the lodo-o has been 
prt)si)erous. It owns a fine hall, has a large active membership, and is 
well fixed financially. The }>resout officers are Jacob Hanes. N. (t. ; A. 
V. Holmes, Y. G. ; M. H. IVar.son. E. S.; Henry Held, P. S. ; WiVliani 
Moffitt., Treasurer. 

Tntring the '40'a, when the tem|Hn-anco wave was sweeping over all 
tlie West, amon^ the organizations in the county was St. Jerome's Divis- 
ion of the Sons ol Temperance, instituted at Williamsport. Many of 
the loading citizens belonged, among them boino- B. F. Greo-ow Enos 
Cauiitt, Elislia Hitchens, J. H. Buell, J. J. MeAlilly, R. A "^Chandler 


William Kent and others. During the latter part of the '40'a the ques- 
tion of licensing the sale of alcoholic beverages was submitted to the 
voters of the various townships, with the following results in Pike and 
Washington Townships: Pike, for license, 2; against license, 35; 
Washington, for license. 60; against license, 24. The result in other 
townships cannot be stated. The temperance reform kept steadily on 
its way, meeting constant opposition, as it does yet, from the liquor ele- 
ment. Early in the '50's temperance camp-meetings became popular, 
and were held at T\ illiamsport, Lebanon, Milford, Independence and 
other places. Xo season passed without meetings of this character. The 
ohiu-ch organizations of the county entered heart and soul into the work. 
Temperance conventions to petition the Legislature for more stringent 
liquor laws were held in various portions of the county. A very large one 
was held at the county seat in December, 1853, Elisha Hitchens, Enos 
Canutt, Colbreath Hall, B. F. Gregory and Jesse Harper serving as man- 
aging committee. The following season, the convention was held at 
Lebanon. In 1859, the Brown Lodge. No. 2, I. O. Gr. T. , was organized 
at Williamsport with the following incorporators: H. C. Johnson, 
Henry Held, Alvin High, J. C. Miller, Elisha Hitchens, G. H. Norduft, 
Thomas Bartleti, J. H. Bonebreak, P. W. Lewis, Jesse Harper, T. P. 
Hatch and T. M.Whinery. For a number of years, this lodge did good 
work. Various temperance organizations have since been held in the 
town. The present temperance literary society was organized in Novem- 
ber, 1881. It was started first by the young people, but finally in i big 
temperance revival conducted by Mrs. MalJay from abroad, nearly all the 
temperance people of the town joined it. About 300 signed the pledge 
at this time, and the meetings continued for two weeks. The Women's 
Christian Temperance Union is another excellent organizatiim. The 
leading ladies of the town belong to it. 

The Knights of Honor, Lodge No. 2045, was organized at Williams- 
port in February, 1880, with thirty-three charter members. The first 
officers were Frank P. Longley, Dictator; W.J. Mawherter, V. D. ; 
John Gregory, Eeporter; John H. Schlosser, Treasurer; A. Pi. Owen 
Chaplain; Dr. O. D. Benson, Medical Examiner. The present member- 
ship is fiftv-f our. The lodge meets in the Odd Fellows' Hall, The pres- 
ent officers" are William Moffitt, Dictator; T. J. Graves,V.D.; John Hun- 
ter, Eeporter; John Fox, Treasurer; A. C. Pomeroy, Chaplain. The lodge 
is highly prosperous 

Bryant Post, G. A. E., No. 62, named in honor oi Col. J. E. M. 
Bryant, was organized in April, 1882, with eighteen charter members. 
The first officers were S. C. Fisher, Commander, Jacob DeHart, Sur- 
geon; J. H. Stump, J. V. C. ; Philip Gemmer, Quartermaster; Theodore 
Harbaugh, O. D. ; Hosea Cronkhite, O. G. ; A. Holmes, Chaplain; Isaiah 
Smith, Adjutant. The lodge meets in the Odd Fellows' Hall and is 

Fresent Business.— General stores, H D. Thomas, J. H. Messner, 
W. T. Moore, W. F. Nichol; gi'oceries, S. B. Mathis, Samuel Bittinger, 
W. W. Stark, John Chambers, James Slauter, Henry Shm-tz, William 
Slauter. Charles Pitcher and Ellis Eoss; hardware, F. P. Longley, 
Hottenstine & Lupoid; drugs, A. Nebeker and W. C. Fearn; restaurant, 
John Armstrong; milliners, Misses J. and A. Thomas; meat market, 
Benjamin Stevens; hotels. Farmers' and Commercial; merchant tailor, 
W. K. Ward; saloons, Eli Mathis, W. P. James and Henry Karst. 



During the year 1844, Enos Canutt, with a small quantity of 
printing material and an old-fashioned hand-press, began issuing 
-at Independence, "Warren County, a small sheet, of strong Whig 
proclivities, called the Wabash Register. The paper was a live or six- 
column folio, subscription price, §2 per annum, and after a time a circu- 
lation of about 300 was obtained, a portion of which came from Fount- 
am County. Late in 1845 or early in 1846, Mr. Canutt moved the 
office to Attica, which at that period gave promise of becoming a town 
of great commercial iutluenee, and continued issuing the piaper there, 
changing the name to the Attica Journal. At least half of the circula- 
tion was in Warren County. In 1848, the office was moved to Williams- 
p)ort, which town at that period gave almost as great promise as Attica, 
as the side-cut canal was in process of construction and a vast country 
north and west began to pour its commercial wealth into the large ware- 
houses just erected. Williamsport then seemed a more eligible site for 
a newspa])er than Attica. There was a strong demand at this period for 
news, as the attitude of Congress on the Wilmot Proviso and the slavery 
([uestion in general created much e.^citement in the county and widely 
extended the circulation of the paper. The old building in whicn the 
paper was printed is yet standing on Main street in the old town. In 
December, 1854, A. S. Foster bought the office and issued the lirst num- 
ber of the Warren Republican, a seven-coluam folio. In June. 1S55, 
Isaiah Whinery became associated with Mr. Foster as joint editor and 
proprietor, and upon Mr. Foster's death in December, 1S55, continued 
alone until February, 1856, when Delos Warren purchased the interest 
formerly owned by Mr. Foster. In September. 1S56, the veteran editor, 
Mr. Canutt, bought Mr. "Whinery's interest, and in Mav, 1857. bouo-ht 
Mr. Warren's interest, and was thus again sole editoi' and proprietor. 
Politics in the county during the last few years haci run high. The 
largest crowd ever in Williamsport up to that time met during the cam- 
paign of 185G, and listened to eloquent oratoi's, from home and abroad, 
upon the leading topics of the day. The population of the county seat 
had almost doubled, and all things combined to extend the circulation 
and usefulness of the Repiiblica)i. which entered upon a season of threat 
prosperity. In September, 1856, as the duties of Mr. Canutt had greatly 
multiplied, and as he was getting well advanced in years, he emploved 
"NV. P. Khodes, a bi'illiant young lawyer and forcible' writer, to furnish 
regular articles for the paper on the leading subjects of the day. The 
paper went with the new party, Republican, steadfastly maintained its 
doctrines and principles, and did more than anything " else to oive the 
county a lieavy Republican majority. In Jaiuiary, IStiO, Mr. "^Rhodes 
ceased writing for the paper, after which JMr. Canutt remained alone un- 
til his lamented death, in September, 1801. The paper went to his heirs, 
and his son John A. Canutt. assumed control, and W. P. Rhodes was 
employed to write for the pajier. Henry F. Cauutt became connected 
with the paper m May. 180;l. lu iMarcb, 18(U. Orin E, Harper bouoht 
the oJlice, and Jesse Harper became principal editor a)id gave the paper 
a sti-ong religious caste. .Umost every article written byliim, on what- 
ever subject, coutaim-d Scriptural quotations and invocations to the 
IXMty. In the autunui of ISlib, the office passed to the control of a com- 
p^auy consisting of \\'illiam C. Smith. W. P. Rhodes, and W, H. Thomas. 
Rhodes officiating as editor, and Smith as business mana>'-er. The com" 


pany paid 11,700 for the office, and employed J. A. Canutt to publish 
the paper. In June, 1867, the office was again sold for $1,600 to J. A. 
and H. F. Canutt, who published the paper and employed Dr. G. F. 
Eichardson to act as editor. No other change took place until Febru- 
ary, 1S70, when John Gregary, son of Benjamin F. Gregary, one of the 
most worthy and mHuential men ever a resident of the county, bought 
the office, and has since remained editor and publisher. The paper has a 
large circulation, and the office an excellent job and advertising patron- 
age. The strong position taken by Mr. Gregary on the question of tem- 
perance and un all questions of social and political reform has widely 
extended the usefulness of the Republican. 

Upon the sale of the Repuhlican in 1870, to Mr. Gregary, the Ca- 
nutt brothers moved to Kansas, where they were connected with the news- 
paper buisness for about twelve years. While there, the elder brother 
died, and in 1882, Henry F. Canutt returned to Williamsport and 
founded the Wabash Commercial, reviving the old name which his father, 
Enos Canutt, had bestowed upon the tirst paper issued in Williamsport 
in 1848. Although the paper has just started, the circulation and the 
job and advertising patronage are fast increasing. In 1871, an Inde- 
pendent Republican paper was started at Williamsport. It was called 
the Warren Leader, but after a few months it expired. 


The early historj^ of this flourishing town is somewhat obscure and 
uninteresting. From the fact that it was an inland town, remote from 
any navigable water course, then the great highway along which flowed 
the streams of commerce, it was destined to remain in comparative 
obscurity until steam was harnessed and driven with enormous burdens 
through ttie heart of the continents. It was one ot the first towns in the 
county to be laid off. but for many years was small, having less than fif- 
teen families. In September, 1830. Eleazur Pm-viance, John G. Jemi- 
son and Andrew Fleming employed Perrin Kent, Surveyor, and laid out 
Lebanon (not West Lebanon), on portions of sections 13 and 24, Town- 
ship 21 north. Range 9 west. Sixty-four lots of the usual size were 
laid ont. besides several large outlots, numbered A, E, C and D. The 
old plat shows Front, Main and Water streets, and Walnut. Kent, High, 
Clinton and Church streets. Outlot B was donated for a meeting house, as 
was also Outlot C. The large Outlnt D, off some distance from the others, 
was donated by Mr. Jemison for a burying grotind. Some time before 
this, however, possibly as early as the fall of 1829, and certainly as early 
as March, 1830, Mr. Jemison had opened a store on the site of the old 
town, with a stock worth about $800. He paid 110 for bis license. He 
had a general assortment of goods suited to the wants of backwoods peo- 
ple. The Flemings and Purviances were early at the town. For ten or 
twelve years there were not to exceed about a dozen families in the 
place. ' Thomas R. Yanmeter began selling goods in 1831, his stock in- 
cluding liquors, then about the most profitable commodity. In 1834, 
Andre vv Fleming opened a store of " foreign and domestic groceries," 
but the following year went into partnership with a man named Lyon, 
under the name Lyon & Fleming, and a short time afterward became 
known as Lyon, Fh^.ming & Co. In 1835, Nathan Horner opened up 
with some sort of commodity, just what is not known. It was about this 
time, or perhaps a little before, that Mr. Jemison retired from the mercan- 
tile pursuit. In 1836, Lyon & Forshay were associated in business, and 


about tlie same time William Farnsworth began selling liquor, as did 
also Cummings & Meeker. At this time, the town was as large as at any 
period during the first fifteen years of its history. It had blacksmiths, 
carpenters and other usual artisans and mechanics, and was quite a flourish- 
ing little place. L. D. Northrup was selling goods in ISSi. In 1839, 
James M. Dean and Conover & Shaw opened stores of merchandise; 
and in 1841, William Rook commenced with liquor and groceries. Be- 
fore this period the town ha:l begun to run down, until, in 1843, ac- 
cording to Dr. Jackson Fleming, there was not a store in the place and 
business enterprise was almost at a standstill. Later in the '40s, it be- 
gan to revive again.. Probably John Mick, who opened a store of merchandise 
in 1845, was the first merchant after the town began to revive. During the 
fall of 1846 or the spring of 1847, the well-known firm of Warren & Pur- 
viance brought a lai-ge stock of general merchandise to the town, and 
about a }'ear later S. F. and W. Messner followed suit. Soon afterward. 
Dr. J. Fleming became connected with the mercantile pursuit, as did 
also John W. Gearing. In 1853. J. M. Khodifer commenced the same 
pursuit. At this time. Lebanon contained a jwpulat^on of about 150. 
James Sinks was an earlj' cabinet-maker in the town, and a Mr. Stephens 
an early blacksmith. James Ehodifef was an early Postmaster. A man 
named Anderson sold goods late in the "40s. Dickson Fleming was 
associated in business with Dr. Jackson Fleming. In the earlv part of 
the '50s, they were succeeded by N. S. Brown. Soon after this, the new 
town began to grow at the expense of the old. 

The Railroad Station. — Trains began to run on the railroad regu- 
larly after 1856. A station was obtained aboat a mile north of the old 
town through the influence of the Flemings. Briggses, Purviances. et al. 
Five acres of land were donated for a side track and for station houses, 
and the side track was to be graded along the town, which cost the citi- 
zens %'1'IA: only. John Ruark built the first house in the new town about 
1855 and opened a shoe shop. Other early residents of the new town 
were Charles Last, Henry Last, James Stevens, George Carithers, Elijah 
Fleming, Mr. Chaney, John Ross, Cornelius Fleming, Jonas Lowe and 
othnrs. Chaney opened the first store, his stock consisting of o-roceries 
and provisions. Cornelius Fleming sold dry goods in 1857."' Elijah 
Fleming was the first blacksmith, Stephens "was the second and Lowe 
the third, George Is] er sold dry goods in 1856. Dr. Richardson sold 
the first drugs. Mr. Cubberly sold general merchandise daring the last 
war. ^ Spinnings & Anderson opened the first distinct hardware store in 
the '60s. Subsequent buisness men have been ^Jr. Swazev, dru.^s; John 
Pribble, dry goods and clothing: Sireuus Tellus, drugs; " GeorW Don- 
nelly, drugs; Dr, A, C. A\'alker, drugs, since 1867; Hastie ^-.^Aldrich 
dry goods; C. S. Sanford, dry goods; Mr. HojAius, drv o-oods- John 
Bnce, clothing; M'illiam Bell, hardware; Edwin Brice, hardware; James 
Goodwin, dry goods; Harvey Bouebrake, dry goods: aud clothiu>^'. Flem- 
ing Brothers. " '^ 

J/k/((.s'^v«.— A company was organized in 1866 aud incorporated 
with a declared capital of ?6,0t)0, to build a large steam flourim- mill' 
There was a total of tweaty-three stockholders, the principal oues^ bein.- 
Thomas Crone, twenty shares; P. W. Fleming, ten shares- C V Flem''- 
ing, ten shares; aud the others with less interest. The corporate name 
was the " A\-est Lebanon IMill Company." The mill, a frame structure 
three stories high and 40x50 feet on the ground, was erected and three 


runs of stone placed therein. The mill started ont well, and two years 
afterward was sold to Bowers & Burline, and not long afterward was ac- 
cidentally destroyed by fire. Mr. Tinkler also started a grist mill early 
in the '70s, placing the necessary machinery in the old warehouse. It 
amounted to but little. 

The large warehouse was built in 1857 by Dr. Jackson Fleming. It 
cost $2, 500. Large quantities of grain were bought in the early history 
of the new town. Morgan Davis bought many thousands of bushels an- . 
nually for a Lafayette company. James McDonald owned the building 
for a time. The Tinklers own the warehouse at present. For a number of 
years George Laub manufactured his own castings for a pump which he 
had patented and was selling. Bateman was one of the grain buyers. 
Ward & Cheseman manufactured buggies and wagons quite extensively 
over twenty years ago. Mr. Bell followed the same occupation, turn- 
ing out between thirty and forty vehicles per year. 

Incorporation. — In the year 1869, West Lebanon, as the new town 
was named, concluded to become incorporated ; whereupon the County 
Commissioners were petitioned to order an election to decide the ques- 
tion, which was accordingly done. A majority of vores were cast in fa- 
vor of the project, and the village was duly declared to be the incorpo- 
rated town of West Lebanon; thus it has remained until the present. The 
first trustees elected in September, 1869, were E. Preble, F. Ross, J. 
Ward, J. Brown and F. Spinning; Marshal, S. J. Smith; Treasurer and 
Assessor, P. W. Fleming; Clerk, VV. Y. Fleming. The present town 
officers are, Trustees, John Stevens, John Fritz and Warren Fleming ; 
Clerk and Treasurer, W. L. Eabourn; Marshal, John Amerman. In 
1870-72, when the new court house was built, West Lebanon applied 
for the location of the court house and the county seat. Her claims 
were so strong that she succeeded in postponing the erection of the house 
a year or better, and came near wresting the prize from' Williamsport. 
Her location was more central, and had her citizens been as active and 
as generous with donations of land and money as those of Williamsport, 
the result might have been different. 

Newspapers. — The town has not been without its newspaper enter- 
prises. The Lebanon Patriot was issued during the war. The second 
owner was Andrew Hall. The next ventui-e was a seven-column folio, 
called the West Lebanon Advance, edited by S. P. Conner. The first 
issue appeared in 1871. Its politics was Republican, and a circulation 
of about 400 was secured. At the expiration of about a year, the paper 
passed to Dr. A. O. Walker, Joseph Tinkler and P. W. Fleming, Dr. 
Walker officiating as editor. At the end of about two years, the Advance 
became defunct. Its successor was the Gazette, conducted by a Mr. 
Bloomer. It passed to Mr. Eosenburg, when its name became the 
Times. A Methodist minister named Morgan conducted it for a short peri- 
od changing the name to the Commomvealth, after which Dr. Walker again 
put on editorial harness, with Eufus Fleming as partner. After a time, 
it was rented to Shark & Edmunds, of Illinois, but in a few months they 
retired, not having made their fortunes, and a son of Dr. Walker tried 
his hand at the business. About this time, the name was changed to the 
Statesman. William Olds next rented the sheet and conducted it about 
eighteen months, at the end of which time he shook the dust of the 
place from his feet, and the organ was sold to A. W. Baker, who ed- 
ited it until about a year and a half ago, when the office was removed to 


Waynesville, 111. Thus ended the series of newspaper enterprises, none 
of which were profitable to the owners. West Lebanon should have a 
newspaper by all means. 

Secret Societies.— In 1858, a lodge of Odd Fellows was instituted at 
Lebanon, and was named Colfax Lodge, No. 109, in honor of Schuyler 
Colfax, who not long before had created the Rebekah Degree in that 
society. R. Hamilton was the first Noble Grand and A. S. Foster the 
first Secretary. The old books of this lodge could n(3t be found, and 
but little can be learned regarding it. This lodge finally ran down 
somewhat and was removed to Marshtield. 

The charter of the Masonic Lodge No. 352, was granted in May, 
1867, with the following charter members: J. M. Floniing, Josiah Wood- 
ward, John Fritz, John AV. Brown, John Ray, Isaac Cadwallader. G. S. 
Fleming, N. V. Wire, M. L. Stephenson. W. M. James. J. S. Fleming 
and J. W. Cadwallader. The first officers ware J. S. Fleming. W. M.; 
G. S. Fleming, S. \V ; J. M. Fleming, J. W. The present officers are 
A R Cadwaflader, W. M.; B. D. Callaway, S. W. : A. E. Wilson, J. 
W. The present membership is thirty-nine, and the lodge is in a flour- 
ishing condition. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance ITnion of West Lebanon was 
organized in September, ISSO, at the residence of Mrs. Ann S. Fleming. 
The early members were the following ladies: Ann S. Fleming, Mrs, 
Cheseman, Mrs. Colton. Mrs. Wood. Mrs. Sandford, Mrs. P. W. Flem- 
ing. Mrs. E. E. Hayward, Mrs. S. A. Ward, Mrs. S. Porter, Mrs. James 
Hamilton, Mrs. Dr." Fleming, Mrs. Lower, Mrs. Walker, Mrs. L. L. Cad- 
wallader, Miss Ann E. Fleming and Miss Laura Stevens. The 
first officers were Mrs. J. P. Cheseman, President; Miss Ann E. Flem- 
ing, Secretary, Mrs. William Wood, Treasurer. The present officers 
are Mrs. V. P. Demott, President; Mrs. J. P. Cheseman, .Secretary: 
Mrs. P. W. Fleming, Treasurer. The number of active members at 
present is fifteen. The greatest number at any one time was twenty- 
seven. The organization is in a flourishing condition. 

The population of West Lebanon in ISIO was about fifteen families; 
in 1850 it was about 150 persons; in ISiiO, about 300; in ISTO. about 
500; and in 1880, nearly 700. For thrift, energy and importance, it is 
not excelled by any other town in Warren County. It has not relinquished 
its claim to the county seat, and may one day be the countv metropolis 
and seat of justice. Many think the change of the county seat to West 
Lebanon would centralize the county and largely pireveut the constant 
drain of wealth into neighboring counties. 


The presence, in early years, at this ]->lace oi th(> French trader Zach- 
ariah Cicott, made the locality famous; not only because the trader had 
considerable money and a great deal of live stock and other personal 
property, but because his personal experience, love of adventure and 
fai^ulty tQ toll well what he had seen and undergone, made him an at- 
tractive companion for all the hardy and daring old settlers who came to 
the I'ounty. They delighted to hear him tell of his own exploits, and 
his contact with the Indians. His presence in the county before and at 
the time of the white settlement caused liis cabin to become a great ren- 
dezvous for land speculators, settlers and travelers. Some yetu-s before, 
he had married his second wife, a sqnawof the Sis Nations, "bv whom he 


had several children. Cicott, then, was the first white man in the coun- 
ty, and for a number of years wielded no little influence, as his ijroperty 
and repute made him an object of interest, especially to those who were 
fortunate enough to be able to get the pecuniary advantage of him in 
trading or selling. It it stated that some of the most prominent men at 
Indepnedenee in early years, owed their good fortune in this world's 
goods to the skill with which they fleeced Cicott as he had fleeced 
the Indians. He was an inveterate card player, and lost much of his 
property to those who were bright enough to trap him. He loved to race 
horses with the whites as well as the Indians. Many of the old settlers 
can yet rememer how he and a number of Indians would wager a heap of 
fine blankets, or a few fine ponies, or other valuable property, and then 
go out a mile or two in the woods and ride back under whip and spur, 
through the bushes and around the trees, all yelling like demons and 
tilling the air with curses, until the place fairly smelled of brimstone; 
the one getting back first would carry ofl" the prize, and this lucky per- 
son was usually the wily old trader. After the town was laid out, its 
rapid growth, and the location there of men of capital and greater com- 
mercial ability and enterprise, soon cast Cicott in the shade, from which 
he never rose. He laid out the town in October, 1832. Ninety-one lots 
were laid out by Perrin Kent, Surveyor, on the "Cicott Reserve," in 
Township 22 north, Range 7 west. The plat shows Marion, Warren, 
Clay, Washington, Main and Liberty streets, and AYater, Second, Third 
and Fourth streets. Whether any other settlers besides Cicott were there 
before the town was laid out, cannot certainly be learned by the writer, 
though the evidence seems to imply that there were They were very few, 
however. Probably the second settler at Independence was Abraham 
Hower}', who located there in 1832, and opened a liquor establishment, 
paying §5 for his license. Then Dr. Lyon came in, and immediately 
afterward David Moffitt appeared, erecfed the first frame house in town, 
and began the manufacture of hats. After this, the rush in there was 
quite rapid. Jacob Hanes, Rufus Webb, William Farmer, Isaac Way- ^ 
mire, John Evans, Dr. Talman Tripp, Frederick Rittenour, Ann Holstook, 
Daniel Doty, Peter Messmore, Dr. W. G. Montgomery, Dr. Wade, 
Charles Steadman, Andrew Young, Thomas Julian, Isaac Bunnell, Henry 
I'arrell, Elijah Y'oung, Edward S. Coates, Samuel Thomas, John Crow, ■ 
Ailer Perry ,_ Thomas Jefferson, were among the early residents of Inde- 
pendence. Farrell and I'oung were blacksmiths. Moffitt was a hatter, 
and also one of the best hunters and tra[jpers ever in the county. He did 
not neglect his business 1o hunt; at odd times he would shoulder his 
gun, and when he came back, game usually came with him. He kept on 
hand a stock of several hundred hats, of the latest backwoods fashion. 
He bought his wool from the few settlers who owned sheep. In a few 
years. Independence became as promising a town as any along the Wa- 
bash. Towns along large water-courses had the advantage in those days, 
as almost all commercial transactions weie confined there. Jacob Hanes, 
in 1883, began selling iref and dry groceries. A few years later, Joseph 
Hanes became associated with him. James Hemphill began selling mer- 
chandise in 1835. William Farmer built the first brick house in 1834-35, 
making the brick himself. Soon after this, Shoup & Tate began buying 
and packing hogs. They bought several hundred during the colder 
months, packed them in ban-els Lhat were manufactured at the town or 
near there, and shipped them by flat-boats down the river, and on down. 


usual Jy to New Orleans, where cargo and boats were sold, and the pack- 
ers came back in steamboats. They also bought some grain James 
Hemphill, Newton Morgan and others engaged in this business much 
mure extensively. It is probable that early in the '40'8 he packed as 
high as 2,000 hogs during the season, and others there at the same time 
did as well or better; so that, many seasons, from 2,000 to 5,000 hogs were 
slaughtered, packed and shipped on the river from Independence. The 
grain trade was even more marvelous. A much larger country than at 
present sought a market there. There were no railroads then. The river 
was the great highway where vessels, from pirogues to steamboats, draw- 
ing ten or twelve feet of water, were seen daily during the high water 
season. The smaller vessels and the pirogues, and numerous keel boats 
and rafts, were running the year round, going down the river with large 
loads of corn, wheat, oats, wool, pork and beef, and returning with all 
kinds of merchandise and store goods. From 1835 to 1845, Independ- 
ence was one of the best trading points on the river. From 10,000 to 
60,000 bushels of grain were shipped annually. The population in 1840 
was about 350, and in 1842-43 was about 400; this was the highest flood 
of human beings. But all the industries of the town have not been 
mentioned. Late in the '30's, Isaac Bunnell started a carding mill 
and a corn cracker, although the latter really exceeded the modest capac- 
ity of a corn cracker proper, as considerable flour was manufactured, 
though of a rather poor quality. It met a want, however, and was well 
patronized. The present mill there is the legitimate successor of the 
old ■' corn cracker." The carding mill, also, met a want, and soon had 
a thriving business, during the wool season. Two or thi-ee hands were 
employed. Farmers carried their wool there and had it carded into rolls, 
when it was taken back home and woven into cloth by the pioneer 
mothers. Henderson & Boxley erected a distillery about half a mile 
below the town proper, and began to manufacture the best quailtv of 
rectified spirits. This was about 1835. They also kept for sale a small 
stock of merchandise, as their old license to sell the same was discovered 
among the old papers in the court house. They gradually increased the 
scope of their business until, within two or three years after starting, they 
were consuming not less than 200 bushels of com daily, and some thmk the 
quantity would reach nearer 350 bushels. This was a vast birsiness fur 
a new country, and an important one also, as it aftbrded an excellent 
market for corn — a great blessing to the moneyless settlers On the op- 
posite side of the river, in Fountain County, were three or more other 
distilleries, the largest one consuming not less than 500 bushels of corn 
daily. Perhaps all these distilleries within a radius of ten or twelve 
miles, consumed 1,000 bushels of corn each day, or from 300,000 to 3(35,- 
000 bushels per year. These are, perhaps, too large figures, as certain 
seasons of the year the quantity manufactured was quit"e small. Everv- 
body drank whisky in those days. It was on every mantel-piece. Chil- 
dren took it for the happy eft'ect, women for the" strength and nerve it' 
gave them, and men because it inspired them with new life. It was 
taken in warm weather to cool, and in c.iol weather to warm. And the 
whisky in those days was whisky It had no stryclmine. nor coculus 
indicus, nor sulphuric acid, nor other poisons which destroy the delicate 
tissues of the interior membranes. Old settlers yet living positively 
aver that there was less drunkenness in those davs than "at present". 
Men, women and children were moderate drinkers, aud would rarolv >-ret 


intoxicateci. Tliey knew when to stop. There was no house-raising, or 
barn-raising, or any public gathering for work where whisky was not 
furnished by the employer. Men who early become impressed with a 
sense of the evil, and who endeavored to introduce the custom of house- 
raising or log-rolling without whisky, were left to raise their own houses 
or roll their own logs. Tavern keepers did not pretend to open their 
doors without a bar, where whisky cou.ld be had for the money. This 
immense demand led to the erection of many distilleries all through 
the country, gave the farmer or mechanic what he regarded as a "neces- 
sity," and also furnished him with a handy market for his corn. The 
Henderson & Boxley distillery was well patronized for some eight or ten 
years, when it was abandoned. 

This large manufacture of liquor led to a strong and steady demand 
for barrels, and numerous cooper shops arose, in consequence. Samuel 
Thomas began the work as early as 1835-36, and for several years, or 
while the great demand continued, turned out about 1,000 kegs, whisky 
barrels, slack hogsheads annually. He gave five or six men constant 
employment. Jacob Harmon and Jesse Tumbleson bought cattle all over 
the county, and drove them through to Baltimore or New York; later, 
Chicago became the market. James Young opened up a harness and 
saddlery shop, which he conducted on quite an extensive scale. Isaiah 
and "William Young started the old tannery with some twenty vats, and, 
soon had a thriving business. Much of their leather was used in the 
harness shop of Mr. James Y'oung. Eyan & Smith and Julian & Ritten- 
our were grain buyers from about 1S3S onward. The latter firm built a 
large warehouse across the river, on the canal. Fred Eittenour built a 
large flouring mill m town about 1846, but unfortunately it was soon 
destroyed by fire. He did a big business for about three years. Peter 
Messmore and Henry "Wilson were merchant tailoi's of Independence in 
early years. So great was the rush into the town before 1837, that in 
the spring of that year Joseph Hanes found it profitable to lay out an 
addition to the town, which was done above and adjoining the original 
plat. John Bunnell sold goods, beginning in 183(3, and about the same 
time William Meeks opened a grocery. A few months later, M. M. Mil- 
ford opened up with a stock of merchandise worth about SI, 000. James 
Hemphill conducted a general store, as well as his pork-packing and 
grain buying. Henry Lowrey opened a store as early as 1836. Henry 
Miller was among the first tavern keepers; he kept liquor at his bar. 
Knfus Webb, Edward S. Coates and the firm "Wells & Bradley started 
three good general stores in 1837. Talman Tripp kept the ferry across 
the river. The travel then was very great, and a ferry oh a well-traveled 
highway was a profitable source of revenue. Hundreds of teams, ch-aw- 
ing huge wagons that had come from Ohio, Pennsylvania, Yirginia, 
Kentucky and other States, loaded with household goods and weary, 
httngry-iooking settlers, often had to wait their turn before they could 
cross. Hotels sprang into existence to accommodate the demand. The 
purchase and transfer of land were a daily talk. Speculators were pres- 
ent with tempting ofi'ers of money at high rates of interest; to be given 
for first mol-tgages, that were tantamount to downright sales. Everybody 
was busy. Edward K. Wilson opened a store in 1839, but he soon went 
into partnership with Mr. Hemphill, under the style of Hemphill & 
Wilson. They had a large stock. John Crow was selling liqxtor and 
groceries in 18-12. Clark & Ogilvie did the same with a general stock 


of merchandise at the same time. Crow changed his stock to merchan- 
dise in 1843. Jacob Doty was ferryman in 1843. James Wilson began 
merchandising in 1844. Coates was yet in the same business, and prob- 
ably at that time had the largest stock in town. Peter H. Messmore was 
selling liquor in 1844. John E. Walker opened a general store in 1845. 
Coates, James Wilson, Samuel Ogilvie, Fred Rittenoar, Messmore, and 
perhaps some of the others, were still selling goods in 1845. Thompson 
& Barlow began in 1846, as did J. Williams and J. M. Austin. Coates 
& Clark held forth in 1849. John B. Yeager came in with goods in 
1850, as did J. W. Bunnell. P. E. Abbott, A. G. Young, M. L. Clark, 
John Ryan, Peter Lobdy, Henry Welch, J. Killenbarger, G. F. Has- 
tings, T. P. Fulton, within the next two years. Henry Welch was ferry- 
man in 1855. 

It was during the forties, while the travel northward through Inde- 
pendence was very great, that a company was formed to build a bridge 
over the Wabash at Independence. A large subscription was raised, but 
after the work was begun the project was abandoned, as the subscribers 
failed to respond according to contract. Another abortive enterprise 
was the attempt to raise means to build a side cut canal. Timber was 
gotten out, and. money was subscribed, but at length the work was post- 
poned and finally stopped. A few years later, or in ]S5<.\ the plank road 
company undertook to extend their toll route from the town northward 
to the county line, in the direction of Oxford: but this scheme, after a 
few miles of plank had been laid, shared the fate of the side cut canal 
and the bridge. Independence enjoys the distinction of having had the 
'{ii! first newspaper in the county, an account of which may be found else- 
where in this volume. It was started in 1844. when the town was at 
the height of its jjrosperity and promise, and when but few neighboring 
towns could boast of greater activity in trade. After about 1850. the 
town began to take its destined place. Like Rome, it could not die im- 
mediately, but lingered long in tlie lajiiof its former greatness and grand- 
eur, loth to become extinct, like the crater of some prehistoric volcano 
whose activity had forever stopped. Its decadence was gradual, extend 
ing to the present time. Among the business men of the last tive-and- 
twenty years are David James, Thomas Julian, Bryan & Smith, Isaac 
Julian, John and Robert Lank, John Clawson. Xewl'in Yount, Dr. Reed. 
Joseph McFerren, William Adair, Jasper McClatchy, ^vho conducts a 
saw mill, Isaac Collyer, who condacts the old grist mill with water from 
the old spring, and man\ others. The present population is about two 


This town derived much of its early growth and importance from its 
location at the junction of the two old branches of the Wabash Railroad — 
in fact, it owes its existence to the construction of the road. Its o-ro\vth 
during the first five or six years was rapid, and for a time thi^ town 
promised to become a formidable .rival in population, enterprit-e and 
wealth of Danville, 111. In June. 1857, Robert Casement, who had just 
purchased the land, emjiloyed a surveyor, and hi id out about thirteen 

blocks of eight hjts each, besides one block for a public square the same 

upon which the new sehoolhouse now stands. This was scareelv accom- 
plished before A. P. Andrews and John Brier, who had beeii selliu^-' 
goods northwestward in Illinois about three miles, removed their store 
—building and all— to the town. William Yau Horn had been livin>v 


on the town site for a uumber of years before this. Andrews & Brier 
were soon joined by Barkley, and about the same time by Ross, both of 
whom opened small stores of general merchandise. William Toole 
erected his dwelling, and began dealing out liquor and a few groceries. 
The railroad companies had erected depots and eating-houses, and for 
a number of years passengers were furnished with a substantial meals or 
a luncheon. Freight of every description was transferred, and the work 
thus made necessary required the attention o £ numerous employes. Numer- 
ous buildings were erected to accommodate the rush; hotels were opened, 
and saloons began to deal out their infernal liquid. The town gained a 
hard name, mainly by reason of the presence of a rough class of railroad 
and other hands, who would drink and carouse with bacchanalian delio-ht, 
often until nearly morning. 

Among tile early residents and business men were A. P. Andrews, 
William Edenburn, Patrick Cavanagh, L. A. Andrews, Dr. A. M. Porter, 
B. F. Marple, J. P. Lucas, John Brier, David Mead, Uriah Cleveland, 
Samuel Andrews, Dr. Foy, Andrew Van Allen, J. H. Barkley, David 
Frazier, Charles Pratt, Luke Kiley, Robert Casement. James Hollister, 
John Crane, William Dennison, Harry Ross, S. C. Boyd, Michael Griffin, 
William Jones and many others. Frasier kept the railroad eating-house, 
and Pratt kept hotel at first, but later became town butcher. Riley and 
Boyd kept boarding-honses. Andrews. Brier, Barkley and Ross sold 
dry goods, groceries and general merchandise. Casement and Hollister 
were grain buyers. Van Allen was car repairer. Dennison and Crane 
kept saloons, as did Cavanagh, who is yet in the same business. Mar- 
ple soon went into the drug business, which he yet continues. He is one 
of the best citizens of the town. Porter, the first doctor, yet ministers 
to the bodily welfare of the inhabitants. Among the later business men 
have been Ross & Hardy, J. W. Villers, W'right & Denny, Brit- 
tingham & Delay, Whitehead & Asbury, J. R. & G. W. John- 
son, Oliver Oaborn, Mr. Lyons, John Stephens, C. R. Dubois, George H. 
Lucas, Taylor & Son, T. H. Stephens, M, P. Sennett, B. F. Bonebrake, 
William Barger, Mr. Dowler, A. R. Simpson and David Shepard. Will- 
iam Kent established a gi-ain warehouse very early, as did Mr. Case- 
ment. The quantities of gi-ain bought were enormous, and probably, 
during some seasons, exceeded 200,000 bushels. Teams would stand 
waiting their turn until the drivers had replenished their stock of pa- 
tience by fiequent potations, during certain intervals, at the dram shops. 
It seemed easier for them to wait after that — the drivers, not the teams. 
Care, with heavy wings, flew away, and Mirth, with laughing face, 
touched the heart with delight. The profits of the sales of grain were 
often left in the pjssession of ye dram seller. And the grain buyers 
made money. 

Each of the two railroads, in about 1858 or 1859, built a round 
house, where engines and cars were stored and eared for. The presence 
of these shops was alone sufficient to insiire the town a considerable 
population. In fact. State Line City, with its big stores, its immense 
grain trade, its hotels and saloons, its transfer of freight and passengers, 
its round houses and depots and its seminary, was at the pinnacle of its 
activity, promise and prosperity. This was during the period from 
about 1859 to about 1867; the highest population, including the floating 
railroad men, being about 550. It was a lively scene at the depot when 


passenger trains came steaming in, and unloaded their buvdeos of mis- 
cellaneous, though homogeneous, humanity. 

Mound Lodge, No. 274, F. & A. M., was instituted in May, lb61, and 
for several years worked without a charter. Among the early members 
were Walker Hurd, William Jones, W. M. Dixon, David Frasier, A. M. 
Porter, J. E. Johnson, A. J. Lyon, J. D. Ludlow and Adam Myers. 
Walker Hiu-d was the iii-st Master. The lodge is doing well, has valu- 
able property and a large membership. Simmons Lodge, No. 240, Odd 
Fellows, was instituted in Mar, 1865, with the following first members: 
John Simmons, Divan Smalley, R. S, Burke, Thomas S. Jones and John 
M. Knox. In 1868, the name was changed from Simmons to Illiana. 
John Simmons was the first Noble Grand, Burke Vice Grand, and Knox 
Secretary. A Eebekah degree was started in May, IS/ 5, but died out. 
The lodge is in a prosperous condition. 


This is younger than most of its sister towns. It was laid out in 
about 1S51, by Isaac and John R. Metsker, owners and proprietors, 
Perrin Kent doing the surveying. Daniel Connell erected the first 
dwelling, and began working at the blacksmith trade. Soon afterward, 
Woods & Fisher opened a store in the Connell dwelling, the stock 
being worth about §1,700. Mr. Woods did not deal fairly with his 
partner, and a rupture between the two transferred the goods to Mr. 
Fisher, and Mr. Woods left the county and State within a few months 
after the store had been established. Mr. Woods built the second house 
in town before leaving. S. C. Fisher built the third house, and for 
about eight years conducted one of the best stores ever in Pine Village. 
At one time, his goods were worth about §5,000. and his trade was large 
and lucrative. He made money, and finally established himself as a 
practitioner of the law at the county seat, where he now lives, respected 
and honored. Newton Morgan opened the second store, not long after 
Woods & Fisher began, placing his stock in a storeroom which William 
Moon had erected. Among those who built early iu the town were Frank 
^ Hegler, J. M. Swadley, G. W. Freeman, James B. Rowan and others. 
, Among the business firms were Kern & Julian, Julian & Julian. John 
Smitli, Swadley & Thomas. Campbell & Pievson, Martindale & Little," 
John Shawcross, James B. Rowan, Yance & Wiggins, the Turners, 
Ichaliod Boyer, John Craig, Dr. William Messner & Son, Feuton & 
Buckley, R. C. Clark, Nelson Metsker, A. H. Haun, yet in birsiness, 
George Smith, T. J. Farden, Frederick Cain, W. E. Wakeman, H. W. 
Wagner, A. P. Rowan, J. B. Rowan, J. F. Rowan, yet in business; 
Haun & Farden, the Messnors, Rhode & Cobb, McCord \' Cobb, Rowan 
& Kigor, Daniel Boll, harness, iu 1861, FeutoQ & Literal, Fisher. Gun- 
kle; James Swadley, manufactured- wagons and is yet in the business. 
Anderson & Hall, built a large grist mill in 1860, at a cost of §Z\000. 
It was-au excellent mill, but for some reason did not do well after about 
six years, and the greater [xirtion of it was finally removed to West Leb- 
anon. It was built, largely, by subscription of the citizens. 

About six years ago, Fentou & Buckles established a brick and tile 
factory simth of town, which has continued to furnish large nuantitiea 
of material in its line. The demand is growing stronger, "as is also the 
factory. Mr. Buckles is the sole owner at present. S. C. Fisher built 
the hotel (now the Union House) about 185;T and a man named John 


Ferguson rented it and became first "mine host." The cognomen of 
the hotel was " Our House. " John F. Sale is the present landlord. 
Among the Postmasters have been Yance, Henry^Webb, J. B. Kowan, 
Dr. "William Messner, A. P. Rowan, A. H. Haun, Y. F. Turman, Miss 
Mary Turman, J. B. Kowan, Frank Rowan, John Wagner and William 
R. Streets, the present agent of Uncle Sam. Among the physicians have 
been Jones, Lacey, Hall, Harbinson, Messner (two), Demming, Kidney, 
Pike, and Fenton; and McMullen at present. A man named Haven con- 
ducted a lumber yard for about one year. A few years ago, Haun & 
Haven began issuing a small advertising sheet, which met with such 
encouragement that A. P. Rowan was induced to extend the scope of the 
enterprise, and soon afterward issued quite a little paper. It was newsy, 
bright, and pleased the citizens very much; but after a few issues, when 
the novelty of having a paper published in the town wore off, the in- 
clination to pav any money to assist the enterprise also wore ofi", and 
Rowan was compelled to suspend the issue. People were anxious to 
have the sheet continued, were perfectly willing to read it without being 
solicited or paid for so doing, but when they were expected to pay 
something in return — were asked to reach down in their breeches pockets 
for greenbacks — such an intimation met with a chilling negation. The 
frozen disdain with which they met such a proposition would have put 
to shame a book agent or an historian. And no wonder! The price of 
subscription was SI per annum! 

The Knights of Honor established a lodge in town about four years 
ago, the following being the charter members: S. C. Fenton, W. T. 
Wagner, "\\^ R. Streets, A. H. Haun, W. H Smith, Jonathan Howell, ' 
S. H. Eberley,^ G. M. Smith, Samuel Thomas, R. G. Odle, Thomas 
Farden, N. S."Ogburn, James Metsker, and J. B. Rowan. VV. T. Wag- 
ner was first Dictator and R. G. Odle Secretary. Eli Fenters is the 
present Dictator; Dr. FentoQ, Secretary, and A. J. Eberly, Treasurer. 
The present membership is fourteen. Mrs. Sarah Swadley was the first 
milliner in town. Mrs. Elizabeth Ambler is the present milliner. John 
Drummond was probably the first butcher. Ambler & Smith hold forth 
as such at present. For many years, the town has been without a saloon. 
One was started, but proved to be unprofitable. About twelve years ago, 
the old fair ground, just south of town, was transformed into a camp- 
meeting ground. A large shed was erected, and other accommodations 
were provided. Annually the ground is used for this purpose. For the 
past fifteen years, W. W. Fenton has sold sewing machines, with head- 
quarters in Pine Village. His sales are large, a. H. Haun has been 
buying grain for the last two or three years. He is getting ready for the 
railroad, which is sure to pass within reasonable distance of the village. 
This is one of the finest little towns in Northwestern Indiana. The citi- 
zens are intelligent, moral and enterprising. The present population is 
almost 250, but this will be doubled when the iron horse visits the 


This beautiful little village was laid out in March, 18.32, by Will- 
iam B. Bailey, proprietor, on the west half of the northwest quarter of 
Section 28, Township 23 north. Range 6 we^t, and comprised forty- eight 
lots, with East and Main streets, and Pine, Center and Warren streets. 
Ezekiel Timmons was surveyor. Horatio Bailey had something to do 



with laying out the town, which was named for a town in Delaware— 
Milford. Alvin Potter and Joseph Timmons built houses about the 
same time in the village, and probably soon after the lots were laid out. 
Lorenzo Westgate opened the first store in 1833. placing his small stock 
of goods in the Timmons building. Thomas Literal began to sell liquor 
in 183G, and at the same time Nathan H. Biddlecome came m with a 
general stock of goods. This man was the first Postmaster. ^ Among the 
other early residents were Joseph Gray, a shoe-maker, William Jerman, 
John Peniwell, Thomas Shockley. John Patterson, who kept a store after 
Westgate, Newton Jilorgan, also' a store for many years, Nathan Worley, 
Joseph Thompson, the first tavern-keeper. Frederick Fenton, a cabinet- 
maker, Abraham Timmons and Jonathan Bailey, both of whom kept 
cabinet shops, made coffins, etc.; John Ward, the first blacksmith; James 
Stewart, who sold groceries; William Morgan; Selby Timmons, a shoe-' 
maker; Clem Watkins; Hiram Nichols, a tavern-keeper; John Cowgill, 
who conducted a tannery; Lemuel Cowgill, a shoe-maker; Zed Lewis; 
George Scott, a blacksmith; Stephen Moore, a wagon-maker; Dr. Poole, 
the first resident physician, after whom the first post office^Poolesville' 
— was named; Henson Watts; Aaron Stephenson, whose mm-der a few 
months ago so excited the little village: William Virgin, who conducted 
a tannery; George Harris, a tavern-keeper; William Jones, a tailor; 
Asa Kobb, a shoe maker; Dr. Osborn and many others. Marshall M. 
Milford sold merchandise as early as 1836. Newton Morgan, who had 
previously lived a short distance north of the village, opened his store in 
1838. It is said that his first goods were obtained from Chicago. He 
drove a small herd of cattle to that market, but was compelled to take 
considerable commercial paper in payment. While there, he found that 
while merchants would not cash the notes for anything near what they 
were worth, they were willing to take the same at a small discount for 
goods. He therefore traded them for goods, but was obliged to en- 
dorse all the notes. It is said that, fifteen years later, some of those 
notes came to him for payment, on account of his indorsement. He es- 
tablished his stole with the goods, but continued to live on his iaxm. 
Every morning he would ride his tough little white horse. "Joe,"' down 
to the store, where the animal would stand all day without food, and at 
night horse and rider would return on the gallop — always on the gallop — 
and yet the pony was sleek and fat. Morgan packed some pork, and 
bought large numbers of cattle, which were driven east into Ohio, where 
they were disposed of to be fatted for the Eastern market. His goods 
came by river or canal to Independence, whence they were conveved to 
Milford by wagon. He established branch stores at Raihstille and Pine 
Village, and made his fortune by judicious management. At bis death 
in 1857, he had amassed a fortune of about ?G0,000. He owned valu- 
able i^ruperty in La Fayette. For years be was the principal business man 
in the northeastern part of the county. J;uues Stewart's grocerv store 
was established in 1>S38. A. S. Smith sold goods in 1811. ""Biddlecome 
was in the mercantile business in 1851), but whether he continued from 
the time he first established his store until then, cannot bo learned with 
certainty. Peniwell & Shockley started a store early in the forties, but 
broke up in a few months. John Truitt sold whisky early. Heurv Fos- 
ter and John Douglierty conducted stores, the former during the forties 
and the latter after the death of Morgan. Westgate boaixled at Mr. 
Bailey's, just north of town, for a time after he had first started his 


store. He was a sensitive fellow, and a great lover of the sublime effects 
of alcohol when trouble arose." Mrs. Pratt, whose maiden name was 
Bailey, tells that when the wonderful meteoric shower occurred, in No- 
vember, 1833. Westgate was terribly frightened, and really thought the 
day of judgment was at hand. He took to whisky to drown his anxiety. 
and for two weeks, wallowed in a continual debauch. The world did not 
end, but the protracted drunk did, and "Westgate came out like the boy 
after the mule had kicked him — wiser, but not so handsome. 

The Hague Brothers sold goods during the fifties. Other merchants 
have been the Franklin Brothers; Samuel Bittinger, an excellent man, 
now in business at the county seat, sold goods during the last war. He 
owns a farm near Green Hill, upon which is an enormous mound, the 
reputed work of the pre-historic Mound-Builders; but the writer of this 
chapter, after an examination of the mound and surroundings, is satisfied 
that it is a natural, though peculiar formation, due to the action of Little 
Pine Creek and its tributaries, probably thousands of years ago. Mr. 
Bittinger has often refused to have it opened. It is about forty feet 
high, and several hundi'ed feet in basial diameter. Other business men 
have been Thomas C. Bailey, Lewis Le^vis, Elijah Dawson, Cummins & 
Whistler, T. M. Davis, W. K. Slaughter, Simeon Thompson, George 
Thompson, John W. James, William Timmons, Wallace Bailey, Dr. A. 
J. Adams, T. W. J. Sullivan, Dr. A. V. Moore. John and Zed Lewis 
burned brick early. Elijah Holloway made chairs, commencing before 
1845. Obed Ward sold goods for a time since 1845. Among the physi- 
cians have been Hillis, Birch. Frankebarger, Stephens, Pressley, Sanders, 
Cheneweth, Lowery, Edwards and the present, Drs. Vick, Moore and 
Gray. Among the Postmasters have been Biddlecome, Morgan, Samuel 
Bittinger, Henry Foster. Thomas Davis, and the -present agent, Thomas ' 
Bailey. William and HoraficT Bailey conducted a saw mill as early as 
1835-36. It was the usual old fashioned mill, operated by water- 
power on Little Pine Creek. It ran for about twelve years, and fur- 
nished the lumber for all the early houses. 

Several secret societies have been established in the town— Odd Pel 
lows. Masons, Good Templars, and perhaps others. The real name of 
the town, until about 1869, was Milford; but at that date the citizens 
decided at the polls that the town should be incorporated, and at this time, 
largely through the influence of the United Brethren, it was designated 
Green Hill. The incorporation led to cleanliness and to sidewalks, 
either of boards or gravel, largely the latter. There is not a brick build- 
ing in the town except the seminary. For the last thirty or forty years, 
there has been no liquor sold except once for about six months, when a 
man who had undertaken the business was compelled to shut up shop, 
as he received scarcely any patronage. The town has a present popula- 
tion of over two hundred. 


This village was laid out in April, 1833, by Isaac Eains, proprietor, 
on the northwest quarter of Section 1^7, Township 23 north. Range 8 
west. Nine blocks of eight lots each were surveyed, the plat showing 
East, Jackson, Main and Bridge streets, and Water, Second, Third and 
Fourth streets. Some time before this, probably as early as 1832, Mr. 
Rains had come to the place, had located his mill site, and had erected 
a rude frame dwelling fi'om boards sawed at the saw mill he had just 
finished: His dam was located above the present bridge, and was so 


imperfect that it was often washed away, thus suspending the 02:)eration 
of his mill and perplexing the settlers with incoavenienee. On the hill 
south of town, he found a granite bowlder, which had been split by a 
level surface into two equal fragments. These he dressed and fitted in 
one apartment of his mill, to grind corn and wheat for the settlers. Jt 
is said he furnished (juite a respectable article of flour, and his meal 
could not be beat. He did good work at his saw mill also. Both mills 
were very convenient for the settlers in that vicinity, as it saved long 
journeys through bottomless roads with poor teams to distant mills. 
Among the other early residents of the town were Michael Creekpaum. Sam- 
uel Harris, Granville Davis, Jesse Harlan, a carpenter. John Bartlett, 
Thomas Ba'-tlett, M. H. Lewis, a blacksmith. Abraham Howery. a tailor. 
Dr. I. W. Smith, John Brown, James Wilson, .Joseph Smith, a wacon- 
maker, Joseph Cowgiil, a tanner, and James Piatt, a blacksmith. G. 
W. Literal sold liquor in Eainsville as early as March, 1884. at which 
time he was licensed to thus sell by the County Board. He did not re- 
main longer, probably, than during the year 1834. In the autumn of 
1835, Samuel Harris & Co, opened a store of general merchandise, 
valued at about SI, 000. About the same time, or a little later, Chester 
Clark did likewise. Michael Creekpaum opened a tavern, fi'om the bar 
of which he sold liquor. In November. 1836. Thomas Clawson began selling 
merchandise, and at the same time M, H. Lewis opened a store or saloon ol 
" wet and dry groceries. " A man named Bushnell was in about this time 
for a few months with goods. At this time, also, X. Blue was dealing 
out liquor a mile or so above Eainsville, on the creek, and John H. Bart" 
lett was doing likewise at his distillery a mile below to^t-n. Whisky was 
thought then to be one of the "necessities of life." Levi Douthil 
opened a saloon (that was not the name then) in about 1837. At the 
same time, M, H. & M. M. Milford were licensed to " vend foreign and 
domestic merchandise." John H. Bartlett removed his liquor establish- 
ment to Eainsville, where he made a great deal of monev. Samuel Har- 
ris still sold merchandise. Mr. Cowgiil was doing quite an extensive 
business at his tannery. He manufactured a few horse collars, and sup- 
plied the shoe-makers, for miles around, with leather, ili-. Bartlett's 
sale of " spirituous and strong liquors" was so great that he was re- 
quired to pay an annual license of 8'J5. This was'^in about 1S3S. His 
relative, Jeflerson Bartlett, opened a store of merchandise in 183S' 
Jesse Harlan sold liquor in 1839, Lvon ct Aldrieh bec-an sellin.^ mer 
chandise in 1830. Creekpaum still conducted his tavern and saloo'n and 
Samue Harris his general store. Abner Evans opened a general store 
m 1810. traucis Bowmgton established a tavern in I84O lldrich 
was alone in the general store in 1840. Lvon having left. In 1844 :Mc 
Murtrie & Porter were licensed to sell general merchandise; in 184'5*G 
V. Hofiman the same, and in 1847 Lewis Tavlor the same In 1848 
Mabie's Circus was advertised to show at Eainsville, but for some reason 
did nothllthe appoiutuient. In 1S50, Mr. Hoffman took his brother 
for a partner Joseph Smith sold liquor in 1851. xNewtou Mor-^an es- 
tablished a braach store at Eainsville in 185-:. Laid \- Jacobs'be.-an 
«ie mercantile pursuit in April. kS53. At this time the Hoffman 
Brothers were doing a big business. In 1840. Eainsville had a popula- 
tion of about eighteen families. It was then a " hard place." owil^ to 
the,.rous conduot of drunken men. who were habitually seen reefim-- 
around the town engaged in tipsy fights. The venerable old settlei" 


Wesley Gray, says that on one occasion he himself rode on horseback 
into a saloon there, poured out a glass of whisky, tossed it off, and then 
rode out and went on his way. It is stated that Eainsville has never 
seen the time when whisky could not be obtained from some " shebang" 
within its limits. The Indians used to go there often for "fire-water," 
but they were less noisy and quarrelsome than the whites. 

H. &. C. Gregory were selling goods in 1851; also Henry Jacobs and 
Newton Morgan. John Shawcross began in 1857; he is yet in business, 
and is one of the substantial men of the town. "Woodlin & Coffin suc- 
ceeded Jacobs about a dozen years ago. Other business men of the town 
have been Hoffman & Nern during the war, James F. Brown, W. F. 
Nern, John Nern, Frank Hoffman and Brown & Crabb. Among the 
later doctors have been Isaac Smith, Steinbel, McCarn, Hamar, E. L . 
Booth, "Wycoff, Armstrong, Page, Christly, Osborn and Hoffman. 
Among the Postmasters have been W. F. Hoffman, G. W. MoCarn, Jacobs, 
Joseph Shawcross, Hoffman, Bartlett, Brown and John Shawcross. Larson 
& Sandel opened a shoe store in 1882. Newton Ogbum manufactured 
wagons. E. Nostrum follows the same pursuit now. James Hawkins 
built the present big grist mill some forty years ago Ten or twelve 
years later, it passed to John Carpenter. Twelve or fifteen years ago, 
James Wilson purchased it. It has been an excellent mill in its day. 
Its flour is not surpassed. 

In 1875, the Knights of Honor organized a lodge in the town. The 
charter members were Daniel Sigler, S. N. Osborn, John Coffinberry, C. 
B. Thompson, S. H. Hickman, J. M. Hooker, R. H. Wycoff, W. H. H. 
lleed and James Hooker. Daniel Sigler was the first Dictator. F. M. 
Jones was the first initiate. A Temple of Honor was established about 
eight years ago, and for a time flourished with a large membership. It 
became defunct after a few years. The Odd Fellows established a lodge 
about thirty years ago. They are now in good circumstances; own a 
building in which is their flne hall. The Knights of Honor own the upper 
story of the schoolhouse, where they meet to familiarize themselves with 
the delightful pleasure of riding the goat. The Masonic lodge was or- 
ganized in 1864. It is No. 315. Among the first members were Peter 
Garner, Joshua Anderson, William Rhode, William Brier, E. L. Booth, 
W. Rhode, Caleb Rhode; J. M. Rhode and others. William Rhode was 
the first W. M. The lodge is in good condition, with an active member- 
ship. The present population of the town is about one hundred. 


This town owes its origin and permanence to the railroad. In ancient 
times, ci%'ilization sought the sea, or the larger streams, that would float 
vessels engaged in commerce. Inland towns were compelled to re- 
sort to wagons, mules, camels, etc. But when steam was harnessed, and 
made to propel enormous burdens on a net work of iron roads through 
the hearts of the continents, a revolution in commercial modes and facil- 
ities largely altered the customs that had been in vogue from time im- 
memorial. Towns sprang into existence without regard to location on 
streams or bodies of water. Old towns, of great former commercial 
power, were avoided by the iron horse, and soon fell into desertion and 
decay, reluctantly yielding their accumulated wealth and grandeur in 
building up the new along the iron roads. The rails had no sooner been 
laid across Warren County than the town of Marshfield was laid out. 


It was named for the residence of the " Great Expounder" of the Con- 
stitution, Daniel Webster. Some ten blocks, of eight lots .^ach, were 
laid out north of the railroad in May, 1857. The plat, as recorded, 
does not state the name of the man laying out the town — that is, the 
name of the proprietor. The only house near the site of the town, pre- 
vious to this, was that of Elijah "Cronkhite. which had been built many 
years before. About the time the lots were laid out, W. L. and Robert 
Hamilton erected a frame dwelling — the one now occupied by the fam- 
ily of the former, and Kent & Hitchens erected a warehouse, completing 
the same before the 1st of June, at which time they had contracted to 
have the building ready for the receipt of grain. They also built their 
two-storied frame building, into which they placed between $4. 000 and 
$5,000 worth of goods. This was the first store, which was opened in 
October, 1S57. The Hamilton building was used as a boarding-house. 
Among the early residents were James Shanklin, Daniel Forsher, Walter 
B. Miller, John Nail, Isaac Julian. Al. Green. Talbot and others, j\L-. 
Nail was a blacksmith and wagon maker, and is yet following the same 
callincr in the village. Mr. Miller besran sellings from a creneral stock of 
goods, as did Isaac Julian soon afterward. Grin Aborn was the first 
doctor. He is now a resident of the village, though he lived for a num- 
ber of years in Indianapolis. He is a man of great force of character 
and one of the ablest physicians in the county. Mr. Hitchens left Marsh- 
field in 1859, and the Kent Brothers assumed his business. The Hamil- 
tons, who had been wood contractors on the railroad from Lebanon to 
State Line City, began to sell agricultural implements when the village 
first started, and W, L, is yet in the business. These men, who were 
carpenters, erected the greater number of the buildings, not onlv in town, 
but throughoat all the surrounding country. They were building contract- 
ors, and some j^ears did an aggregate business of about S"25,00(\ 

But one of the most important features during the earlv history of the 
town was the grain trade. Mr. Hamilton told the writer that from 
250,000 to 300,000 bushels of grain were bought there aunuallv, for 
several of the earliest years; while a citizen living a short distance "north, 
who was frequently in town at that period, thought the quantity would 
reach 400,000 bushels. Elisha Hitchens, one of the buyers, w"ho is at 
present Postmaster at Williamsport, stated that, as a matter of fact, not 
more than about 175,000 bushels were bought any one vear. This il- 
lustrates how easily people may be mistdjeit. Bitt the quautity actually 
bought was certainly eaormou^. A long Hue of teams perh-ips a hita- 
dred or more, would stand some days waiting their turn to uaload. The 
facilities for weighing and handling grain were not as perfect as at pres- 
ent, and the accumulation of teams, many of which had to remain until 
after midnight, created an impression not supported bv the actual state 
of facts. After the expiration of eight or ten years, the Ivonts ceased to 
l>uy grain, and W. L. Hamilton began, and is yet buying and shipping, 
A sheller, run by steam, is operated in connection with'^the warehouse. 
James McDonald was in town early with a stock of goods, as was the fir.. 
Gnudy & Kerr. The Hamiltons built the Perrin"^ House for J. Q,. A 
Porrin, who yet owns the building. Frank Brown began merchandisiu^T 
a few years later. Frank Baum was in with drugs. ""and Jonas Baum" 
Albert Johnson and J. 1'. Stinespring with groceries. David Holti 
came with his cmnmodity comparatively early. 

In ISdO, Colfax Lodge, No. 100, I. "O. 0."F.,was removed from West 



Lebanon to Marshfield. Here it met until about 1865, when its charter 
was surrendered, and the lodge became a thing of the past. In 1873, 
Hedrick Lodge, U. D. , F. & A. M. , was instituted, with the following 
first officers: C. W. Osborn, W. M. ; Edwin Pechin, S, W. ; H. Ander° 
son, J. W. ; J. E. Hedrick, Treasurer; H. C. Johnson, Secretary; E. S. 
Johns, J. D. ; A. B. Cronkhite, S. D. ; W. L, Hamilton, Tiler. 


This to f/n was laid out in November, 1829, on the southwest fraction 
of the north half of Section 21, Township 20 north, Range 9 west, by 
"William Willmeth and Samuel Hill, by his attorney, owners and pro- 
prietors. A portion of one square was reserved for a market-place. An 
addition was laid out soon afterward on the north, from which a portion 
of one lot was reserved for a public spring of good water, and a square 
on the west for a " school and meeting house." This old town has been 
so long defunct that great difficulty was (Experienced in getting accurate 
information regarding it. It was situated on the bank of the Wabash, 
in Mound Township, and had a wharf where vessels landed and loaded 
their cargoes of freight and humanity. In November, 1828, just a year 
before the town was laid out, William and Charles Willmeth had 
opened a store on the site of the village, paying §10 for their license. 
Their goods were worth something over $800, and consisted of a general 
assortment. In 1830, Samuel Hill, one of the proprietors of the town, 
came on with goods worth |2, 500, for the sale of which he was required 
to pay a license of $15. This was the largest and best stock of goods in 
the county at the time. W^illiam Hall began to sell liquor in March, 
1832, and Abijah B. Watson succeeded him the following autumn. 
George Hobbs was-selling liquor and groceries after March, 1834. Be- 
fore this, in September, 1831, Richard Taylor had opened- a store of 
general merchandise. His license, the following year, was $17, show- 
ing that his stock of goods was valued at nearly $3,000. George F. 
Taylor obtained an interest in the store the following year. In 1835, 
the goods became the property of Taylor & Cunningham. Sophia B. 
Weaver sold v:et and dry groceries in 1835. John McConaell sold 
groceries in 1836. At the same time, Willmeth & Hobbs wore selling 
merchandise. In 1837, A. & E. Rogers engaged in the mercantile pur- 
suit. The Beckets were selling liquor as early as 1882, but soon changed 
their stock to merchandise. Alfred Becket was alone in 1838. Samuel 
Wetzell was licensed to sell goods in 1839. J. B. King and others re- 
monstrated against granting the license to Wetzell, on the ground that 
he kept a disorderly house, but he was finally licensed by the County 
Board for $37. It is stated that he conducted a distillery in connection 
with his liquor store. The Rogers Brothers and Taylor & Cunningham 
were yet in business in 1839. Samuel Murphy began selling liquor in 
1841.' A man named Fagan sold liquor iu 1845. W. A. Shangster sold 
merchandise in 1846. After this period, the death of the town became 
a certainty. The mechanics who had ventured there in prosperous days 
now quie'tly departed for more promising fields, and the epitaph of 
Carthage was written for Baltimore. The highway of water gradually 
ceased to be traveled as in earlier years; the business men, one by one, 
left; families removed, and at last, after many years, the town that once 
gave much promise was left to the sole habitation of the batrachians. 


Considerable grain and pork were shipped from this old port in prosper- 
ous years. The town once had a population of about seventy souls. 


John Thompson built the first house, in 1854. The following year, 
the brick house was erected by Aadrew Brier. The church was built in 
1867. George A. Shaffer sold the first goods in 1873, his store being 
the old blacksmith shop; his stock was worth about $1,400. The build- 
ing now occupied by Mr. Sentman as a store was moved up from the 
Schoonover farm, where it had stood for a few years. A Mr. Kelly' suc- 
ceeded Shaffer, and then came Howland. after which the town had no 
store for a short time. Shawcross came in next; then Kelly again, and 
then the present merchant, Mr. Sentman. John Thompson was the first 
blacksmith. D. Hudson conducted a wagon shop. Dr. Wesley Clark 
was the first Postmaster — perhaps as earh' as 1846. The office was 
then called Clark's Cross Roads. In about 1873, Shaifer had the namn 
changed to Carbondale. 


This is a small town on the Wabash Railroad, in Steuben Township. 
It was laid out by G. ~SV. Johnson, who owned the land and lived near 
by. It was laid out at the crossing of the Chicago, Danville & Yin- 
cennes Railroad, and has a station house, one store and a residence or two. 


This was a paper town only. It was laid out on Section 33, Town- 
ship 23 north, Range 8 west, in July. 1S30. by John H. Bartlett. Bart- 
lett's dwelling was there, also his liquor store, and perhaps a saw mill, 
but that is all. 


This is a little village of recent gowth, on the narrow gauge rail- 
road, on the Bouthern boundary of Jordan Townshij^. The first house 
was built by John Hendricks, and the first store opened by Zarse & 
Ahrens. Frank Hartman opened a drug store. About eic^ht or ten 
families reside in the village, which was named for an. old settler living 
neai-. A schoolhouse was built there about two years a^o. 


This was a very early village, and was situated about two miles east 
of Marshfield. If lots were laid, out, they were not recorded. Com- 
paratively nothing can be learned regarding this little town. Several 
houses were built, and various mechanics appeared to ply their craft. It 
is said that William Newell and Thomas Washbiu'n conducted stores 
there very early, but there seem to be some doubts about the troth of 
the statement A blacksmith was there, at all events, and a few dwell- 
ings, but all else is enveloped in mystery. The village bec-au early and 
then died early, as good-looking babies are said to do. ° 





DURING- the early history of Warren County, and prior to the rebsll- 
ion of 1861-65, the old miltia system, which had done snch excel- 
lent service in all the Indian border wars, was in force throughout the 
Hoosier State. From the Indian tribes, depleted by protracted and 
periodical contests, but little danger was apprehended, though the habits 
induced in the whites by a life spent amid the alarms of the frontier, 
forbade the total relinquishment of organized bodies of militia, or the 
obliteration of that grateful sense of public security which their pres- 
ence afforded. But the wonderful strides of the State in population and 
prosperity, and the absence of encounters with predatory Indian bands, 
soon gave satisfactory assui'ance of general safety, and the old service- 
able system was permitted to die out. It is true a partial organization 
was maintained, and in the '50' s arms were seciu-ed from the Govern- 
ment of the State; but these organizations were little better than assem- 
blages of young men for sport and frolic, and had no feature in common 
with the rigid discipline that prevailed in the regular army. Among 
these companies was one known as the Milford Blues, organized in July, 
1856, the officers being Elihu A. Saunders, Captain; J. A. Heigh, First 
Lieutenant; A. J. Ryan, Second Lieutenant; B. F. Magee, Ensign. 


If any of the early settlers of the county were ex-soldiers of the Rev- 
olutionary war, such fact is not known to the writer. Doubtless there 
were a few. Quite a goodly number had served in the war of 1812, 

among whom were the following: David McConuell, Perrin, who 

was at New Orleans in 1815, Seth St. John, who was at Hull's surrender; 
Andrew Pierce, Peter C. Hall, John "Williams, Jacob White, William 
Odle, Perrin Kent, and others whose names cannot be learned. Aaron 
Spiser served in Capt. Brown's Company C, Battalion of Mounted 
Rangers, dm-ing the campaign in Missouri Territory against Gen. Black- 
hawk, in 1832-33. His discharge is on record in the Recorder's office. 
The campaign extended into the present States of Illinois. Missouri, 
Iowa, and possibly Wisconsin. A company was raised in Fountain 
County for the Mexican war and was joined by a few men from WaiTen 
County. The Captain of the company was R. M. Evans. Quite a num- 
ber of "ex- soldiers of this war have lived in Warren County. 


Opening Scenes. — The political campaign of I860 was enthusiatic 
and determined. All the skill, learning and eloquence of both parties in 
the county were brought to bear upon the issues that were overshadowing 


the nation. Every schoolhouse, grove, and many of the churches were 
occupied by ultra politiciauH, who, with all the fiery spirit of the hour, 
sought to penetrate the political gloom and direct the popular will. 
Wide-awakes, with gaudy oil-cloth caps and capes of red. white, blue, 
or hickory, and with long lines of flaming torches, paraded the streets 
of villages and towns at night. The stirring notes of fife and drum 
quickened the step and fired the blood. Many fully realized that the 
countrv was on the brink of some great calamity, and spared no efi'ort to 
have the true political situation thoroughly understood. At last came 
the news of Lincoln's election, and great was the joy of the Republicans, 
who held various public meetings that the members might have the oppor- 
tunity of mingling their congratulations. As time passed, and the South- 
ern States, one after another, passed ordinances of secession, and the 
air became rife with fearful rumors of impending war, the inbred loy- 
alty of the citizens rose above party limits and all looked with hopeful 
eye to the new administration for relief. In the midst of all the rising 
tumult, nothing was to be seen at the head of the Government but pa- 
tience, charity and humanity — nothing but kind and pacific promises. 
The winter wore away, but the shadows thickened, and many faithful 
hearts lost hope. Many feared that Mr. Lincoln was weak and vacillat 
ing, and his inaction and appai-ent apathy in the face of steady prepar- 
ations for war in the South, gave color to the thought. Petitions were 
poured upon him from all the Northern States, urging him to strangle 
the hydra of secession in its infancy, but still he hesitated. In 
view of the darkness that shrouded the nation at subsequent stages of 
the war, when a great party in the North was denouncing the Adminis- 
tration, and treasonable outbreaks were occurring with fearful and start- 
ling frequency, the transcendent wisdom of Mr. Lincoln in throwing 
upon the South the burden of commencing the strife, even in the face of 
the most abundant concessions, undoubtedly saved the country from hope- 
less disruption. Even as it was, the escape from open and concerted re- 
bellion in the North was dangerously narrow. 

When the news of the fall of Fort Sumter was received, and doitbt 
and dread were changed to certainty and concern, the most intense ex- 
citement everywhere prevailed. All former political antagonisms were 
speedily relinquished. The rural districts were depopulated, all busi- 
ness pursuits wei'o suspended, and the towns, telegraph offices and news 
stations were thronged with vast crowds of excited, indignant and de- 
termined citizens. Neighbors gathered at every cross-road to discuss the 
awful situation and encourage one another with hopeful words. Mothers 
and maidens who had never felt the anguish of separation from loved ones 
at the stern call of a nation at war, were now pale with the first sicken- 
ing fear. But the intense feeling of terror that seized upon all hearts 
soon gave place to prompt and thoughtful action and invincible manifes- 
tations of loyality. 

The issue of the lirpithlieaii of April IS, iSGl, contained the follow- 
ing leader: 

TO .\HMS. 

We tliiTik thr lime has rciinc (or :ill true patriets to act in dofense nf thoir coun- 
try, Ik'v insliiut.ioii.s .111(1 licr laws. We have heeu oveiTuu by a swaiui of Southern 
Tones, both in ami out of Congress, for years, and it is now lime for free 
men ot the North— peaee-lovins and law-abidin;;- citizens of oureounlrv Ye who 
stand upon the glorious |il,iifoim of our Union, the constitution and "the enforce- 
ment ot the laws, and who liave borne and foreborne with traitors in arms a>'-ainst 


you until forbearance has ceased to be a virtue, the crisis is nov.- upon j-ou. The 
fort upon whose defense your hearts were with an intense and all-absorbing enthusi- 
asm fixed, has been surrendered to traitors, and the flag- of beauty and of glory, at 
the sight of which every true American heart swells with pride, has been struck to 
those whose sworn dulj' it was to upliold it against foreign and domestic enemies. 
Is there a man worthy the name American whose soul does not burn with indigna- 
tion deep at this insult to the sacred emblem which he lias been taught to love and 
honor? This damning blot upon our national escutcheon must be wiped out with 
blood. Treason must be crushed with the strong arm of this Government, and the 
majesty of the laws vindicated, if need be, by a million men at the point of the 
bayonet and at the cannon's mouth. The time for appeal, argument, conciliation, 
has gone with the surrender of Sumter. Let the tocsin now sound, and from every 
hill and valley, from lake and river, from mountain and prairie througliout all the 
loyal and true States, let patriots rally to the call of their country, resolved that this 
stain upon our flag shall be atoned for, that the supremacy of the Union shall be 
maintained and the laws shall be enforced be the conseciuences what the.y may. Woe 
be to those who shall attempt to withstand the tempest of the nation's wratii. 

Immediately following the news of the fall of Sumter, came the 
prompt call of the President for 75,000 volunteers to put down the rebell- 
ion, and the hope of the citizens kindled into instant and energetic tire. 
Hundreds in the county came forward and signified their readiness to go 
out to their country's battles. Mothers were seen encouraging their 
sons, wives their husbands, sisters their brothers and sweethearts their 
lovers; and old men, long past the prime of life, with feet already on 
the brink of the grave, strenuously insisted on enrolling their names 
with their sons anci grandsons, and considered it insulting when they 
were refused the sacred privilege of avenging the wrong to the old flag. 
America had never before witnessed such a popular uprising. There 
was not a town of any consequence in Warren County where indignant 
mass meetings were not held, and where the patriotism of the people did 
not find prolonged utterance. 

First War Meeting. — The call of the President for Volunteers was 
no sooner received than the citizens of Williamsport and vicinity were 
summoned to assemble at the Court liouse to consider how the crisis 
should be met. Accordingly, a large crowd gathered on Tuesday evening, 
April 16, and B. S. Wheeler was appointed chairman and Lev. Miller 
Secretary. William P. Pihodes called the house to order and stated the 
object of the meeting, and then, amid the wildest enthusiasm, Col. Bry- 
ant was called out. He delivered a thrilling speech, reviewing the 
great issues before the people, insisting thatfhe South was wholly in the 
wrong, and that it was the duty of every loyal man to assist with might 
and means in preserving the union of the States. At the conclusion of 
his remarks, which were received with prolonged cheers, he moved that 
a paper be drawn up, calling for volunteers, and tendering their service 
to the Governor of Indiana. This was done, himself, Dr. F. M. T^bbs, 
James Park and H. P. Downing preparing the paper. While the others 
were thus engaged, James Park entertained the audience with an elo- 
quent speech. About twenty-five volanteers appended their names to the 
enlistment roll. On motion, a committee (B. F. Gregory, Samuel F. 
Messner and H. R. Pomeroy) was appointed to solicit aid in equipping 
the "Warren Company" fo'r the field. The Rppitblioan said: "The 
meeting was largely attended, and by men of all parties. Much enthu- 
siasm was manifested, and it was the unanimous sentiment of the meet- 
ing that the Union must and shall be preserved. Three rousing cheers 
were given for Maj. Anderson, for his gallant defense of Fort Sumter. 
Adjourned to Wednesday evening. " 


The Second War Meeting.— The citizens again assembled at the 
court house on Wednesday night, April 17, on which occasion the en- 
thusiasm and loyalty of the previous i^ieeting were greatly surpassed. 
Benjamin Crow, an old resident of Kentucky, Jesse Harper, Col. Brj'ant 
and others were called out. A select glee club sang the stirring national 
aire, and the martial band executed Yankee Doodle in a manner that 
brought upon them the thunders of the house. The company was in- 
creased to about sixty, and the meeting adjourned to Friday night, on 
which occasion the full number, except a few, was raised. On the fol- 
lowing Monday, April 22, within six days after th6 call of the President, 
was received, the company was completed and organized, and was on the 
train bound for Indianapolis. The Republicom stated that the company 
numbered 177 men, rank and file. Just before their departure the\ met at 
the court house and elected the following officers: James E. M. Bry- 
ant, Captain; Dickson Fleming, First Lieutenant; Lev. Miller, Second 
Lieutenant. A beautiful national banner was then presented to the 
company by Miss Hannah Johnson on behalf of the ladies of •Williams- 
port and vicinity, in a brief, earnest and loyal speech, to which Capt. 
Bryant responded, pledging the lives of his company to tlie last man to 
prevent the flag from being trailed in the dust. The company was then 
drawn up in line and each member presented a copy of the New Testa- 
ment. They marched to the depot, accompanied by the whole town. 
Short speeches were made in the open air until the train came in. Ah! 
it was so hard to part from dear ones, for it was well known that 
many would never return. Tne first bitterness of that long and dreadful 
war wrung all hearts with keene it anguish as the train slowly steamed 
out of the depot, bearing its human sacrifice. The next day at noon 
they were in Indianapolis. There were but few counties in the State of 
no greater population than "Warren which succeeded in getting full com- 
panies into the three- months service. So great was the rush for the en- 
listment offices that Indiana alone could easily have supplied the entire 
call of 75,000 men; and at that time it was considered a mark of great 
distinction for small counties far removed from the rendezvous to out- 
strip in activity the larger and nearer counties. The fact of Warren's 
loyalty and activity was so manifest that the Republican, of May 2, pub- 
lished the following; 


We doubt if any portion of tlie State has been more prompt to respond to the 
call of the President for troops than this county. Other counties have furnished 
more men, but few, if any, have done it with a" greater deuree of willingness and 
contributed more in jiroportion. Of the volunteers tliat left last week, loO remain 
in the service, and thirty more left Independence and Pine Yillace this wcel< to com- 
plete two full companies. Another company of rifles is now forming;-, and will be 
ready in a few days to march Avhenever required, makina; in all overJ;W men This 
proportion all over the State would furnish 30,000 or o.""i,000 men Hurrah for Old 
Warren and the Union! 

Continued Volnnteering.—The company of Capt. Bryant had no 
sooner departed tlian immediate steps were taken to raise another. West 
Lebanon headed the movement, opening enlistment offices at Williams- 
port, Independence, Rainsville, and tit one or more points in the south- 
western part of the coimty, besides at Lebanon. The companv was 
called the Warren Rifle Company. The county seat came to the assist- 
ance of this company, and on the afternoon of April, 24. held a meet- 
ing at the court house to encourage the enlistment of new men, to pro- 


vide for the families of the company just gone, and to organize commit- 
tees to receive donations of food, money or clothing, to be sent to the 
members of Capt. Bryant's company. On the 27th of April, an enthu- 
siastic union meeting was held at the Campbellite Church in Pine Township 
to give the volunteers of "Warren and Benton Counties a free dinner and 
a farewell. J". M. Harris was chosen Chairman and W. Marvin Secre- 
tary. Bev. M. S. Eagsdale, Dr. L. Buckles and Hon. J. Young deliv- 
ered brief, patriotic speeches. While the orators were entertaining the 
assemblage, E. Sargent, W. J. Templeton, J. Young, J. T. Stokes and 
W. B Smith prepared a series of loyal resolutions, one of them being as 

Besolved, That we, the citizens of Warren and Benton Counties, do pledge our 
live,9 and sacred honor to stand by and support the Union, believing it to be our 
dutj' to suppress treason wherever found. 

An excellent time was enjoyed. A splendid dinner that the volun- 
teers often thought of afterward when half or quite starved down in the 
South, was partaken of by a large crowd. 

The First County Relief. — As early as the 30th of April, the Board of 
Commissioners appropriated means from the county treasury to provide 
for the wants of the families of volunteers, and directed that each town 
ship should appoint suitable committees to enroll the names of such fam- 
ilies, to ascertain their wants and to see that the county appropriation 
was judiciously expended. These orders were promptly executed, and 
from that on, while the war continued, a thorough system of caring for 
the families of soldiers was in active operation. There is certainly no 
county in the State of equal or less population that deserves greater 
credit than Warren for the earnest and expensive care manifested for 
the families of soldiers. More on this subject will be found farther on-* 
in this chapter. 

Letters from the Cami:) and Field. — The first company was scarcely out 
of the county before long letters were received from the boys, and pub- 
lished, describing graphically the ups and downs of a soldier's life. Every 
letter was written with that unwavering confidence so aniversal at that early 
period of the war, which predicted that the rebels would receive an awful 
whipping when " our regiment " (" said by competent military critics to be 
the finest in camp here") met them on the field of battle. If the tone 
of the letters was over-confident, it was also over-loyal, if such a thing 
was possible, for the most passionate language was employed to paint 
the agony and universal death that would ensue ere the old flag should 
be permitted "to trail in the dust." But this "over-confidence'^ and this 
"over-loyalty" revealed the true state of the heart, and proved the sol- 
dier boys equal to the trying dangers of the hour. Letters came from 
the "Warren Guards," thanking the ladies of various parts of the county 
for luxuries, clothing and blankets which had been sent to them at In- 
dianapolis. ' The Repuhlican of May 9 said: 

Tlie ladies of this town are for the Union to a man. Thej^ have made and sup- 
plied red flannel shirts for one company from this county, and are ready to provide 
in the same loyal and charitable way for another whenever it becomes necessary. 

On Saturday, May 11, a rousing war meeting was held at the court 
house to organize a company of Home Guards. E. M. Allen was chair- 
man; W. P. Rhodes, Secretary. B. F. Gregory, H. M. Nourse and B. 
S. Wheeler prepared articles of association for the company. Wliile Mr. 
May delivered an eloquent address, about thirty volunteers appended 


their names to the roll of the company. The meeting adjourned to re- 
assemble again the following Monday night, on which occasion, amid 
great loyalty and enthusiasm, the enrollment was increased to about 
seventy men" The officers were elected as follows: James M. Rhodifer, 
Captain; L. S. Hitchens, First Lieutenant; and Peter Mahn, Second 
Lieutenant. About this time, companies of home guards were organized 
at Pine Village, Rainsville and ilarshfield. A company of cavalry was 
organized in the neighborhood of Crow's Grove in May and Sune. A 
grand military parade of the County Home Guards occurred at Eaius- 
ville early in June. 

The Campaign and Beturn of the Warren Guards —The "Warren 
Guards, Capt. Bryant, became Company B of the Tenth Regiment, which 
rendezvoused at Indianapolis. The organization was scarcely com- 
pleted ere Capt. Bryant was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel of the 
regiment and Dickson Fleming was appointed Captain of Company B. 
The regiment left Indianapolis on the l9th of June, having been mus- 
tered in April 25. It moved to West Virginia, and early in July partici- 
pated in the battle of Rich Mountain, where the Warren County boys 
displayed their valor in a brilliant charge on the enemy, routing him 
and capturing his guns. After various marches and a great deal of fa- 
tigue duty, the regiment returned to Indianapolis, where it arrived on 
the 2Sth of July. The citizens of Warren County made extensive prep- 
arations to receive the boys on their retm'u. A public meeting was 
held at Williamsport, July 31, to complete the arrangements. H. M. 
Nourse was Chairman and W\ P. Rhodes Secretary. B. F. Gregory 
stated the object of the meeting. B. F. Gregory. George Hitchens, S. 
F. Messner, J. H. Brown and B. S.Wheeler were appointed a committee 
to prepare the dinner. J. H. Brown was selected to deliver the welcom- 
ing speech at the depot. The following resolution was adopted: 

Resolred, That the Warren Guards aud other members of the Tenth Resiment. 
the military companies of ^Varren County, aud all the citizens of the couutj-. are 
invited to attend a picnic at Williamsport on Saturday, August 3. 

All necessary committees were appointed. West Lebanon also made 
arrangements to receive the boys in a fitting manner. Jesse Harper was 
to welcome them with a speech, The officers and mea of the company 
were to give an account of their army experiences. Notu-se, Brown, 
Cobb, Park and Gregory were auuouneed to speak. A splendid dinner 
was to be enjoyed. The northern part of the county also decided to 
welcome the boys with speeches aud a tine dinner. All these pro- 
grammes wore carried into effect. How happy it made all to see broth- 
ers, husbands, fttthers, lovers in their blue uniforms, and hear their 
loved voices recotrnt the stirring scenes of active war! 

A Democratic Meeting. — The Deynon&is of Williamspvort and vicin- 
ity fixed a day iu August for a big political meeting and advertised that 
distinguished speakers from abroad would be present. But for some 
reason the expected orators did not arrive auil the meetin^^ was trans- 
formed into a Republican jubilee of the most enthusiastic tieseriptiou, 
iu which all loyal Democrats participated. Among the speakers were 
Dr. Whitehall, Rev. C. Hall and H. M. Nourse. A resolution was passed 
condemning the course of Senator Bright in Cono-ress. 

Reorganization of Company B. — Late in August, Lieut. Levin Mil- 
ler was authorized to re-organize Company B^ and the work was ac- 
tively begun, tpite a number of the old boys reeuterin.v its ranks 


though the majority were new men, anxious for a taste of war. An im- 
mense war meeting was held in the court house, August 31, to till up 
the company. Enlistment offices were oj^ened in all parts of the county. 
Schoolhouses wero filled with loyal assemblages which listened to fiery 
words from farmers and mechanics. The meeting at "Williamsport was 
one of the largest ever in the place. Delegations in wagons, drawn 
often by six horses, and men on horseback and on foot, came through the 
dust from all parts of the coitnty, led by stirring bands of martial music, 
adorned with national colors and dressed in holiday attire, while through- 
out the long ranks numerous banners and mottoes waved in the bright 
sunshine. All was loyalty and enthusiasm. Hon. James Wilson was 
orator. A short time before this meeting, the i?ejj((6Zi'ca» said: "War- 
ren County has 200 men who have gone into other regiments in other 
counties, and we have not a representative now in the field. " 

This knowledge was sufficient to lend additional activity to the en- 
rollment of Lieut. Miller's company. By the Dth of September, the 
number was almost raised, and a meeting was appointed for Monday, 
September 9, to complete and organize the company. The fact that 
about 200 men had gone out of the county to enlist, pntering the Tenth, 
Fifteenth, Twenty-first and other regiments, did not embarrass in the 
least the enrollment of men in Lieut. Miller's company. On Monday, 
September 9. the full number of men was secured. The following 
officers were commissioned September <.): Levin T. Miller, Captain; 
John P. Neiderauer, First Lieutenant; Henry C. Johnson, Second 
Lieutenant. Within a few days, the company moved by rail to Indianap- 
olis, followed by the tears and loving farewells of friends. It became 
Company K, of the Thirty-third llegiment, three years' service, and was 
mustered in about the middle of September, and soon afterward took the 

Continued Enlistmenia. — Capt. Miller's company was nn sooner off 
than the enlistment of men was renewed. Capt. Schobey began raising 
volunteers for the Fortieth Regiment. Lieut. Col. Blake of that regiment 
attended several meetings, delivering speeches and urging on the work. 
Col. Wilson also spoke at various places in the county. C. V. White and 
many citizens of the county were also active. Between thirty and forty 
men'were secured for the Fortieth Eegiment,, entering Company I, and 
being mustered December 21. Before this, however, during the month 
of September and October, William Cameron, Moses L. Burch and 
others, had secured nearly a full company in the county, and about the 
middle of October the members had elected Cameron, Captain, and Burch, 
First Lieutenant. S. T. Walker, <H. P. Downing and W. li, Stafford 
had assisted in raising the company. The oiScers of this company were 
mostly from Fountain County. Warren County soldiers enlisted and 
commanded by Fountain County officers! Although the company was 
completed in October, 1861, it was not mustered in until the latter part 
of February and the first of March, 1802. By that time many changes 
had taken place. Other officers and men from other counties had come 
in, but finally the men were named Company H and were assigned to the 
Sixtieth Eegiment. A big war meeting was held at Williamsport dur- 
ing the first week in February, 1862, to secure additional men for the 
Sixtieth. Major Templeton, Dr. Walker and R. C. Gregory, of La- 
fayette, were present to secure recruits. B. F, Gregory publicly prom- 
ised to pay each of the first three men to volunteer $5 per month as long 


as they remained in the service. That number of men came iDromptly 
forward. Dr. Messner then offered to give any single man $25 or any 
married man $oO to become the next volunteer, providing the man went 
from Williamsport, the offer not to be binding until the proposition of 
Mr. Gregory was filled. These offers fired the occasion with enthu- 
siasm. Dr. Messner' s offer was accepted. H. R. Pomeroy, Kent & 
Hitchens, Isaac and A. S. Jones, H. D. Thomas and J. H. Bonebrake and W. 
M. Haynes each offered $25 to each of the next six men who would volun- 
teer. The offer was instantly taken up. A " pony purse" of §20 was made 
up by Al Johnson, George Minier, S. D. Landon, W. P. Rhodes. John Canon, 
James Park and others, and another volunteer was secured. The re- 
cruiting officers from abroad remained several days, obtaining in that 
time about twenty volunteers, all of whom went into the bixtieth. The 
Republican said: ^ 

•It '.i * «• ]y[j. Gregory deserves the highest commendation for the active part 
he has taken in procuring recruits — ivoriiing indefatigahly since the first arrival of 
the recruiting officers — besides the praise due him for leading off in a generous and 
patriotic offer. * « » * 

In March, H. P. Downing and others secured about fifteen additional 
recruits for the Sixtieth. No doubt the earnest and sitccessful efforts 
made at this time were the means of clearing the county from the draft 
of the following October. Aftei this, during the months of April, May 
and June, but little was done to secure additional men for the war. 
Great interest was felt, however, in all the army movements; and when 
intelligence was received that some great battle had been fought, friends 
waited with anxious faces for news from their loved ones. Many a loyal 
heart was crushed when hhe sickening details of some bloodv battle were 
received. Boys were brought home and buried. Others came home to 
die of frightful wounds or fitful fever. But loyalty did not falter. 

E))lisfments under the Calls of July and August. lSii2. — On the 2d 
of July, the President called for 300,000 men. the quota of Indiana 
being eleven regiments. The i?ep((5?/co;i of July 10 contained the fol- 

The President of the United Stales has made another call upon the patriotism 
of the people, and eleven resjiments have been called for from Indiana. Oar patri- 
otic Governor has made an eloquent appeal to the citizens of the State to come forth 
and maintain for the State the high character which her brave sons have won for 
her upon fields of strife. Responses from thirtv counties have been received and 
Warren County will not be behind them in action. Col. Brvant is alreadv recruit- 
ing a company m this couutv. He is a tried soldier, and no doubt his companions 
in arms will .gladly rally again around their former leader. * * * One month's 
pay in advance and ^.25 of the bountv. Soldiers of Warren Couutv forward 
march ! 

The next issue of the paper published a call for a war meeting to be 
held at the court bouse the evening of July 19, to take immediat'e steps 
to raise the county quota under the call, " the recruits raised to be as- 
signed to the Seventy-second Regiment. Appended to this call was the 
following announcement: 

ir a company of soldiers to the number of sixtv-four privates can be made uD 
in M arren County m fourteen days from this date, I will donate to said comivmv 
to be distributed equally among the private soldiers only, the sum of i^lOO to be 
jiaid when niusten'd into service at La Fayette, Ind. ' B. F. Okegouy. 

This and similar propositions served to tire the county with the nec- 
essary zeal. The County Commissioners met and appropriated out of 
the county treasury the sum of .$10 for each mau who should volunteer 


under the call and bo credited to the county. The Republican ca ' e out 
in the most stirring leaders, calling for men, recounting the ofl'ers of 
bounty and regiriar pay, and depicting the disgrace of the di-aft that 
would ensue unless the quota was tilled. 

The War Meeting of Saturday, July 19. — The Republican said 
this was one of " the largest and most enthusiastic meetings ever wit- 
nessed in WaiTen County." Men of all parties who favored a contin- 
uance of the war were present. Jesse Hedrick was made Chairman, and 
K. M. Allen, Secretary. B. F. Gregory stated the object of the meeting 
in a fiery speech that was received with tumultuous applause. A com- 
mittee of three, J. H. Brown. B. F. Gregory and Madison Fleming, was 
appointed to draft resolutions expressive of the sense of the meeting. In 
a few minutes, the following were reported, read, and adopted amid 
thundering cheers and the deep roll of the drums: 

Resolced, That in the opinion of this assembly of the people of Warren County, 
a more vi<jorovis policy sliould be adopted by the administration than has hitherto 
been pursued; that the property of rebels should be confiscated; that negroes should 
be used in building intrenchments and fortifications and in everj' way that their 
services can be made available; that the army of the Union should be supplied 
from the fields, barns and warehouses of the rebels. 

Besoleed. That the Constitution and the American Union ought to be preserved 
at every hazard. «****-2-** 

Resolved, That we recommend that the County Commissioners appropriate a 
certain sum for each volunteer under the present call from the county. 

The assembled multitude then listened to eloquent speeches from 
Jesse Harper, J. H. Brown, Col. Bryant, A. C. Durborow, Nourse, Mc- 
Cabe, Evans, Burch, Cronkhite, Park, and others. A vote was then ta- 
ken for the proper person to be commissioned Second Lieutenant to or- 
ganize the "barren County company. " The most intense excitement and 
enthusiasm pervaded the whole assembly, the like not having been seen 
at any former period since the commencement of the rebellion." The 
following donations were received to be paid to the private soldiers who 
should enlist under the call: B. F. Gregory, 1100; Kent & Kitchens, 
$100; Elijah Cronkhite, S50: Jones & Bro., igoO; J. E. Hedrick, S50; S. 
Cronkhite, §20: A. C. Durborow, §10; A. Suhler, |10; J. B. Lebo, §10; 
H. J. Thomas, SIO: A. B. Green, $5;. William Hayne.s, $5; total, §420. 
Ransom, Oxer, and others, martial band, played the national airs. 
About twenty volunteers were secured, and the meeting adjourned to the 
evening of the 21st. 

The Meeting of the 21st. — At the hcur appointed, the people again 
assembled at the court house, without regard to party or sex, and reports 
were called for from those v,-ho had been appointed to solicit volunteers, 
when it was found that about thirty-five had appended their names to 
the enlistment roll. It was reported that other meetings had been held 
at Eainsville, Pine Village, Marshtield and also elsewhere, and that 
about as many more had enlisted, thtis raising the company to about 
seventy men. The paper exultingly stated that no drafting officer need 
visit Warren County. The meeting was almost as enthusiastic as that 
of the evening of the Saturday before. Speeches were made by Col. 
Bryant, Gregory, Nourse, Harper, McCabe and others. The paper re- 
ferred especially to the speeches of Gregory and Harper. Of the latter, 

it said: 

It is useless to attempt to give a sketch of the speech with which Mr. Harper 
entertained the audience. It was eloquent, humorous, laughable, severe, argument- 
ative, convincing, patriotic, inimitable and Jesse Harperish. The audience were at 



one moment convulsed with lausUtei-, and the next a sudden stillness like that of 
the grave was the result of some patriotic burst of eloquence. 

At this meeting a few additional volunteers were secui-ed. 

The Call of August 4, 1S62.— This roused the county into a degree 
of activity before unknown. Public meetings were held everywhere; 
large subscriptions were raised to influence volunteers to come forward; 
eloquent speakers thundered from every schoolhouse and church; glee 
clubs enlivened the occasion with select and stirring music; the thrilling 
notes of fife and drum were heard; beautiful ladies with bewitching smiles 
passed round the fatal enlistment rolls; old men, long past the prime of 
life, insisted on goicg out to tight their country's battles; all was loyality- 
activity and enthusipsm. The following card, dated August 21, 1862, 
and published in the Republican, explains the results of the efforts of 
the citizens. 

As Warren County has nobly responded to her country's late calls for troops to put 
down the rebellion in" the land by making up four companies of 404 men and send- 
ing them at once into the service, I would suggest to all the females of each town- 
snip in this county, both young and old, to form themselves into benevolent war 
societies, whose object shall be to raise funds, solicit donations, prepare fruits of all 
kinds for fall and winter use. furnish socks, shirts, drawers, and any and all other 
articles that would be of service to the soldiers or the soldiers' familj- at home. Let 
the patriotic ladies of old Warren come to the rescue at once, and set an example 
to others worthy of imitation. B. F. Gregory. 

This card reveals the extraordinary interest and activity under which 
the county labored. In view of the sacrifices made, too high praise 
cannot be given the county for its efforts to end the great war. Vnder 
the calls of July and August, 1862, aggregating 6(Hj,000 men. "Warren 
County furnished by the 21st of Aitgust. 404 men and dispatched them 
promptly to the field. If there is another county in Indiana that did as 
well compared with the em'oUment and population, it would be inter- 
esting to know where it is. Btit the enlistment was not vet over, for in 
the issue of the Republican of August 28 was another call for a war 
meeting to be held at the court hottse September 1. to secure additional 
volunteers. All who had been enlisting men in all parts of the county 
were requested to be jaresent to compare labor and see if the county had 
cleared herself from the impending draft. Hon. James "Wilson was ad- 
vertised to speak. This meeting was held, was very enthusiastic, and a 
few more names were secured. Tuder the calls of Jtily and Auo-nst, the 
county raised not less than 125 men. Beat that, if you can, any other 
county in the State! These men w-ent mostly into the Seventy-second 
and Eighty-sixth Regiments. Quite a number went as recrttits into 
companies from the county then in the service. Company F of the Sev- 
enty-second was wholly from Warren County. Its officers were: Moses 
Bruch, Captain; James L. Dalton, First Lieutenant; O. E. Harper, Sec- 
ond Lieutenant. Company I of the same regimeut was almost wholly 
from Pine Village and Ramsville, and was commanded bv Jesse Hill, 
Captain: Ira Brown, First Lieutenant; John Watts, Second Lieutenant. 
Men from Warren County were in other companies of the same regi- 
ment. These men wore mustered during the first two weeks of Au^-'iist, 
1862. Company D, of the Eighty-sixth, \vas entirely from the western 
part of the county, its first oflicers being Lewis Stevens, Captain; Jack- 
sou Hickson, First Lieutenant; Harris J. Gass, Second LieiUeuant. 
Company E of the Eighty-sixth was also wholly from the county, the offi- 
cers being Philip Gemmer, Captain; George Kitchens, First Lieutenant; 
John R. Moore, Second Lieutenant. About thirty men from the county 


were in other companies of the Eighty-sixth. The last two companies 
(D and E), were mustered in (D) about the middle of August, and (E) 
on the 4th of September. About two-thirds of Company G of the One 
Hundredth Eegiment were raised at Pine Village, Rainsville and Inde- 
pendence. The men were intended for the Ninety- eighth Regiment, 
and were mustered in from the 10th to the 21st of August. The first 
officers were G. O. Behm, of La Fayette, Captain; William Burnside, of 
Pine Village, First Lieutenant; Elijah Young, of Pine Village, Second 
Lieutenant. During the departure of these five companies for the field, 
the interest in the county ran to fever heat. The air was rife with thrilling 
military preparations. A farewell dinner was given to each comjiany, and 
the blessings of all followed the gallant boys. At no other time during 
the war was the county as a whole so intensely aroused as while these 
extensive preparations were being made. People scarcely slept, bo nu- 
merous were the meetings at night and so fervently had patriotic senti- 
ments taken possession of all. Great was the sorrow when the hour of 
parting came! Many separations were the last on earth. The cup of 
sorrow was drained to the dregs. 

The Draft of October 6, 1862. — The energetic action of the citizens 
freed Wan-en County entirely from this draft, it being one of the only 
fifteen counties in the State to furnish its quota or better. The following, 
taken from the Adjutant General's report, shows the military situation 
in the county on the 20th of September, 1862: Total militia, 1,420; 
total volunteers, 1,180; total exempts, 231; total volunteers in the serv- 
ice, 1,180; total subject to draft, 1,189. The draft was at first fixed 
for the middle of September, but was postponed to give the counties 
all necessary opportunity to clear themselves. The following draft offi 
cers were appointed, though, happily, their services were not required: 
Draft Commissioner, B. F. Gregory; Provost Marshal, William Crow; 
Surgeon, C. E. Boyer. At this time, there was a most excellent feeling 
pervading the whole county. All rejoiced that the draft had been es- 
caped. A Democratic meeting held, at the court house, on which occa- 
sion several speakers from home and abroad took occasion to excuse the 
South for the rebellion, criticise the administration and denounce the 
war, did not disturb the universal loyal sentiments, or shake in the 
least degree the determination to vigorously prosecute the war. Politics 
in the county ran high during October and November, but, of course, the 
Republicans swept all before them. 

Enlistynents during 1863. — During the winter and spring of 18r53, as 
the county had more than furnished her quota of men under former calls, 
little attempt was made to recruit. In April and May, a few boys left, 
going into the companies that had been sent out before, but no con- 
certed action was taken by the county as no calls were made. At length, 
on the 15th of June, 1863, came the call for six months' men, and 
Warren County made immediate preparations to answer with a full 
company. Meetings were held at Williamsport, Pine Village, Rains- 
ville, West Lebanon and elsewhere, and in less than three weeks the nec- 
essary number of men were secured and organized. The first officers 
became Samuel C. Fisher, Captain; Williarn Henry, First Lieutenant; 
William Moffit, Second Lieutenant. The company was largely from 
the northern part of the county, and a number of them had belonged to 
a militia company that had been partially organized in that vicinity. 
The boys were mustered in on the 17th of August and became Company 


H of the Oae Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment. The regiment first 
moved to near Detroit, Mich., to do provost duty, but finally in Septem- 
ber was ordered into Kentucky. 

The Call of October, ]S03.—As this call required 129 men from 
Warren County, the citizens were inspired to renewed efforts. Various 
recruiting stations were opened, and soon the column of names began to 
multiply. About twenty recruits were obtained for the Thirty- third 
Regiment and a few were sent to the Tenth, Not less than thirty men 
went from the county into Oompanies F and I of the Seventy-second, and 
about twenty more joined the Eighty-sixth. Between fifteen and twenty 
entered Company K of the Eleventh Cavalry. Others continued to en- 
ter other regiments during the winter months of 1S63-G4. The quota 
was not wholly filled until the calls early in 1864 inspired the county to 
a renewal of the old fire and interest. It will thus be seen that under 
this call no fully organized company was sent from the county. Ttie 
Companies which had p)'eviously gone from the county and which had 
become depleted by battle and disease, sent home recruiting olScers, and 
to the calls of these men flocked the new volunteers. 

The One Hundred Days' Service. — The call of April 23. 1864, for 
85,000 one hundred days' men brought out a full company. Enlistment 
offices were opened in several places, and by the 27th of April, about fifty 
menhad been secured at Williamsport, and nearly as many more in Jordan 
Township; the former being known as the Union Guards and the latter 
as the Jordan Rangers. Preparations were made to unite the two frag- 
ments into one company, and a large meeting was called at the county 
seat for that purpose. The meeting was held eai'ly in May. the two 
fragments were consolidated, and the following officers took command of 
the company. William P. Rhodes, Captain; Peter \Y. Fleming, First 
Lieutenant; John H. Messner, Second Lieutenant. The compauv was 
assigned to the One Hundred r-nd Thirty-tifth Regiment, ranking as 
Company B, and was mustered into the service May 24. After this, 
until July, 1804, a few men left the county, going into the regiments 
containing Warren County companies. 

The Call of Jiih/ Ki XsY)'-/.— This call for 500,00i> men staggered 
the county, but the loyal went resolutely to work to till the quola. At 
this time, the county had an excess over all calls of 117 men. This num- 
ber taken from the quota of 267 men assigned to the couutv, left 150 men 
to be furnished. But the county had done so Avell at the beginning of 
the war, had sent ofl" man after man far in excess of their quota, and had 
so nearly exhausted her strength, that she now began to discover that 
some extraordinary effort would have to be made to meet the emergency, 
if success was to bo achieved. At last a meeting was called at the court 
house, to devise means to raise the men, and thus escape the impending 
draft. Dr. E. L. Booth was made President, and Lewis Rhodes, Secre- 
tary. Cypt. James Park, Provost Marshal of the Eighth District, was 
called out, to explain fully to the large assemblagethe details of the 
conscript law. This was done, amid breathless stillness. A resolution 
was adopted, that each citi/.en liable to the draft should pay into a com- 
mon fund the sum of $15, the same to be applied in securing volunteers; 
.ind a committee of one was apjiointed to solicit coatribulions in each 
township, the following being the amounts thus donated. Pine. $760. 
Mound, f 1,115; Medina, $L005; Warren, $1)65; Libert v, $1040- 
Adams, $()10, and Prairie, $675; total, $5,880. The countv' was' thus 



willing to pour out money as well as men. At this time, the conscript 
officers of the Eighth District, to which Warren belonged, were George 
Nebeker, Commissioner; James Park, Marshal, and Z. B. Gentry, Sm-- 
geon. Notwithstanding all efforts, the county could not escape, and 
quite a heavy draft took place in October, over the greater portion oi the 
county. How many were drafted cannot be stated. The county was 
credited with thirty-five drafted men, twenty from Mound and fifteen 
fi-om Warren, but the draft actually took place in Pine, Prairie, and per- 
haps other townships as well. At the last moment, even after the name 
had been taken from the wheel, an opportunity was given the drafted 
man to volunteer, and was embraced until the number of about one hun- 
dred and twenty-five to be drafted was reduced to thirty-five. The fol- 
lowing statistics from the Adjutant General's report, prepared on the 
31st of December, 1861, though not wholly free from error, are not far 
from correct: 


a '- 


Quota under call of 
March 14, 1864. 

Quota under call of 
July 18, 1864. 

-^ , TARY EN- 



1 "o 



-o a 


■^ a> 








s . 

^.2 ^" 

80 1 97 
54 ! 52 
71 i 42 
67 ; 53 

46 34 

41 39 
53 36 
63 60 
50 ; 49 

47 38 

42 ! 40 

614 540 

















13 34 
9 23 

10 : 35 

11 1 29 
7 ' ':>2 








Pike ..' 

17 i 7 17 
22 9 '^2 
26 i 10 ''7 









8 ' 21 
8 i 20 

7 i 17 

99 267 






The Call of September 19, 1864. — There seemed to be no end to the 
demand for men, but as all instinctively felt that the rebellion would 
soon be crushed, the utmost efforts were made to fill the quotas-. The 
only way to raise the necessary men was to offer enormous bounties, 
which was accordingly done. Many recruits were obtained in December 
and January, nearly all of whom entered the companies then in the serv- 
ice from the county. A number of men, sufficient to form about three 
full companies, thus entered the older regiments. New men did not, 
usually, want to enter the veteran regimentS; as there was but little 
chance for promotion; it was greatly desired, on the contrary, that they 
should enter the older regiments, which had seen active service, and 
which, if they could be recruited to the lawful size, would still be much 
more available for the field than newer troops, owing to the experience 
through which they had passed. During the month of February, 1S05, 
nearly a full company was raised for the One Hundred and Fiftieth 
Kegiment. Small squads from Tippecanoe, Carroll, and other counties 
were added to raise the number to the lawful limit. The following were 

*No account given. 



the officers: William Moffitt, Captain; John H. Mesaner, First Lieu- 
tenant; John H. Coulter, Second Lieutenant. The county quota under 
the call of December 19, 1864, was 133 men; this was reduced somewhat 
by a suq>lus which had been furnished previously. The recruiting in 
February, March and early in April, 1865, was actively pushed. Dur- 
ing the latter part of March and the first of April, about sixty men were 
enlisted in the county for the One Hundred and Fifty- fourth Regiment. 
A few were in almost every company in the regiment, the greatest num- 
ber in any one company being seventeen in Company G. Among the 
recruiting officers were Capt. James Park and Lieut. J. A. Canutt. 
Early in April, 1865, the Republican said: 

From late information, Warren appears to be out of tlie draft. Pine lias fur- 
nished her men; so has Mound, Prairie and Lilierty. Medina has been out some 
days. If any are lacliing in the county, they are in Adams and Warren, and may 
be a few in Jordan. But if any are lacking, the efforts now making will clear the 
county. We are glad to see it, for we would have felt bad to have had WaiTen 
drafted, and all the other counties of the district go clear on volunteers. Every- 
thing is moving on right. 

On the 14th of April, 1865, all efforts to raise troops in Indiana 
were abandoned. At that time the following quotas and credits of War • 
ren County, under the call of December 19, 1864, were made out by the 
authorities at Indianapolis: 

= . I 

(P ^ -f 1 O) 

a ."^ s i ^ 

a ■a- S? 

% tUi 

r. V X 

179 15 

109 22 ... 
121 2G . . . . 
140 11 . . . . 

78 1 

7;^ 8 

101 16 

125 20 

n:{ 14 

85 5 . . . . 
57 10 

1181 i;« 15 



~ a; 









1 "- ^- 

2i > 
















25 1 







Pike . . 



16 '.'.'.'. 
20 .... 

14 ' 

5 .... 
10 .... 

127 1 














. . . . 1. . . 






The Fall of Atlanta. — Ou Saturday eveuiug, September 3, 1864, an 
immense Union meeting was held at the court house, to publicly attest 
the joy of the community over the fall of Atlanta. Bells were rung, 
anvils and muskets tired, and the omnipresent small boy was out with 
his usual ample collection of ear-torturing instruments. Finallv, the 
train came in, bearing a coulirmation of the welcome news. Williams- 
port could scarcely contain herself. The citizens were in ecstacies. 
The triumpliant march of Sherman's grand army down from Chattanooga 
through the South from one success to another, and with b\;t a com- 
paratively small saerilice of life, had beeu anxiously watched from War- 
ren County; and now, when the long series of successes culminated in 
the capture of the most important city in the heart of the Confederacy, 


the joyoiis sentiments could not be repressed, and only found vent in ex- 
tensive and prolonged utterance. Capt. James Park and Hon. B. F. 
Gregory attempted to talk to the audience, but it was like converBinc 
with the ocean in a storm. The faint glimmerings of the davrn of peace 
could at length be discerned. 

The Union Soldiers' Picnic. — This was on Saturday, October 8, 1864, 
and had been extensively advertised. Vast preparations had been made 
to entertain the crowd that was sure to assemble. The day dawned 
clear and bright; scarcely a cloud was to be seen, and the mellow haze 
of the genial Indian summer day induced the farmer and the mechanic 
to put asi(.le their accustomed labor, to pay a proper tribute to the 
meritorious public services of their soldier neighbors. National banners 
were flung out fro cq all the public buildings, and from many of the 
private residences, and the citizens prepared to enjoy the day. At last 
the delegations from the country began to arrive, coming in wagons, 
carriages, on horseback and on foot, in long lines, headed by bands of 
raartial music, with gay banners, streamers, mottoes and escutcheons 
waving over all. Almost the entire county turned out to enjoy the oc- 
casion. Hundreds of soldiers were present, in bright military dress, at 
home on fui-lough from the active scenes of war, or perhaps just ready to 
go out to join their comrades in the service. At last, when all the long 
delegations had arrived through the dust, and had begun to wonder 
what was the programme of the day, the Chief Marshal and his assist- 
ants, with red scarfs, appeared on horses, and formed the numerous 
lines into one long line of teams, fully three miles in length, and 
marched the grand cavalcade, amid the wildest enthusiasm, through the 
principal streets to the fair ground, where the ceremonies of the day 
were to be enacted. Williamsport had never before witnessed a pageant 
so brilliant and imposing. Wagon loads of young ladies, adorned with 
national colors and crowned with garlands of late flowers and autumn 
leaves, passed through the surging streets, drawn by four and sis horses. 
A company of soldiers was quickly organized, and marched around be- 
fore the admiring crowd in all those beautiful changes of military evolu- 
tion which so stir the hearts of the beholders. Eloquent and patriotic 
speeches from McMullen and Hull were enjoyed, as was also a picnic 
dinner of the choicest viands the country could produce. The Rejmbltcan 
said: "Such a gathering has not been in this city of rooks since 1856." 

The Williamsport Literary Society. — The county seat settled a few 
very important questions during the winter of 1864-65, to which a refer 
ence in these pages will not be amiss. Nearly all the prominent citizens 
joined the society for mutual improvement, in the beneficial encounters 
of debate. The question, " Resolved, That the present wai' will improve 
the morals of the people," was decided almost unanimously in the nega- 
tive, there being but one voice in the alfirmative. A little later, the 
question, " Resolved, That all men are created equal," was decided un- 
animously in the negative. The real sentiment leading to the last de- 
cision was the hostility to the negro, and not because the house thought 
that all men were not created equal. The poor colored man was yet in 
bad odor. 

Military Officers from Warren County. — Tenth Eegiment, three 
months' service; Captains, J. E, M. Bryant and Dickson Fleming; First 
Lieutenants, Diukson Fleming, Levin T. Miller; Second Lieutenants, 
L. T. Miller, John F. Compton. J. R M. Bryant became Lieutenant 


Colonel of this regiment. A. C. Walker and J. V. Anderson were Assist- 
ant Surgeons of the Fifteenth Eegiment. Thirty-third Eegiment, Cap- 
tains, L. T. Miller, J. P. Neiderauer, H. C. Johnson; First Lieutenants, 
J. P. Neiderauer, H. C. Johnson, William Norduft; Second Lieuten- 
ants, H. C. Johnson, J. W. Slauter. Thomas Graves. J. P. Neiderauer 
became Lieutenant Colonel and L. T. Miller. Major. Sixty-third Regi- 
ment, H. M. Nourse, Major; A. C Walker, Sm-geon. Seventy-second 
Regiment, Captains (F), Moses Burch, J. L. Dalton: First Lieutenants, 
J. L. Dalton, Johnson Parker; Second Lieutenants, O. E. Harper. J. 
Parker, Moses Nowls: Captains (Ij, Jesse Hill. John Watts, W. H. Mc- 
Murtry, R. A. Vance ; First Lieutenants. L-a Brown, W. H. McMurtry, 
R. A. Vance, R. C. Clark; Second Lieutenant, John Watts. W. H. Mc- 
Murtry, R. A. Vance. H. C. Cassel. O. J. Foster. Eighty-sixth Regi- 
ment, Adjutant, E. D. Thomas; Surgeon. Joseph Jones; Captain (D), 
Lewis Stevens; First Lieutenants, Jackson Hickson. H. J. Gass; Second 
Lieutenants, H. J. Gass, J. G. DeLurk; Captains (E). Philip Gemmer. 
J. R. Moore, H. M. Billings; First Lieutenants, George Hitchens, 
J. R. Moore, M. J. Haines; Second Lieutenants, J. R. Moore, M. J. 
Haines, Stephen Cronkhite. /lDne__ Hundredth Regipient. Company 
G, First Lieutenants, William Burnside, Elijah Young; Second 
Lieutenants, Elijah Young, Asa J. Fisher.^'i One Hundi-ed and Sixteenth 
Regiment (six months), Captain, Samuel C, Fisher; First Lieutenant, 
William Henry; Second Lieutenant, William Moffitt. Eleventh Cav- 
alry, Cajjtains, A. T>. Lee, Cyrus Romine; Second Lieutenants, Cyrus 
Romine, W. H. Coon. One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Regiment. Cap- 
tain, W. P. Rhodes; First Lieutenant. P. W. Fleming; Second Lieuten- 
ant, J. H. Messner. One Hundi'ed and Fiftieth Regiment, Captain. 
William Mofiitt; First Lieutenant. J. H. Messner, 

County Bounty and Relief. — The rebellion had no sooner begun than 
the citizens, individually and through the County Commissioners, began 
pledging themselves to provide for the families of volunteers. Shirts 
and blankets for the first volunteers themselves were bought with money 
from the Cotmty Treasm\v- Sundry individuals donated generous sums. 
This was as early as April 80, 1S61, During the fall and winter of iSrtl 
-Cy2, large amounts were paid out to the families at home, about .51.300 
boing thus expended in Jantiary and February alone. About the middle 
of April. 1S()'2, in response to a proclamation from Gov. Morton, an 
aid society was organized at Williamsport. with B. S, Wheeler, Pres- 
ident, and S. F, Messner. Secretary. A committee for the county seat, 
and sub committees for the townships were appointed. Physicians and 
nurses were appointed to go to the field, if necessary, to care for the 
wounded sons of Warren on the bloody field of Pittsburo- Landiuo-. 
Contributions in cash ran up to about §000 at this time. Washiuo-tou 
Township raised $93; Pike, $2S; Adams. §51; the others unknown. 
Large quantities of delicacies and comforts were packed securely in boxes, 
and forwarded to the field hospitals, Washington Township alcine sent oft' 
eighty-eight rolls of bandages, eighty-five pillow sacks, eight boxes of 
fine linen lint, twelve do;^eu small bandages, twenty-seven bed sacks, 
thirteen fiaunol shirts, twenty-four jiairs of dra^vers.' one large box of 
lint, one large box of undershirts, drawers, bandages, sheets^ etc. At 
the same time, '< very large box of canned strawberries, blackberries, 
raspbei-ries, gooseberries, currants, cherries, tomatoes, etc.. and jellies 
and jams, and bottles of cordial, was sent with the clothing. All por- 


tions of f-.he-county did as well in proportion. Not less than $1,500 in 
money and necessaries was sent ont of the county at this period. This 
excellent charity was repeated at intervals, during the warm months of 
1862. Early in December, the ladies organized an aid society at Will- 
iamsport. and immediately similar branch organizations sprang up in 
almost every schoolhouse. The officers of the society at Williamsport were 
Mrs. B. F. Gregory, President; Miss H. Johnson, Vice President; Mrs. 
Scott Kitchens, Secretary; Mrs. Dilts, Auditor; Mrs. Fannie Hall, Treas- 
urer. All the necessary committees and directresses were appointed. 
Contributions in money and provisions for soldiers' families, to the 
amount of $53, were received for the week ending December 11. About 
the 1st of January, 1863, the j^oung ladies of Williamsport organized a 
"Knitting Society," the officers being Carrie Cox, President; L. Haines, 
Vice President; Sallie Jones, Secretary; Mollie Ganutt, Treasurer; 
Mollie Wheeler, Celia Schoonover, and Mell Minier, Donation Commit- 
tee. Liberal donations for buying yarn were secured. A festival was 
held in January, which netted the society about $30. Daring the 
months of January, February and March, a number of other festivals, 
lectures, donations, etc., were the means of obtaining about $200 in cash, 
and several large boxes of clothing and provisijns. But the exertions 
dm'ing the latter part of 1S63 were not so great. It was in this year — 
the darkest for the Union cause while the war continued — that many of 
the best citizens lost heart and hope, and feared, if they did not predict, 
the permanent dissolution of the Union. The Army of the Potomac 
could do nothing with the^ wily rebel leader confronting it; the letters 
from the boys in the held were discouraging, and the secret treasonable 
combinations in the North were multiplying, and numerous bloody out- 
breaks were occurring. But after the fall of Vicksburg people felt 
easier. The star of hope was again in the ascendant, and efforts to re- 
cruit men and secure donations of money, clothing, etc.. were joyously 
renewed. The military committees appointed during the war for the 
townships saw that no soldier's family suffered for the necessaries of 
life. Lecture bureaus were established, and the proceeds went into the 
treasuries of these societies. A lecture and festival in the spring of 
1864 netted about $100. The churches were very active in this direc- 
tion. In the autumn of 1864, after listening to an eloquent sermon 
from Rev. B. Winans, the citizens of the county seat donated $141.67 
for the Sanitary Commission. At this time, the societies all over the 
county were actively at work. By June, 1862, so much had been paid 
out by the county to soldiers' families, that the Commissioners became 
alarnied, and issued notice that all soldiers would be expected to send 
home part of their wages to their families. In July, a county bounty 
of $10 was paid to each volunteer under the last call for 300,000 men. 
Soon afterward, all soldiers' families in need of assistance were ordered 
paid 50 cents a week for women and 25 cents a week for children. In 
June, 1863, the county bought $5,000 worth of State bonds that Gov. 
Morton was compelled to issue, to carry on the expenses of the State. 
Under the call of October, 1863, for 300,000 men, the county offered $40 
bounty to each volunteer who would enter the service from Warren 
County. At the same time, needy soldiers' wives were ordered paid 
$3.25 per month, and children $1.10 per month. In February and 
March, 1864, the county bounty was raised to $100. The Commissioners 
were obliged to issue $5,150 in bonds to meet the demand for money 


paid as bounty. For the year ending May 31, 1864. $10,966.07 was 
paid to ^ar families, and $11,970 to volunteers, In December, 1861=, 
women were paid $b per month, and children $2 per month. The county 
bounty during the last two months of the war was $400 to each recruit. 
For the year ending May 31, 1865, the county bounty paid was $37,466, 
and the relief $14,407.7*5. Prior to about the year 1868, the county had 
paid out a total bounty of $73,456. and relief $39,081.08. During the 
same period, all the townships paid out what was called " township 
bounty" to the amount of $48,530.50, and relief, $/,371.50. Thus^War- 
ren County paid out, in bounty and relief, the grand total of $168,- 

Opposition to the War. — Of course the county had its disloyal ele- 
ment — the element that persisted in wearing butternut breastpins on 
public occasions; that shouted for Yallandigham or Jeff Davis when 
there was no danger of " having a head i.iut on them;" that asked vou 
the pertinent question, "Do you want your sister to marry a nigger? 
and when you would answer "No," would chuckle, as if they had an- 
swered the demand of the colored race for freedom. A great many dis- 
turbances of a minor nature occun-ed in the county, over questions 
growing out of the war. One of the first acts, early in 1861, was to take 
an avowed secessionist from his house and compel him to take the oath 
of allegiance. Savage, bloody fights occasionally took place. Even 
women met at lonely cross roads to settle imaginary political insults. 
Eye-witnesses testify that such encounters were terriffic. The air would 
be filled with mysterious articles of apparel, piercing, horrid yells would 
resound, and the sod would be torn up as if a Kansas tornado had visited 
the spot. Treasonable secret societies were organized, and even public 
mass-meetings were held to denounce the war and the administration, 
and partially encourage a resistance to the enlistments and the drafts. 
The less said on this subject the better; it should be buried forever, 
without hope of resurrection. 

Lincoln s Second Inauguration. — Early in March, 1865. the citizens 
of Williamsport and vicinity, and many from other portions of the 
county, met at the court house to celebrate the second inaucjui'ation of 
President Lincoln. Bells were rung, anvils fired, buildings "decorated, 
banners flung out and a general time of joy and congratulations ensued. 
Speeches were delivered by Durborow. Rico. Steele and others. In the 
evening, although the roads were very muddy, a largo crowd assembled 
to witness the illumination. Buildings were illummated from cellar to 
garret, and a huge bonfire was built on the streets. A most enjoyable 
time was passed. 

The t7o,s« of the Rebellion. — ^Vhen the news was received th;U the 
army of Northern Virginia, under Gen Lee, had surrendered to Gen. 
Grant, on the 9th of April, 1S65, the joy of the people rose like a tem- 
pest, and found quiet only in long-continued jubilees. There was scarce- 
ly a neighborhood in the county where the citizens did not assemble to 
mingle their rejoicings. Williamsport went wild. Dignitv, old age, 
self-esteem, sex— everything was forgotten in the gladness that tilled "(ill 
hearts, and all shouted themselves hoarse over the glorious news. The 
citizens met at the court house the evening of the 10th of April. Everv- 
body wanted to do something; a perfect tumult seized the meeting; tlie 
ancient confusion of tongues seemed to have been re-enacted; but all 
was done with the most intense manifestations of joy. Glee clubs san^r 


until tJieir voices sounded like the tomb. Three times three and a tiger 
resounded for everything. The demonstrations were carried far into 
the night, and were revived again for several days. 

The Assassination of President Lincoln. — Before the joy over the close 
of the rebellion had ended, the painful news was received that Lincoln 
had been assassinated. The revulsion in public feeling was sickening. 
Many a man and woman had learned to love the name of Abraham Lin- 
coln He had led them through four long years of darkness and death 
— had been the cloud by day and pillar of lire by night through all the 
starless gloom of war; and now, when the sunlight of victory had 
lighted the national heart with boundless joy, and every eye was dim, 
and every knee was bent in grateful thanksgiving, to have the beloved 
Lincoln cut down so shamefully and untimely was indeed bitter and hard 
to bear. Scores burst into tears, as if they had lost their deai'est friend. 
All business was suspended, and the citizens were notified to assemble at 
the court house, where speeches were delivered in eulogy of the beloved 
dead by Joice, Durborow and Gregory. A. C. Durborow, J. H. Brown 
and W. P. Rhodes were appointed a committee to draft memorial resolu- 
tions, and the meeting adjourned until evening, when a much larger 
audience assembled at the Methodist Church. Over the altar was hung 
a fine, life-sized portrait of the mardered President, around and over 
which were immortelles of evergreen and the sable trappings of death. 
A long series of resolutions was adopted, two of which were as follows: 

Resolved, That we look with detestation and horror on the awful crime of trea- 
son, which, baffled in its aims, has sated its revenge in the blood of the chosen 
ruler of the nation. 

Resolved, That while we mourn over the untimel}' end of our late President, we 
recur with pride to his noble traits of character, kindness of heart and sympathy for 
the oppressed, which will inscribe his name on the page of history as the friend of 
the people and the benefactor of mankind. 

Short and touching eulogies were delivered by J. H. Brown, B. F 
Gregory, W. P. Rhodes, Revs. Steele and Joice and others, and a 
mournful psalm from David was chanted by a select choir. Several days 
elapsed before the universal distress passed away. The news of the capt- 
ure of Jeff Davis in petticoats at length revived the public heart. 

Return of the SoldierBoys. — During the warmer months of 1865, the 
soldiers returned from the war, and were met with open arms and throb- 
bing hearts by loved ones and friends. The flag the}- had carried 
through so many bloody campaigns was returned to the citizens, who 
had presented it to the brave boys before they went away, so proud and 
valiant, four years before. The shattered companies were usually re- 
ceived publicly, with formal ceremony, and line swords, or other elegant 
mementoes were presented to those who had done some specially distin- 
guished service. Many a boy who had gone away so bright and brave, 
with a mother's kiss upon his brow, was left in a patriot's grave, far down 
in the Sunny South. Others left limbs among the magnolias or cypress 
swamps, or returned with fearful scars and broken constitutions. Some 
were brought home and buried by loving friends. Their graves may be 
seen in the county's cemeteries, where the grass spreads its carpet of 
green velvet, and "where clusters of bright flowers are patieutly watched 
by-faithful hearts. The county is doing a moot excellent work in plac- 
ing neat marble slabs over the precious dust of the brave boys. It may 
be said that the citizens usually observe Decoration Day. The heroes 
must not be forgotten. 


A public reception was given the returned boys at Williainsport, July 
27, 1865, on which occasion a large crowd gathered. Capt. Park was 
President of the Day. The Williamsport Brass Band furnished tine 
music. The soldiers were mustered and marched around, to show the 
perfection at which they had arrived in field evolutions. Hon. James 
Wilson was the princiqa"l orator, delivering a long, eloquent, welcoming 
address. Cols. Miller and Kirkpatrick, of the Seventy- second Kegiment, 
spoke in high terms of the "Warren County boys. The Marshdeld Glee 
Club sang thrilling war songs. A large meeting was held at West Leb- 
anon, to welcome the returned soldiers, and probably at other places in 
the county. 

Suminary of Troops from Warren Counfij. — It is next to impossible 
to give the names of every regiment containing men from Warren 
County. An attempt will be made, however, to give the approximate 
number of men sent by the county to the Held. According to the report 
of the Adjutant Genei'al, the county had furnished, by the 20th of Sep- 
tember, 1862, a total of 1,180 volunteers. Using this as a basis, and 
considering that the county afterward filled her various quotas, the total 
credits can bo obtained, at least approximately. The quota of June, 1863, 
was about 40 men; that of October. 1S63, was 129 men: that of February, 
1864, was 248 men; that of March, 1864. was 99 men; that of July, 
1864, was 267 men, and that of December, 1864, the last call of the 
war, was 133 men. Adding these numbers together. 1,180, 40, 129, 
248, 99, 267, 133, and a grand total of 2,096 men is obtained. In ad- 
dition to this, at tho close of the war, as will be seen by the table a few 
pages back, the county had fiu'nished a sui'plus over all calls of seventeen 
men; this, added to the above total, gives 2,113 men. This is certainly 
a remarkable showing, and it is not far from correct. Of course each 
man was counted as often as he enlisted. If a man served in the three 
months' service, and then in the six months service, and then in the one 
hundred days service, and then in the three years service, he was 
counted foitr times, to make up the above total of 2,113 men. 

Battles ill which Warren Conntij Men Participated. — The Tenth 
Regiment was engaged at Rich Mountain, Ya., Julv, 1861; Mill 
Springs, Ky., January, 1862; Corinth; Chaplin Hills, or Penyville, Ky,, 
October, 1862; Chickamauga, Ga., September, 1863; Mission Ridge, 
Ga. , November, 1863; Dallas, Ga., May, 1861; Kenesaw Mountain, Ga.. 
June, 186)4: Atlanta, Ga.. August. 1864. 

Thirty-third Regiment was engaged at Wild Cat, Ky., October, 1861; 
Cumberland Gap, Ky., June, 1862:' Thompsons Station, Tenu., March, 
1863 (where 400 were captured and 100 killed and wounded); Resaca, 
Ga., May, 1864; Cassville, May, 1864; New Hope Church, May,. 1.864; 
Golgotha Church, June, 1864; Culp"s Farm. June. 1864; Kenesaw 
Mountain, June, 1864; Marietta, Ga., July, 1864; Peach Tree Creek, 
July, 1864; Chattahooehie Rivor, August, 1864; Atlanta, August, l.StU; 
Columbia, Tonn.. November. 1864; Averysboro. N. C, M;u-eh, 1865; 
Beutonville. N. C. March, 1865. 

Fortieth Regiment — Stone River. December, KS(i2 (losiuo- ') killed. 
63 wounded and 13 missing); Chickamauga, September. 1863^ Lookout 
Mountain, November, 18()3; Mission Ridge, November, 1863; Dallas. 
May. 186 1-; Now Hope Church, May, 1864; Kenesaw Mountain. June, I864": 
Chattahooehie River, August, 18(U; Peach Tree Creek, July. 18(U; 
Resaca, May, 18(U; Atlanta, August. 1864; Franklin. November," 1864.' 


Sixtieth Eegiment — Manfordsville, September, 1864 (where seven 
companies were captured) ; Ai-kansas Post, January, 1863; Port Gibson, 
May, 1863; Champion Hills, May, 1863; Blacli Eiver, May, 1863; 
Vicksburg, June, 1863; Jackson, July, 1863; Corteau Plains, La.. No- 
vember, 1863; Sabine Cross Roads, La., April, 1864; Carrion Crow 
Bayou, November, 1864. 

Seventy-second Eegiment — Hoover's Gap, Tenn,, June, 1863; Rock 
Springs, Ga., September, 1863; Chickamauga, September, 1863; Moores- 
ville, Ala., November, 1863; Atlanta campaign, numerous skirmishes; 
Ebenezer Church, Ala., April, 1865; Macon, Ga., April, 1865; Selma, 
Ala., April, 1865; West Point. Ala., April, 1865. 

Eighty-sixth Regiment — Stone River, December, 1862; Chickamauga, 
September, 1863; Lookout Mountain, November, 1863; Mission Ridge, 
November, 1863 (where the regiment was the storming column); Rocky 
Face Ridge, May, 1864; Resaca, May, 1864; Adairsville, May, 1864; 
Kingston, June, 1864; Pickett's Mills, June, 1864; Kenesaw Mountain, 
June, 1864; Chattahoochie River, August, 1864; Peach Tree Creek, July, 
1864; Atlanta, August, 1864; Jonesboro, September, 1864; Lovejoy's 
Station, September, 1864; Franklin, November, 1864; Nashville, De- 
cember, 1864. 

One Hundredth Rerfiment — Yicksbnrg. June, 1863; Jackson, July, 
1863; Mission Ridge, November, 1863; Graysville, November, 1863; 
New Hope Church, May, 1S64; Resaca, May, 1864; Dallas, May, 1864; 
Kenesaw Mountain, June, 1864; Decatur, July, 1864; Chattahoochie 
River, August, 1864; Atlanta, August, 1864; Jonesboro, September, 
1864; Lovejoy's Station, September, 1864; Bentorville, N. C. March, 

One Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment — Blue Springs, October, 
1863; Walker's Ford. December, 1863. 


The following, though imperfect, and doubtless containing errors, is 
compiled with much care from the Adjutant General's reports, and from 
the recollection of several boys who served in the regiment. It is the 
best list that can be given. 

Thirty-third Regiment — John Q. Goodwine died at Savannah, Ga., 
March, 1865; Henry C. Gibson, died at Nashville, March, 1864; 
Thomas J. Goodwine, killed at Atlanta, August, 1864; Marcus L. 
Hatten, killed at Peach Tree Creek, July, 1864; Samuel J. Williams, 
killed at Peach Tree Creek. July, 1864; Samuel Lee, died at Indian- 
apolis, January, 1864 (in the Eleventh Cavalry); Robert Ford, died 
at Crab Orchard, Va., 1861. 

Fortieth Regiment — Richard .Bunco, drowned in Tennessee River, 
April, 1862; Lewis H. Bunnell, killed at Mission Ridge, November, 
1863; Joseph Ken-, killed December, 1864; John Riggs, died at Bards- 
town, Ky., January, 1862; John C. Steedman. died at home, October, 

Sixtieth Regiment— G. J. Clinsing, died at Milliken's Bend, April, 
1863; W. M. Allen, died at Bowling Green, Ky., July, 1862; G. M. 
Briggs, died at borne; Columbus Bookwater, died at Indianapolis, June, 
1862; Hpnry M. Bowman, died at New Orleans, February, 1864; Perry 
J.-Coffett, killed at Corteau Plains, November, 1863; William H. Cook, 
died in Warren County, October. 1863; J. M. Crane, died at Milliken's 


Bend, March. 1863; Johu F. Jackson, died at Memphis Tenn; A. C, 
Johnson, died at Warrenton, Miss., June, ]S63; Dudley K Potter sup- 
posed to have died at St. Louis; John H. Shimp, died at Young s Point, 
Febraary, 1863; Levi Swarts, died at Thibodeaux. La., September 1864; 
Isaac J. W. Waldrip, died in Waii-en County October, 1863; Matthew 
Warbritton. died at Young's Point, February, 1S63; John T. Welch, died 
January, 1863, of wounds; M. V. Williams, died at Barry b Landing; 
John H Davis died at Vicksburg, December, 1863; Jacob Hessler died 
at St. Louis, May, 1863; William Landen, died at St. Louis, March, 

1864. ' ,. :, . -D V 

Seventy -second Regiment— ^iisha. Cadwallader, died at Bowling 
Green Ky., -November, 1862; Charles J. Burch. died at Gallatin, 
Tenn.,' January, 1863; David Aldridge, died at Soottsville. _Ky., Decem- 
ber 1862- Luther Briar died at Murfreesboro. j^pril, 1863; Thomas 
Cas'ad, killed at Rock Spring, Ga.. September, 1863; Daniel Crowell, 
died at Louisville, April, 1865; John M. Hewitt, died at Castalian 
Springs. Tenn., December, 1862; Elisha J. Holycross, killed at Rock 
Spring,' Ga., September, 1863; Benjamin F. Laban, died at Bowling 
Green, December, 1862; Samuel M. Liggate, died at Gallatin, Tenn., 
December, 1862; George W. Mathis, killed at Rock Spring. September. 
1863; Henry E. Millhollen. died at Mm-freesboro, March. 1863: Jasper 
N. Millhollen, died at Murfreesboro, March, 1863; James C. Moore, died 
at Scottsville, Ky., December, 1862; John A. Nixon, killed at Eock 
Spring. September, 1863; Benjamin F. Pugh, died at Gallatin. Febru- 
ary, 1863; William Pugh, died at Louisville, November, 1862; 
Josephus M. Pugh, died at Bardstown. November. 1862; George W. 
Pugh. died at Louisville. November, 1862; Harvy Schoonover, died, of 
wounds at Chattanooga, September, 1863; William Warbrittou, died at 
Scottsville, December, 1862: George Brooks, killed at Eock Springs, 
September, 1863; Henry Ogboru. died at Murfreesboro, April, 1863; 
Andrew Eater, died at Gallatin. Febraary. 1863; Johu M. Roach, died 
at Gallatin March, 1863; Alfred Burt, died of wounds at Chattanooga. 
January, 1864; Jesse Hatcher, died January. 1865; James Kidney, died 
at Marietta, Ga., August, 1864: Samuel H. Bowlus. died at CoUimbia, 
Tenn., July, 1864. 

Eighti/-sLvtli Kegiment — John D. Brown, died at Nashville, January, 
1863; James S. Butcher, died at Nashville. March. 1865; Martin Y. 
Simmennan. supposed to have been lost on steamer Sultana; Charles 
W. B. Gilgor. died at Nashville of wounds, Jr.nuary, 1863; Jackson 
Jacobs, died of wounds at Stone River, January, 1863; Anson High, 
died in prison. Richmond. Va.. January, 1863; Samuel S. Good, died at 
Nashville, February. 1863; William Pye, died at Perryville, October. 
1862; Elias Brady, died at Chattanooga, December, 1863; John Beaver, 
died at Annapolis, Md., February. 1863; Archibald Goats, died at Silver 
Springs, November. 1862; Thomas J. Freeman, died at Bowling Green, 
November. 1862; Joshua Gerard, died at NfishviUe. February. 1S63; 
James Guest, died of wounds at Nashville, January, 1863; Wallace B. 
Hanks, died at Nashville, February, 1863: Nathan Hiektuan. died at 
Nashville, March, 1863; Johu Krise, died at Nashville. March. 1863; 
William Lamb, killed at Stone River. December. 1862; Robert Maw- 
hereter, died at Nashville, January. 1863; Thomas J. McCartney, killed 
at Peach Tree Creek, (ira., July. 1864; William Oglesby, died at Mur- 
freesboro, March, 1863; Nathan C. Pringle, killed at Stone River. De- 


cember, 1862; John Eiohards, died in Andersonville Prison, September, 
1864; James E. Euloson, died of wounds received at Mission Eidge, 
No-vember, 1863; Lewis Stutzml, died at New Albany, Ind., January, 
1863; Lysander Sweeny, died at Nashville, March, 1865; Samuel Alex^ 
aiider, died at Indianapolis, April, ,1862; Frederick Sheets, died at 
home, November, 1864; Isaac Sellers, died at Williamsport, Ind., 
October, 1864; Abram Fisher, killed at Stone Eiver, December, 
1862; John M. Shipps, died at Murfreesboro, Februaiy, 1863; 
William Anderson, died at Nashville, January, 1863; John Bain- 
bridge, died at Bowling Gresn, November, 1862; Edward H. Barkshire, 
died at Nashville, January, 1863; William P. ]3ush, died at Danville, 
Ky., November, 1862; Henry M. Butler, died at Nashville, January, 
1863; James H. Clinton, killed at Stone Eiver, December, 1862; Will- 
iam M. Crawford, died at Camp Dennisou, Ohio, December, 1862; John 
H. Cra\^ford, died at Silver Springs, November, 1862; Luke Cronkhite, 
died of wounds at Louisville, August, 1864; Henry C. Cronkhite, killed 
at Mission Eidge, November, 1863; William H. Crow, died aL Louis- 
ville, Juno, 1863; Oliver M. Evans, died at Nashville, January, 1863: 
William B. Fleming, killed at Stone Eiv«r, December, 1862; Milton 
Gallamore, killed at Mission Eidge, November, 1863; Peter Griner, 
died at Nashville, March, 1865; B. H. Henderson, died at Nashville, 
January, 1863; William C. Hunter, died at Nashville, February, 1863; 
James D. Johnson, died at Nashville, January, 1863; John A. Johnson, 
died January, 1863, of wounds received at Stone Eiver; Solomon Eighty, 
died at Knoxville, January, 1864; Samuel Eosebraugh, died at Gallatin, 
January, 1863; Watson C. Swank, died October, 1862; John Wilson 
died at Louisville, November, 1862; Harrison H. Woodard, died at 
Mru-freesboro. May, 1863. 

lOne Hundredth Regiment. — Cornelius Hunt, died at Calhoun, Tenn., 
January, 1864; George N. Campbell, died at Atlanta, January, 1864; 
George Doty, killed at Mission Eidge, November, 1863; Alfred Gerard, 
died at Colliersville, April, 1863; Amos Gaskill, died at La Grauge, 
Tenn., January, 1863; William D. Little, killed at Mission Eidge, No- 
vember, 1863; Allen Miniear, died at Camp, Sherman, Miss., August, 
1863; James E. Nelson, killed at Atlanta, Ga., August, 1864; Thomas 
W. Powell, died at Indianapolis, May, 1865; Charles Wakeman, died 
at Scottsboro, January, 1S64.\ 

Miscellaneous. — William 'W. Goodwin, died at Bridgeport, Ala., 
Juno, 1864 (One Hundred and Thirty-fifth); William Goodwine, died at 
Frederick, Md., March, 1864 ;(One Hundred and Fiftieth); William H. 
Hann, died at Wheeling, Va. , March, 1865 (One Hundred and Fiftieth); 
James S. Young, died at Frederick, Md., April, 1865 (On" Hundred 
and Fiftieth); W. D B. Wright, died at Indianapolis, April, 1865 (One 
Hundred and Fifty-foiurth); Leander M. Scott, died at Indianapolis, 
May, 1865 (One Bundred and Fifty- fourth); Samuel Lee, died at In- 
diaiaapolis, May, 1865 (Eleventh Cavalry). 





At the time of the creation of Wariea County, and for a number of 
years afterward, the State of Indiana was not blessed with the common 
school system of to-day. The constitution of the State provided for the 
sale of certain lands in -each county, to be used in the maintenance of 
Common schools, but aside from that means childi-en were mainly edu- 
cated at the expense of their parents, in the old " subscription schools," 
The county was no sooner organized than advantage was taken of the 
constitutional provision for the sale of such lands (Sections 16), and as 
early as 1828 the County School Commisioner was notified to advertise 
the sale of such sections near Williamsport, npar Independence, near 
Lebanon, near Gopher Hill and perhaps elsewhere. This was accord- 
ingly done, and small portions of such sections were sold, and the pro- 
ceeds used to pay the pioneer teachers, build and maintain the old log 
cabins first used as schoolhouses. The first schools of the county were 
taught in 1828, the expenses of which were paid by private subscrip- 
tion. The heaviest expense then fell on the families containing the 
greatest number of children, and these were usually the families least 
able to sustain such expenses, and as a necessary consequence in that 
early day, the children grew up without the advantages of education. 
The first schoolhouses of the county were rude log dwellings, which had 
been deserted by soni" family that had found the hardship of settlinof 
the new county too great to be borne, or log dwelliags in which the fam- 
ily still lived, one corner in the single room of which would be fitted up 
with rude clapboard seats and desks. Testaments were the first readers, 
and mediocres the first teachers. Ability to read, write and cipher con- 
stituted the sum and substance of a teacher's qualifications. Schools were 
started in the most thickly populated sections, no districts having been 
created, nor any school money from any source, except private subscrip- 
tion, having been provided. The proceeds from the sale of school sec- 
tions were positive blessings to the pioneer children. 

Several schools were taught in the county in 1820 — one at Williams- 
port, one at Gopher Hill, one near ^Vest Lebanon, one at Independence, 
one in the vicinity of Green Hill, and perhaps others. Every one was 
a subscription school. It is time to retract the statement made above 
that all e.arly teachers were mediocres. Several men very prominent in 
subsequent affairs of the county were amongst the earliest teachers. Col. 
Lucas, Perrin Kent and others taught some of the earliest schools in tUe 
county. Col. Lucas taught many terms in the viciuitv of his homo in 
the southwestern part. He was very severe with the olYouders. as all 
early teachoi's were comjiellod to be, owing to the si7.e and roughness of 
the young men who attended, and more than one middle-age'il man in 
that part of the county can to-day tell of the hard " lickings" thev re- 
ceived at his hands. ^ 



After the old dwellings which were first used for school purposes, 
came the renowned pioneer log schoolbouses, with their huge chimney, 
their windows of greased paper and their seats and desks made of clap- 
boards nr rough, unplaned plank from some early saw mill. In the 
thirties, quite early, other school funds were provided. In 1834, the 
prohts arising from the management of the State Bank were reserved as 
a school fund. This was called the bank school fund. The fund from 
the sale of school sections was called Congressional school fund. In 
February. 1S37, the act of the Legislature became law, which provided 
for the distribution, to the various counties, of the surplus revenue fund 
donated to the several States by the United States, by virtue of an act 
of Congress approved June 23, 1836. This fu.nd, distributed to the 
several counties of the State, was to be loaned out to the citizens of the 
county, and the annual interest was to be distributed to the various town- 
ships for the support of common schools. It will be seen that, as yet, 
no taxation for the support of common schools had been levied upon 
property, and that the support of such schools, aside fi'om the special 
funds, fell upon the families having children, and not upon those having 
money or property and no children. Such taxation, at that day, was re- 
garded as unjust (that is, taxation upon property for the support of com- 
mon schools). Many men without children and with large wealth^ 
men of to-day — take the same view. Such men, if financially poor, 
with many children, would be sure to think otherwise — " circum- 
stances alter cases." Besides the school funds above referred to, for 
the support of the common school, there were various special school 
funds, as the county seminary fund, the university fund, the saline 
fund and the bank tax fund (not the State bank fund), all of which were 
provided to support special school institutions of the State. The Con 
gressional school fund and the surplus revenue fund have ever since been 
the life-blood of the common schools. The fund was to be loaned in the 
counties upon good security, and was to draw 7 per centum interest an- 
nually, payable in advance, and was not to be loaned for a period longer 
than five years. In 1844, the surplus revenue fand at interest 
amounted to $6,303.93, which at 7 per cent interest would furnish abont 
$440, to be distributed to the townships. As the Congressional fund on 
interest amounted to $8,649 02, the total annually distributed to the 
townships at that time amounted to about $1,100. Several Congressional 
townships were not organized until comparatively late years, and by that 
time their school fund at interest had so accumulated, that the interest 
itself had become a large fund, which was put out at interest as fast as 
it accrued. Various amendments and supplementary enactments were 
passed after the funds above-mentioned were reserved for the uses men- 
tioned. Many important alterations were made at the time of the revis- 
ion of the statutes in 1843, but under the constitution of 1816 no system 
of free schools could be supported by public taxation. During the latter 
part of the forties, the question of free public schools began to receive 
serious consideration all over the State. B. F. Gregory and others were 
earnestly in favor of the measure, and did much to mold public opinion 
in that direction. Mr. Gregory was County School Commissioner late 
in the forties, and so earnest had been his efforts to improve the schools 
of the county that, when he went out of office in 1849, the County 


Board had 'spread upon the records the following resolution of 
thanks ; 

Besolred. That the thanks of this board be, and they are hereby tendered to 
Benjamin F. Gregory. Esq., late School Commissioner, for the prompt and efficient 
manner in whicli he has discharged tlie duties of his said office, to the satisfaction 
of the board and of the community, whose educational interests he has had in 

In August, 1848, while Mr. Gregory was yet in olBce, the county was 
called upon to vote upon the question of having free common schools. 
Nine hundred and fifty-six votes were jiolled in favor of such schools, 
and one hundred and fifty-seven votes against the same. The vote 
throughout the State was equally satisfactory, and accordingly, when the 
constitution was revised in 1850, the General Assembly was authorized 
" to provide by law for a general and uniform system of common schools, 
wherein tuition shall be without charge, and equally open to all." In 
accordance with this constitutional provision, the General Assembly, by 
an act approved June 14, 1852, provided " That there shall be annually 
assessed and collected (for the use of free public schools), as the State 
and county revenues are assessed and collected, on the list of property 
taxable for State purposes, the sum of 10 cents on each SI 00. " This 
was the great beginning of the present free school system — one of the 
most important eras in the histoiy of the State. At the same time, by 
the same enactment, and in accordance with the new constitution, the 
school funds known as Congressional, surphis revenue, bank tax, com- 
mon school, saline, county seminary and all other common school funds, 
were constituted a perpetual fund for the support of free public schools! 
At the same time, important alterations and additions to the manao-ement 
of common schools were adopted. From that period to this, various 
special school funds have been created, until, at the present time, the 
county school fund is in the condition given in tabular form in another 
chapter of this volume. 

In 1853, there were twenty-three schoolhouses in Warren County, 
and in 1878 there were eighty-three. A few frame schoolhouses were 
erected in the thirties, and quite a number in the forties; but for all the 
long period up to about 1854 log schoolhouses were decidedly the rule. 
At the latter date, however, under the impulse given to education by the 
new school law, frame houses began to succeed the old log ones and by 
1878 there was not a log schoolhouse in the county, and Sf the eio-hty- 
three buildings nine were of brick and seventy-four were of wood 
Teachers' institutes were first held dming the sixties, and the tirst 
oratorical contest among the teachers of the county was in February 
1883. ' ^^ 


It is impossible, iu the space at th-command of the historian to detail 
the ostabhshmont and subsoqueut managomout of the county schools Qu'ita 
a respectable volume might bo written of the alVairs of each school district 
It will be sufficient to say that Warren County has excellent country 
schools. :ind those m the villages and towns will compare favorablv with 
any lu the State m places of no greater population. The schJols of 
West Lebanon and Willtanisport ttre fully up to the standard of \he 
times. Ihe present brick .school buidmo- at West T,eb-i,i,in ^., , t T 

m 18(w, at a cost of about ^C.OOO. U V.^ S^t^Z.^ '^''''''''^ 



with ticcommodations for aK.ut L'40 pupils. The large, scpiare. two-.tory 


brick school building at Williamsport was constructed in 1874, and is 
said to have cost about 112,000. It is a credit to the town. Consider- 
able trouble has been experienced with the teachers (or, perhaps, rather 
with some of the patrons), but the present capable Principal, W. K. 
Walker, is pouring oil on the troubled waters, and creating order and 
harmony out of chaos. Eainsville, Pine Yillage.- Independence have 
good schools. The present two-storied frame schoolhouse at Rainsville 
cost about $1,200, and was erected about 1875 or 1876. Pine Village 
built a fine frame schoolhouse in about 1879, the cost amounting to about 
$1,000. Marshtield has had to enlarge her schoolhouse. The schools 
mentioned in the preceding pages were public schools, but there is not a 
neighborhood in the county where private schools have not been taught. 
But it is now necessary to notice the private and special school institu- 
tions of the county. 


An early law of the State of Indiana provided that certain fines be- 
fore Justices of the Peace and in Circuit Coui'ts should be paid into a 
fund that afterward, when the aggregate had reached a specified amount 
($400), might be used in building a county seminary. This was long 
before the present system of common schools was adopted, and was re 
garded with great favor by the majority of citizens throughout the State. 
It was designed to be the next step above the ordinary subscription 
schools of that day, and to be an institution to prepare students, who so 
desired, to enter college. A Seminary Trustee was appointed, whose 
duty was to take care of the funds as they accumulated. The enactment 
of the Legislature creating the countj% provided that 10 per centum of 
the proceeds of the sale of county lots should go into the seminary fund. 
The first Trustee was Daniel R. Parker, appointed in November, 1829. 
Fines for assault and battery, for stealing, drunkenness, profanity, etc., 
etc., went into the seminary fund. In November, 1831, the fund 
amounted to §11.96.^. One of the fines included in this amount was as- 
sessed upon Rebecca Dawson for an assault and battery upon the person 
of Nancy demons — the fine being $1. B Cheneweth was the -Justice 
who levied the fine. He also levied another against Shuman and Sam- 
uel Barber, for quarreling on Sunday. James H. Buel became Trustee 
in May, 1831; William Search in September, 1831: Nicholas Shaffer in 
1832; Jonathan Washington in 1833, and Hiram Farmer in 1834. In 
January, 1833, the fund amounted to §47.78; in March, 1834, to 
$127.44; in May, 1835, to $158,274; in January, 1836, to $203.7.3|, 
and in September, 1839, to $398.77. Robert A. Chandler became 
Trustee in 1838, and George B. Joiner in March. 1842. After 1843, the 
County Treasurer seems to have been Trustee. In January, 1841, the 
seininarv fund amounted to $186.14; in December, 1841, to $576.01; in 
December, 1842, to $013.40; in December, 1840, to $802.08; in May, 
1848. to $876.36; in June. 1849, to $1,024.23. 

In June, 1848, B. F. Gregory and others petitioned the County 
Commissioners to use the fund on hand lor the erection of a county 
seminary, which petition was favorably considered by the board, and the 
following committee was appointed to purchase the best site that could 
be secured in the town of Williamsport as a ground for the building: 
B. F. Gregoiy, C. R. Boyer, J. H. Buell, J. R. M. Bryant and J. J. 
McAlilly — all excellent men. About this time, a delegation from Leb- 


anon, headed by Delos Warren, petitioned the board to have the site 
located at that town, but the petition was not favorably regarded, and 
was finally denied. The above committee bought three lots in Williams- 
port, with the understanding that payment for the same should be paid 
out of money which had been sulascribed for that purpose. This arrange- 
ment wa's made in order that all the seminary fund on hand might be 
used to defray the expense of constructing the building, the cost of 
which would, even then, accordiirg to the estimate made, considerably 
exceed the amount on hand. The scheme continued to matui-e. and 
early in 1850 the contract of erecting the building was awarded to Eich- 
ard Treadway, who agreed to do the entire work for SI. 699. This was 
nearly $700 more than the fund on hand, and the Commissioners, in 
order to complete the house as designed, issued " seminary orders " for 
the additional amount, which orders were to be paid as the fund accu- 
mulated. The structm-e was of brick, was two stories high, and. after it 
had been painted and penciled in August, 1850, was a handsome edifice. 
The inside work was not wholly completed until December, 1S50, at 
which time the building was formally accepted of the contractor, who was 
then paid the last installment of the contract price. The name of the 
first teacher in this house cannot be stated. During the winter of 1850- 
51, the btiilding was rented to the school distilcf at Williamsport, and 
a four months" school was taught therein. Dis+rict school was also 
taught in it the following summer. An enactment of the Legislature in 
185'2, at which time the present common school system was founded, 
provided for the sale of the county seminary, and for the payment of 
the proceeds thereof into the common school fund. Accordingly, the 
builcling and grounds were adver*'ised for sale. As near as could be 
learned by the writer, the building was not really sold until April. 1857, at 
which time Henry Eegar bid it in for !j700. This purchase included the 
land upon which the building stood — Lots 78. 79 and 82 of the West 
Addition to Williamsport. Some strong evidence was found that the 
building had been sold before, but if such was the ease it was afterward 
forfeited. School was taught in it all the time. Mr. Goodwin con- 
ditcted a high school in it for some time, and owned the buildiuo-. or 
perha[)s he rented it of Mr. Regar, or of the County Agents whoever 
owned it. But the sale to Mt. Eegar proved worthless, and the buildinc 
reverted to the county. In July, 1862, the Trustees of AVilliamsport 
Lodge, No. 38, A., F. it A. M., purchased the property for SSlli. This 
proved to be a good sale, and after that date the building was the prop- 
erty of the INIasonic Lodge, How the men who had advanced monev to 
build the house were finally reimbursed cannot be stated. It will thus 
be seen that the county seminary, as such, was a total failure: but only 
because no sooner was the house completed and its mana^Tement fully 
mapp(Hl out, than it was ordiu-ed sold by the Legislature, Tmd the pro'- 
ceods ordered into the common school fund. Thus terminated what was 
expected to be a popular and successful institution of learnino-. 


In the year 1800, a, stock company was formed at State Line City 
for the purpose of providing means to build a seminary. The town was 
thou very prosperous, and from all appearances was destined to become 
a poimlouH and important phice. The enumeration had run up to about 
one hundred and fifty— far beyond the limits of an ordinary villa^^e 


school; but what prompted the citizens to uiidertalve tlie seminary proj- 
ect was the demand for a higher education than could be furnished by 
the town school. Many young men and women in the neighborhood con- 
templated attending school abroad, and the parents saw that it would be 
wise to provide at home an institution which would meet that demand, 
and which would, at the same time, add materially to the worth and at> 
tractiveness of the prosperous young town. The stock company was ac- 
cordingly formed, some of the stockholders being Col. E. F. Lucas, A. 
Y. Taylor, Perrin Kent, Darius Duncan, J. R. Johnson, B. F. Marple 
and James Lewis. Almost all the principal citizens of the town and 
surrounding country took stock in the institution. Blbridge Marshall, 
who became the iirst Principal of the seminary, was largely instrumental 
in working up the project. Col. Lucas donated about ten acres of land 
adjoining the town on the east to the uses of the seminary. The Town- 
ship Trustee gave about $600 toward the cost of constructing the house, 
with the understanding that the lower story should be used, more or less, 
for the school district at the village. The building erected was a two- 
storied brick structure, about 40x50 feet, and cost not far from 15,000. 
It was an excellent building for the little town, and immediately after 
its erection school was begun by Mr. Marshall, who received his pay from 
tuition charged the pupils, and employed one or more assistants to help 
him manage the students — about one hundred and twenty-five — that at- 
tended. The greater number of the students came from a distance, and 
were thus obliged to board in town while the}' attended the school. The 
school ^vas thoroughly graded, and in the department taught by Mr. 
Marshall could be seoiu-ed all the instruction necessary for entering col- 
lege. In this room, the most of the scholars paid tuition, while below, in 
the lower department, many of the scholars attended who belonged to 
the district, and who were free of tuition, owing to the- contract with the 
Township Trustee, who had assisted in building the house. The semi- 
nary proved advantageous to the town, as its presence induced many 
worth}' people to locate there who otherwise would have passed on to 
where school privileges were better. For the three years that Mr. 
Marshall conducted the institution, it was a credit to the founders and 
to himself. The system was rigid, the course of instruction thorough, 
and the interest never diminished. Under this excellent state of affairs, 
intelligence and morality were at a premium, and the rough, immoral 
element that had infested the town was largely silenced, and more or less 
of it driven away by the higher and better instincts which soon pro- 
vailed. That the" seminary had much to do with this remains un- 
ipiestioned. At the expiration of about three years, Mr. Marshall 
severed his connection with the seminary, giving J. P. Kouts, who suc- 
ceeded in maintaining the reputation of the school established by Mr. 
Marshall. The attendance was even larger than before. la about 
1864. or perhaps 1865, the stockholders, many of whom seemed to think 
that they ought to receive a high annual premium on their investment, 
concluded to dispose of the institution. It was according sold to J. H. 
Braden, for what price is not remembered. If the writer is correctly 
informed, the Township Trustee still retained his interest in the house. 
Mr. Braden bought it. partly as a speculation, but two or three years 
later sold the building and grounds to the Township Trustee (then Dr. 
Porter) for 12,700, taking township paper drawing 10 per centum in- 
terest in payment. The indebtedness ran on for some time, under the 


protests of many citizens of the township remote from the village, who 
had opposed the purchase of it by the Trustee. Finally the debt was 
paid, but the building the township, principal and interest, about 
15,000. After this, the seminary was an ordinary graded school, owned 
by the township. AVhen the village became incorporated, the building, 
under the laws of the State, became the property of the town, and re- 
mained so through all the years until it was disused in ISS'i. at which 
time the present two-storied frame building on the square was erected, 
at a cost of about §1,500. A portion of the old house was used in the 
construction of the new. During the past winter. Bayard Taylor taught 
the school — the tirst in the new house. It is stated that the school au- 
thorities had no legal right to erect this building on the public square, 
as such a course violated the contract with Mr. Casement, the proprietor 
of the town, who donated the lot for public, not school puqioses. 
Trouble may resuk yet. 


The building known by the above name was. in reality, a combined 
church and schoolhouse, built and designed to be managed by the Meth- 
odists at West Lebanon, or Lebanon as it was then — the old town. The 
lower story of the structure was to be the young ladies' seminary, while 
the upper story was to be the class-room or church of the Methodist 
society. The funds were secured by subscription or donation, and, if re- 
ports are correct, the Township Trustee subscribed quite liberally, with 
the understanding that the children of the district might receive the 
benefits of the school. The building was erected about 1S51 or 1S52, 
but never came up, in importance, to the hopes of the founders. 

The first steps taken to erect the building were in 1S49, when Delos 
Warren, Colbreath Hall, Edward P. Marshall, George Beymer and David 
Etnire were appointed Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Chirrch. to 
receive a deed for a grant of land, upon which was to be erected a 
" Female Seminary and Chapel " The original design was to make the 
building purely a seminary, with a chapel in the second storv. and if 
reports are correct this design was kept in view until some time after 
the structure was comj^leted, when ils failure as a seminar-^- altered the 
intention of the founders and the fate of the building. 

A few terms were taught there while it was called a seminary, the 
teacher during the summer of 1S58 being a Mrs. Snow, who had" seen 
sixteen years of public teaching. The room finally degenerated into an 
ordinary district schooh'oom. but after a few years was abandoned. The 
common school system was driving out the "old subscription or tuition 
schools, and the day for the establishment of high schools had not yet 
dawned upon the inhabitants of Warren County. The common scho"ols 
were so popular that thoy were regarded as amply sufficient for the wants 
of the county. It remained for this system of schools to develop a de" 
maud for something liiglier, and it did not take long. 


Tlie seminary at Crroen Hill was the result of church indulo-enee or 
design. An alteration in the territory of the conferences of the Ignited 
Ih-othreii 111 Indiana, and especially along the Wabash, and an increased 
pupidation and demand for denominational schools, decided the Ui\per 
Wabash Conference of Ihiited Brethren to locate a denominational school 


somewliere in the vicinity of Attica, and Green Hill, or Milford, as it 
was then, was selected for the site of the structure by the Conference 
Trustees, owing to its beautiful location and freedom from immoral sur- 
roundings. Another reason for its location at Green Hill was the fact 
that in the village was a strong class of United Brethren, who offered to 
donate liberally toward the erection of the building and the maintenance 
of the school. The building was accordingly erected in 1869, partly 
with funds furnished by the Upper Wabash Conference, and partly by 
donation from the citizens at Green Hill. The house is a large, two- 
storied brick structure, situated in a beautiful spot in the western part of 
the town. Its upper story is a chapel, and its lower story is divided into 
school rooms. It is said to have cost $y.OOO. The Rev. Mr. Stimpson 
became the first Principal, and within a comparatively short time an at- 
tendance of about eighty students was syoured, many of whom came 
from abroad and boarded in the village. At this time, the school was 
very prosperous, and its excellent influence upon the town and surround- 
ing country soon became apparent. It was a means of giving a " tone " 
to the social intercourse of the citizens, that tended directly to the rapid 
promotion of advanced learning and morality. Boarding-houses sprang 
into existence to provide accommodation for the large number of stu 
dents in attendance. Assistants were employed to help the Principal. 
The higher department embraced the studies preparatory to a college 
com-se. An excellent literary society was founded by the students, under 
the supervision of the Princijsal, who was untiring in his efforts to ren- 
der the seminary all that its founders had hoped, and one worthy of pa- 
tronage. The Principal often visited his students in their rooms, unex- 
pectedly, at night, in order to see whether the evenings were properly 
passed. The seminary has been in successful operation since, under the 
manao-ement of various Principals, among whom have been Revs. W. 
T. Jackson, Jones, Jackson again, Gregory, and the present competent 
professor, Mr. Thompson. But the attendance at the school has gradu- 
ally decreased as the years have passed, from what cause it would be 
difficult to state, until the present attendance does not exceed fifteen. 
For a time, under Mr. Jackson, and perhaps under iVIi-. Stimpson, it was, 
in many respects, superior to any other school ever in the county. The 
course of study was farther advanced; the system of study and deport- 
ment was nearer perfect; the standard of intellectual, moral and social 
development was higher, and nearer in accordance with the most progres- 
sive educational institutions of to-day. Btit the strong liberal tendency 
of the present — the tendency to discard strict sectarian lines or limits, 
and unite minds and hearts on the broad, brotherly basis of universal 
Christianity — has contributed mainly to the decadence of educational sys- 
tems controlled by sectarian rituals of religion. 


On the 22d of January, 1840, pursuant to notice, a number of citi- 
zens of AVilliam-sport met at the schoolhotise to organize a debating 
8(jciety. Benjamin Crow was made Chairman, and Buell, Boyer and 
Crockett were appointed a committee to draft a constitution and by-laws. 
This was done, and Buell, Camj^bell and Joiner were appointed to revise 
such constitution and by-laws. Dr. E, Thomas was elected permanent 
President, L. W. Joiner, Secretary, and W. R. Boyer, Treasurer. The 
first question debated was, " Is it morally right to inflict capital punish- 


ment in any caBe '; " On the affirmation were Crockett,' Gregory, Lucas, 
Camptell. Joiner and Thcmas: on the negative, Bnell, Crow, Boyer, 
Keifer and Shockley. After an exciting discussion, the question was 
decided in the negative. At the second meeting, the constitution and 
by-laws were revised and adopted. All members were taxed I'ii cents 
dues, to pay current expenses. The President was to hold office three 
week's, and the Secretary four weeks. Meetings were to be held once 
each week. Eeligious subjects were wholly excluded and the affirmative 
was to have the opening and closing argument, and all speeches were 
limited to fifteen minutes. The judges were required to render their 
decision in accordance with the " strength of argument " only. Among 
the early members were Benjamin Crow. E. E. Crockett. E. S. Thomas, 
Lazarus" Miller, James McLonald. B. F. Gregory, G. '^ . Lawson, L. 
W. Joiner, M. Gerard. E. F. Lucas, J. H. Buell, Erasmus Thomas, A. 
Shockley, R. A. Chandler, Jacob Keifer, J. W. Campbell. E. D. Thomas, 
W. E. Boyer, "\V. Harrington, John Higginbotham, J, C. H, Montgom- 
ery, John Cox, "William Bittings, Peter Longmaker, John W. Dick.son, 
J. H. Jordan, G. B. Joiner, Noble Pritchett, W. C. Harter an d James 
Eowland. Here were many of the ablest men ever in the county. At any 
othei's joined later. The minutes of the meetings, yet in existence, show 
that all the questions were hotly contested, and often their debate ex- 
tended far into the night. Here was laid the foundation, much of it, of 
the oratorical and forensic efforts in the coru't house and throughout the 
country in after years. Few realize the benefits of a well-conducted de- 
bating society, such as this was. It inspires confidence, encourages ori- 
ginality and individuality, promotes intellectual celerity, fires the mind 
and heart to greatest effort, sharpens the tongue, amplifies the logic and 
fills the whole being with pungent sense, courage and audacity. 

The second question debated. " Is intemperance a ajreater evil than 
slavery?" was decided in the affirmative. The third, " Is impirisonment 
for debt just?" was decided in the affirmative. The fourth. " Have the 
blacks suffered more from the whites than the Indians'." decided in the 
affirmative. The fifth. " Is the invasion of a nation by enemies more 
calculated to bind them together than municipal law?" decided in ihe 
affirmative. About this time, a committee was appointed tu prefer 
charges against "William Harrington for an alleged breach of the bv- 
laws. The committee jiresented the following specified charges: " That 
the said "William Harrington did, on the night of February 21, attend 
the said society in a state of intoxication: and that he behaved himself 
in a boisterous and uncivil manner; and that his conduct disturbed the 
harmony, peace and quiet of said society; and that when called to 
order by the President, he still continued, from time to time, to interrupt 
the debate; all of which was a direct violation of the by-laws of said 
society." Mr. Hairingtou pleaded "Not guilty;" whereupon a court 
was instituted to tiy the case. Crockett and Joiner were appointed pro.-e 
cutovs. "Witnesses Avere introduced, and finally the eluuoos were sus- 
tained. Then a motioii to exjiel Mr. Hai'ringion was made, I ut was lost 
by a majority of one. This being the night lor the election of a Presi- 
dent, Mr. Harrington's name was then proposed for that oflice, amid 
great aj>p]ause, and after a spirited ballot he was elected unanimously. 
His conijilete vindicatitm of the charges was thus sustained. His elec- 
tion was most laughable, in view of his undoubted guilt of the charges. 
The action ol the society was wise, as he made au excellent President. 


Some time in March, the meetings were abandoned, but were revived 
in the following Angust. when such questions as the following were dis- 
cussed: "Is man capable of self-government?" "Are railroads a 
greater benefit to the community than turnpike roads?" " Does civiliza- 
tion augment the sum of human happiness?" After the first three or 
four meetings, it was resoK'ed to organize 


The society was to become the House of Representatives. Col. E. F. 
Lucas was elected Governor of Indiana; J. H, Buell, Speaker of the 
House, and G. W. Lamson, Principal Clerk. The members were ap- 
pointed to represent the various counties of the State. A committee was 
appointed by the Speaker to wait upon the Governor, and infoim him 
that the House of Representatives was organized and ready to receive 
any communication from him in his official capacit}'. Committees on 
Judiciary, Internal Improvement, Education, Ways and Means, Elec- 
tions, etc. . were apjoointed. Joseph McDonald, of Marion County (yes, 
the justly illustrious Joseph McDonald of to-day), gave notice that he 
would introduce a bill for the abolishment of capital punishment; also 
one to memorialize Congress to repeal the land bill, the bankrupt bill, 
and reinstate the Sub-Treasury system of fiscal operations. Mr. 
Lucas, of Lake, introduced a bill tor the incorporation of Williamsport,* 
which was referred to a select committee, consisting of Messrs. Lucas, 
Joiner and Keifer. Adjourned. * * * House met, pursuant to ad- 
journment. House Bill No. 1, to abolish capital punishment, was passed 
to a third reading and finally laid upon the table till the next meeting, 
when it was made the order of the day. Mr. Joiner, of Vanderburg, 
introduced a bill regulating elections; referred to Committee on Elec- 
tions. Mr. Lucas, of Lake, introduced a resolution repealing certain dog- 
laws, or dog-oned laws; referred to the Committee on Ways and Means. 
Mr. Joiner, of Vanderburg, introduced a bill to tax old bachelors. A 
motion to refer it to the Committee on W'ays and Means was lost. Vari- 
ous laughable amendments were introduced, all of which were lost. A 
motion to re-consider the motion to refer the bill to the Ways and Means 
Committee was lost. Various dilatory motions were made, but were lost. 
What finally became of that bill the legislative records fail to unravel. 
Adjourned. * * * House met pursuant to adjournment. The Gov- 
ernor's message was received, read, and 1,000 copies were ordered 
printed. Mi-. Keifer, of Jasper, introduced a resolution instructing the 
W'ays and Means Committee to inquire into the expediency of causing 
each man who should get drunk, to dig out a stump on the court house 
square. The special committee to consider the bill on the incorporation 
of Williamsport reported favorably. On motion, the rules were sus- 
pended, and the bill read by its title, and was made the special order 
for the next meeting. The bill to abolish capital punishment was con- 
sidered, amended, debated, went into committee of the whole, was re- 
ported back to the House, and at last tabled. Mr. G. B. Joiner, of Ben- 
ton, introduced a resolution to secure a levy of tax for the support of 
common schools,! and Mr. Lawson, of Sullivan, one to amend the jus- 
tice act and one to extend the "Wabash Canal on down the river to Terre 
Haute. Mr. Lyon, of Putnam, introduced a resolution to abolish petti - 

* So far as kririWD, this was the attempt to incorporate the county east of Warren County, 
f This was aQtlcipating the action of the real Legislature about ten years later. 


fogging before Justice courts. The House went into committee of the 
whole to consider the incorporation of Williamsport, with Dr. E. Thomas 
in the chair. The bill was considered by sections, and finally reported 
back to the House approved. On motion before the House, the bill was 
engrossed and read a third time. James McDonald, of Allen, moved Lo 
strike out all after the enacting clause: lost. The ayes and noes wore 
called, and were as follows: Ayes — Dixon, Joiner, of Vanderburg, 
Shookley, Thomas and Lyon. Noes — Harrington, Lucas, Lawson, Joiner, 
of Benton, Keifer, McDonald, of Allen, and Mr. Speaker. So the bill 
did not pass. Mr. Gregory, of Vigo, introduced a petition from Sally 
Duolittle for a divorce from her husband, Jonathan Doolittle, which was 
referred to the Judiciary Committee. And so the record goes on. It is 
safe to say that the county seat, at no other time in its history, had an 
organization which furnished as much amusement and valuable instruc- 
tion as this moot Legislature. The meetings were so crowded at that 
the Legislature adjourned to the court house, and even there standing 
room was at a premium. L. W. Joiner was full of dry, pungent wit 
and sarcasm, and constantly brought the House down with his sallies. 
Many of the others were not far behind him, but none surpassed him in 
provoking mirth. Elisha Hitchens was a member of this Legislature in 
1842, at which time he was the Representative from ^V'ayne County. It 
was continued, during the winter months, for several years, and was re- 
vived in 1859, but it never recovered its former vigor or value. 


BY W. A. (iUiiDSPKEP. 


''r'HE early church history is very obscui-e. owing to the fact that such 
L records as were kept at that day have been misplaced or per- 
manently lost, and about all the dependence that can be relied upon 
comes from the recollection of old settlers. Again, manv of the old 
church organizations, after enjoying a few years of prosperity, went 
down to death without hope of resurrection, and the old records seem to 
have been buried with them. Almost all the early church organizations, 
of whatever denomination, formerly belonged to the Upper Wabash 
Conference, or to the Crawfordsville Conference, or to the La Favette 
Conference. It is certain that traveling ministers of the Methodist 
E|)iscoiial, United Brethren. Presbyterian. Baptist, Universalist. Chris- 
tian and perhaps other clun-ches, were in Warren County before 1S30: 
and it is also certain that some of these denominations were represented 
as early as 1S'2{\, the year before the county was om-anized. 


So far as now known, the lirst minister of the United Brethren 
Church to cross the Wabash into Wai-ren County was Rev. John Dun- 
ham, a typical pioneer circuit rider, and a man of deep piety and broad 


culture for that early day. He journeyed on horseback to the vicinity of 
Green Hill (no town there then), where he had learned that several eai-nest 
families of that church had settled and were waiting his arrival, to be 
formally constituted a church. A few families had gathered at the cabin 
of William Bailey, early in the autumn of 182S. to listen to the new 
minister, who, after that, if he succeeded in organizing a class and 
creating sufficient interest, would become their permanent minister for 
an indefinite length of time. The few that had assembled, perhaps about 
a dozen, saw the minister arrive on his tired horse, which he tied to a 
sapling, saw him take his saddle-bags and throw them over his shoulder, 
and walk toward the house. There was nothing about the appearance of 
the man of God to inspire any one with a belief either in his pietv or wis- 
dom. He was slonchy. threadbare, insignificant in stature, and to add 
to the general disappointment of his little congregation, he seemed to 
feel his inferiority, as far as appearance was concerned, for he shufB ed 
into the room without recognizing any one, threw his saddle-bags on a 
stand, took out a testament that had evidently seen hard service, and be- 
can reading in a voice so low, puny and hesitating, that more than one 
smile of disdain might have been seen among his audience. He did not 
oti'er to open the exercises, after the usual manner, with singing and 
praver. but as he advanced his voice took a firmer tone, his figure lost 
its bent and withered appearance, his eyes began to kindle with earnest 
tire, and erelono- his atidience wi?re bent forward, with eyes fi.^ed upon 
his face, intently listening to every word that fell from his lips. He 
finished the chapter, and then went on to point out the moral lesson he 
had selected. After sweeping on for perhaps twenty minutes, he was 
not the same man that had entered the room a short time before. His 
voice thundered, and his eye, glowing with magnetic lire, was lustrous, 
and held his audience spell -bound. He was eloquent, logical and ex- 
tremely forcible, and the sentiments uttered were of the purest piety and 
the noblest humanity. His audience were wrought up to the highest 
pitch, and cried with joy over the holy pictures of Christian life and 
future happiness which he so skillfully painted. The result was that he 
immediately formed a class of the Baileys, the Davises. the Andersons, 
the Cooks, the Greens, the Magees, the Talberts and others. One month 
later, he visited the class again, and Mr. Bailey's house would not begin 
to hold all who had gathered to listen to the famous preacher. This in- 
cident is similar to thousands which occurred in early years. Many of 
the early circuit riders, though rude in manner and unattractive in ap- 
pearance, were men of imposing physical stature— especially when they 
were ^lowing with the inspiration of eloquence and religion. Occasion- 
ally would be found one who had received the most finished education 
in the classical and theological colleges of the East; but usually the 
early ministers were uncultured, though almost invariably they were 
men of great personal magnetism, the most earnest Christianity and 
masters of a rude, backwoods eloquence that found its way to all hearts. 
Thev were just the men to lay the foundation of the Christian religion 
on tiie frontiers. In 1829-30, Rev. Dunham held a revival at Green 
HiU. which was largely attended, and which was the means of greatly 
strengthening the class. More than forty joined, and the interest was 
of the most iervid description. This, in the end, proved one of the best 
relio-ious classes ever organized in the county, as it has endiired to the 


present day. Their church was built early in the forties, and was used 
until the seminary building was erected in ISfJ'J. 


It is said that Eev. Fraley organized the tirst class of Methodists at 
Independence in about the year 1833.* The old schoolhouse was the 
church. In 1835-86, they had a very extensive revival, when some 
thirty joined. The Universalists started up there about the same time 
the Methodists did, and for several years the two classes occupied the 
schoolhouse on alternate Sundays. "When the Methodists held their long 
revival in 1835-36, it threatened to interfere with the appointment of 
the Universalist minister, Eev. Mr. Manford. The Universalists insisted 
that they must have the use of the house on their Sunday. John Camp- 
bell, a prominent Methodist, asked Daniel MoflSt, who was then a Direc- 
tor in charge of the schoolhouse. for the use ot the house on the day in 
dispute, bat the latter refused to interfere with the arrangement that had 
formerly been made, and the Universalists accordingly occupied the 
house. A few of the Methodists came out to listen to Mr. Manford, 
among whom were John and Jonathan Campbell, men of very earnest 
religious views. As the minister procrressed. he be^an to o-ive the 
Methodists some hot shots, as was the custom in the various pulpits of 
that day, and the members of that denomination who had come in began 
to wince under the Scriptural evidence he was heaping up in support of 
his views. At last, the scorching became so severe that Jonathan Camj)- 
bell was no longer al)le to contain hiiiself, and leaping to his feet, with 
excitement, he called the minister a liar. That brought the meeting to a 
climax, but through the efforts of the minister harmony was soon re- 
stored, and the sermon was concluded without further mishaps. Mr. 
Campbell was taken to task, after the meeting, but he apologized for his 
behavior, and peace was again established. Among the earlv Method- 
ists at Independence were Samuel Thomas and wife, Mrs. Moffit, Mrs. 
Tripp, Frederick Ritenotir. Daniel Doty. Mrs, Coates. Samuel Williams, 
Isaac Waymire and wife, and others. A class of United Brethren was 
formed at Independence in the thirties, which was visited by the same 
ministers as the class at Green Hill. Among the parly meiiibers were 
Hiram Nichols, Alexander Waymire, Kev. David Brown. Jeremiah 
Davis, Valentine Bone, John Cowgill. Samuel \\'are. Josiah B. Mi^geo. 
John S. Talbert, and others. Their meeting house, built about the s^ear 
1842, is said to have been the first distinctive church building of" auv 
denomination constructed in the county. 


The Methodists orgauized a class at Gopher Hill, in the southwestern 
part of the county, about the year 1828, and for manv vears thev met (.o 
worship in the famous old Gopher Hill Schoolhouse. " this class was one 
of the largest and most enterprising in the couutv. but, unfortunatf-lv. 
but little can be told of it. Among the early members were the John'- 
sous, Lucases, Taylors, Kents, Cunninghams'. Clems, Riners, Switzers 
Joneses, Dixons, Russells, of Vermillion County, Cheneweths'aud m lhV 
others. Rev. J5aekles was an early minister of 'this class. Their uuiop 
church was built early in the littles, but the building l.^io- afterward 
passed to the exclusive control ot the Methodists. 

• Do iiui iiiiaurKlHud tluil Ihis w,i3 llic lirsl Mi.Uio.Uat .■lu.-ia(.vsaui/,.<a ill till, cuntv. "^ 



The Methodist chiss at Lebanon was organized about the year 1837, 
inHhe old schoolhouse, by Rev, Ansel Beach (probably). Among the first 
members were Jesse Swisher, Delos Warren, Rev. Colbreath Hall, Ed- 
ward P. Marshall, George Beymer, David Etnire, Zebulon Foster, Sam. 
uel Wood, Charles Hayward, William B. Owens, Josiah J. Cooper and 
others. Rev. C. Hall was the second minister of this class; he has 
served it the greater portion of the time to the present day. Perhaps 
no man ever a resident of the county has done more for the cause of 
religion than this respected and venerable old man. Many of the 
Methodist classes in all parts of the county were organized by him. He 
will some day reap the rich reward he so justly merits. Their church 
was built not far from 1849, in the old town, and the one of brick, in 
the new town, about 1867, at a cost of about 14,500. It is related that 
in this class, at quite an early day, while one of the pioneer preachers 
was laying down the law of the Grospel with effective and marked em 
phasis, a summer storm arose, and the deep thunder began to reverberate 
throughout the heavens. Several women present, who were timid and 
afraid of thunder, became very uneasj^, which fact was soon noticed by 
the preacher. Thinking that he could remove their tears, he solemnly 
said, "There is no cause -for alarm; it is the voice of God." Moses 
Lincoln, a very humorous and bright old fellow, who was seated in the 
amen corner, pondered for an instant over the statement of the minister, 
and then suddenly said, in a loud, though doubting, hesitating tone, 
" Why, I thought it was thunder! " The narrator of this incident, the 
old settler, William Robb, did not state what effect this remark had upon 
the audience or upon the minister. On another occasion, when Mr. 
Lincoln was among the audience which had assembled to listen to Rev. 
Mr. Shanklin, a Soul Sleeper, and after the minister had concluded his 
discovu'se, Mr. Lincoln was called upon to close the meeting. The old 
gentleman slowly and solemnly arose to his feet, took his place with 
much dignity before the audience, and began in this wise: " It is cus- 
tomary for ministers, when they have doubts regarding the soundness of 
their doctrines, to call on some one, when they are through, to indorse 
what they have said. I'll close the meeting, but I want to state that I 
have one objection to the sermon, and only one — there is not a word of 
truth in it, and if the brother will come here next Sunday he will hear 
genuine Gospel truth. " It is not related how this little difference ter- 
minated, but it is safe to say that Mr. Shanklin still remained a Soul- 
Sleeper. The Christian Church at Lebanon was organized, it is said, in 
1828, and is, therefore, one of the oldest in the county. For many years 
it was (if not the strongest) one of the strongest in the county, having at 
one time a membership of about two hundred and fifty. Their brick 
church was built in the old town early in the forties. The class is said 
to have been founded by Rev. D. D. Hall, a very earnest, capable man. 
Among the early members were Rev. Levi Flemi ag, Moses Lincoln, Rev. 
DanieT Shanklin and wife, Rev. Pugh and wife, Eli Woodward and wife, 
William Robb, Eleazer Piurviance, Nathan Horner, Peter Fleming, 
Harvey Mcintosh, Isom Hiatt and many others. Their new church, in 
the new town, was erected about 1869, at a cost of 14,000. The class is 
at present large and prosperous. The Universalist Church was built 
about four years ago, at a cost of about $1,200. The membership is fif- 


teen. The minister is Eev. Mr. Grandj'. At one time, the Presbyte- 
rians had a flourishing class at Lebanon, and their church was erected 
soon after 1850, but when the new town started up it was move! thither, 
Eev. Crosby was the minister at the time of the removal of the church. 
West Lebanon and vicinity have always had good church privileges. 


The Presbyterians at State Line City organized their class during 
the latter part "of the fifties, among the early members being John Brier, 
Harry Eoss and wife, Henry Stevenson and wife. C. Andrews and wife, 
Mrs. Frasier, Dr. A. M. Porter, Mrs. Lucas. Mrs. Carmichael, Mrs. 
Dubois, Mrs. John Kerr, George Elliott and others. Eevs. Bacon, Lit- 
tle and Steele were early ministers. Their frame church was erected 
about 1860. The Methodists, also, started up soon after the town was 
founded, and the class was com23osed largely of members who had former- 
ly belonged to the old Gopher Hill and other classes. A few of the eaidy 
members were A. Y. Taylor, Adam Myers, Mr. Frasier. Daniel Lope 
and family, David Shepard, Samuel Clem and family, David Clap and 
others. Eev. Samuel Beck was their minister when their frame church 
was erected, about 1863—61. Eevs. Buckles, Joice and Foxworthy were 
early with the class. The Christian Chm-ch there was erected about 
1868, the class having been organized some time before. This is the 
onl}- brick church in town. Among the early members were Asa Dun- 
can, M. P. Sennett, Eobert Monell, John Braden, Joseph Braden. L. 
W. Denny and wife, Eev. Jacob Wright and others. Each of the three 
churches at State Line City cost about §^2,000. 


The Methodist Church at Marshtield was erected at the close of the 
late war, though the class was formed some time before under the min- 
istration of Eev. C. Hall. The house was built as a union church, but 
afterward the Methodists, in some manner, seciu-ed exclusive control. 
The Presbtyerians built their church about four years ago. Eev. John 
Mitchell was one of their ministers; he succeeded Eev. Moore. The 
Catholics lately built a small church in town. A Christian class was 
organized on Clear Branch, Washington Township, about twenty-tive 
years ago, soms of the members being J. H. Mcintosh, Charles Mc- 
Alister, J. H. Lincoln, Isaiah Bowlus. Elias Porter. J. S. Crawford and 
Bolivar Robb. No church was built. The Eogers Meeting House class, 
on Little Pine Creek, was established more than forty years ago. Job 
Haigh, Thomas Johnson, Edward Moore. Thomas" Boyer and Isaac 
Boyer were early members. The Friends had an orga'nization in the 
northern part of the county nearly fifty years ago. The Gillmau 
Church, in Steuben Township, was erected in the forties. Benjamin 
Gray, E. L. Gillnum, D. J. Hiatt, Benjamin C. Griner and James Will- 
iams belonged. The "Free Hall," at Carbondale, was built in 1S67 
mainly by Dr. Wesley Chirk, at a cost of about §L800. All denomina- 
tions and outsiders ni the neighborhood contributed. Mrs. Mar\- Clark 
often preached in the house. The Methodists have lately assmu'ed con- 
trol of the building, but their claim is disputed. 


The Baptists organized a class at Eainsville in the thirties, and after- 


ward, late in the forties, erected a rude church. It was a small frame 
building, now used as a barn. Among the members were Bazel West, 
'John Castle, Abram Buckles and wife, John Dinwiddle and wife, Mr. 
Swett and wife, Jacob Mills and wife, and George B. Swett and wife. 
In the latter part of the fifties, the class went down, and their church 
was sold to the Methodists. The Baptists have not since been per- 
manently revived. The Methodist class there was organized before 1840, 
and for years met in the old schoolhouse. The class was organized by 
Eev. William M. Jf'raley. Among the early members were Peregrine 
Garland, Milton Pearce, William Brown, Lewis Lewis, Jacob Morgan 
and others. The fine frame Methodist Church there cost about 12,500. 
James Wilson and wife gave of this amount about $800; John Shaw- 
cross gave ^50; Joseph Blancl.ard, $50; J. H. Keyes, $100; Wesley 
Gray, $100; Sylvester Lewis, $50; Dr. Charles Hoifman, $50, and many 
others smaller amounts. Other members have been Dr. I. M. Smith, 
John Carpenter, John Bradley, Peter Gray, B. O. Carpeuter, Fletcher 
Brook, Jacob Brown and others. 


The Methodist Church at Pine Village was built in 1845, before 
the town was laid out or started. The class was tirst organized in 
1831, at the house of Isaac Metsker. Among the earliest members 
were George and Elizabeth Nichols, Hester Dawson, Sarah Oxford, 
Sarah Lyons, George Campbell, Isaac and Ruby Metsker, Ruth 
Campbell, John Campbell, Lydia Campbell, and later were the 
Fishers, Andersons, Fosters, Halls, St. Johns, J. B. Campbell, Alfred 
Rose, J. J. Cooper, Thomas Julian, Thomas Hamilton, Eli Frasier, 
William Coldren, William Odell, William Hooker. Revs. James Mc- 
Cain and John C. French organized the class. Rev. Fraley served the 
class many years; other ministers were Cooper, Bredenburg, Armstrong 
and Farman. Meeting was held at the schoolhouse after about 1834, 
and since 1845 in their church. The Free Methodists are now bui Id- 
ing a church in the village. 


Lis Within a year after the town became the county seat, circuit riders 
appeared and preached to the few who had made the village their abid- 
ing place; but it was several years before classes were regularly organ- 
ized and supplied at stated periods with ministers. In about 1833, Rev. 
Cooper, a Methodist circuit rider, organized a small class, among the 
early members being William Search and wife, Laurence Russell and 
wife, James Bell and wife, David Etnire, Jacob Etnire, Nicholas Shafer, 
Mr. Davis and a few others. After that, meetings were quite regularly 
held, either in the schoolhouse or in the old court house. An independ- 
ent circuit was established at Williamsport about 1837. In 1839, the 
Methodist Trustees were Colbreath Hall, Thomas Thomas, Thomas 
O'Neal, Charles Hall and J. P. B. McCoy. The County Commissioners 
agreed to donate a lot, upon which to build a church, provided the 
church was erected within three years, at which time a deed was to bo 
executed for the land. In case the church was not built within the 
period stated, the lot was to go back to the county. The building was 
not erected ; the Commissioners extended the time, but still no house 
was built. The Trustees in May, 1843, were Elisha Hitchens, R. A. 


Chandler, Thomas Thomas, J. P. B. McCoy and H. N. Barnes. In 
1845, the Trustees, old and new, were Elisha Kitchens, Charles Hall, 
Thomas O'Neal, B. F. Gregory, Henry J. Parker and Morris Watkms. 
Itev. Joseph White was the minister at this time. He had served the 
class for several of the preceding years. Colbreath Hall had also served 
the class before, as he did also afterward. At this time the circuit be- 
longed to the CrawfordsviUe District. In May, 1846, the Trustees were 
J. R. M. Bryant, W. R. Boyer, Elislia Hitchens, Israel Hanley and 
George King. At this time they called themselves the " Free Church 
Association i^' the object being to raise means from among themselves, 
from other religious organizatioas, aad from outsiders, to build a 
church which should be free to all orthodox denominations; but in this 
the class again failed, and was obliged to continue to use the old court 
house. This state of affairs continued until the last war, when the pres- 
ent Methodist Church was bnilt. It was dedicated Sunday morning, 
July 17, 1864, by Rev. Dr. Bowman, assisted by Elder Gee. On this 
day, $1,400 was subscribed toward freeing the church from debt — that 
amount being the total indebtedness. Since then, the class has 
flourished, with growing strength, financially and numerically. 

There were a few Presbyterians in town at quite an early day, who 
were occasionally preached to by traveling and neighboring ministers. 
and it is stated a partial class was at one time formed early in the for- 
ties. It was not until the '20th of December, 1850. that the present or- 
ganization was founded. Rev. A. F. White. LL, D., of Attica, con- 
ducted the services. The first members were Mrs. H. A. Ray. Mrs. Anna 
Brandenburg, Mrs. Elizabeth Schlosser. Mrs. Rebecca Pearson. Mrs. 
Dorcas Bryant and Miss Jane McGorkle. la 1851, Curtis Newell became 
the first Ruling Elder; Rev. Amos Jones was the first resident minister. 
Rev. Isaar De Lamater supplied the chai'ch after 1S5'3, and aatii IS'30. 
Rev. F. S. MoCabe came on in 1861; Rev. J. L. King in 1862; Rev, 
W. N. Steele in 1863; Rev. W. Wilmer in 1869. For the past eleven 
years, WilUam^port and Attica have been associate i in the support of a 
minister. At present, there are about seventy-five members. The church 
was erected about 1S58. 

The Christian class was organized during the latter part of the 
sixties, and the church was erected early in the seventies. Rev. L. L. 
Carpenter preached the dedicator/ sermon. Revs. S. R. Owen and Warren 
have since been the regular pastors. The first members were H. M. 
Billings, Sarah Billings, Martha Crawford, Amanda Woodard. William 
Robb, Robb. Mary Dowler, Bolivar Robb and S. M. C. Robb. A. 
Romine, H. M. Billings and Boliver Bobb were chosen Elders. Later 
members were Justin Ross, Cyrus Romine, Mariella Ross and Ellis Ross. 
The present Trustees are Justin Riiss. Bolivar Robb and Cyrus Romine. 
The class at present is not able to emplov a minister. 


During the decades of the forties and fifties, when the impression 
became general that mankind was, in many respects, unregeuerate and 
hopelessly drifting into moral and social turpitude, and wheu the iron- 
clad, ritualistic doctrines or orthodox deuomiuatious of religion were 
meeting persistent and semi-successful opposition, various raonvl organ- 
izations were instituted throughout the country, to alYord man the means 
of escaping the evil which his course seemed to have provided, A svs- 


tern of social life, founded by Charles Fourier, and known as the 
" Fourier System," became very popular, as it appeared that the system 
was destined to encompass phases of human conduct which church or- 
ganizations could not reach, and at the same time check and control the 
tendency toward liberal thought on the subject of morals. This system, 
and others, differing from it mainly in degree, was of the nature of in- 
stitutions called " communities," such as exist in a few portions of the 
country to-day. Among other things, the various systems provided that 
all property should be held in common, and controlled by a Board of 
Trustees, and that conduct and labor should be regulated by a constitu- 
tion and by-laws. Horace Greeley was an earnest advocate of the system, 
and became connected with many of the organizations instituted under 
it. Many other prominent men, in all parts of the country, identified 
themselves with the systems. In 1853, an organization of the kind was 
effected in the northern part of "\^'arren County, which organization be- 
came known by the name at the head of this paragraph. Among those 
connected with it were John O. Wattles, Esther Wattles, Isaac Eomine 
A. L. Child, Philander R. Child, Alvin High, Thomas Scott, George 
Brier, John Gass, Washington Waltz, Lucy M. Waltz, James E. M. 
Bryant, Leroy Templeton, Edgar Ryan and Charles High. Mr. Eomine 
himself donated about |2,000, in trust, for the uses of the community. 
The funds were placed in the hands of John 0. Wattles, in trust, to be 
by him expended in the purchase of real estate and in the erection of build- 
ings, and after such purchase and labor the whole property was deeded to 
the Trustees, to be held in trust by them for the uses specified in the 
constitution and by-laws. The following is the deed to the Trustees: 

Know all men bj' these presents that we, .John 0, Wattles and Esther Wattles, 
his wife, of Tippecanoe County and State of Indiana, in consideration of the prem- 
ises and one dollar to them in hand paid, the receipt whereof is herehy acknowledged, 
do hereby give, grant, convey, bargain and sell, to Horace Greeley, of New York 
City, Thomis Trusdale, of Brooklyn, N. Y., Edgar Ryan, Charles High and James 
R. M. Bryant, of Warren Count}-, Indiana, Trustees, and to their heirs and assigns 
the following real estate to wit: The northeast quarter of Section 5, Township 23 
north. Range 9 west, containing 160 acres more or less; also the northwest quarter of 
the southeast quarter of said section, containing forty acres more or less; also the 
east three-fourths of the southwest quarter of the southeast quarter of the same 
section, containing ihirt}' acres more or less; also the northeast quarter of the south- 
east quarter and the east half of the southwest quarter and the east half of the 
northwest quarter of the northeast quarter of Section 8, in the aforesaid township 
and range, containing 120 acres more or less, amounting in all to 3.50 acres more or 
less, together with all the privileges and appurtenances thereunto belonging, to have 
and to hold unto the said Greeley, Trusdale, Ryan, High and Bryant and their heirs 
and assigns forever in trust to and for the uses named, viz. : For the use and occu- 
pation of an association for educational and social reform purposes. 

The objects of the association, as stated in the constitution, were " to 
secure the education, elevation, purity and unity of its members, and, so 
far as may be, to forward the elevation, peace and unity of the human 
family, by means of the three following departments, viz., educational, 
agricultural and mechanical, and these combined and carried out in the 
social, in which department provision must be made for the culture of 
both mind and body of the members of the association and its depart- 
ments, and an opportunity aflbrded on the domain for living the true life 
in accordance with the suggestions of ' Outlines of a Commimity Charac- 
ter.' " There was a Treasurer, a Secretary and one Chief of each of the 
above departments, to be elected by a majority vote of the members, and 
these otScers were to constitute a Board of Directors, which should have 



charge of all the departments. Persons over eighteen years of age, of 
good moral character and free from debt, were eligible to membership 
after they had remained with the community one. year. An inventory of 
the property of each new member was made out when he entered the 
community. Money was not allowed to accumulate in the treasury to 
a greater amount than $1,000. The land above-described was valued at 
14,600. The school was to be called an institute or a college, and was 
to be controlled by the "College Council," consisting of seven members. 
All endowments were to be by donation, subscription, bequest or 
scholarship, to any amount not to exceed S200.000, which stock was to 
be divided into shares of 150 each. The first officers were Charles High, 
President; Edgar Kyan, Corresponding Secretary, AlvinHigh, Recording 
Secretary; Thomas Scott, Treasurer. Two or three buildings were 
erected on the land above described, in one of which school was taught 
one or more terms. But the enterprise was not destined to long survive. 
The few members lost interest and faith in the success of the system, and 
finally all effort to carry on the system was abandoned. Just how the 
affairs of the association were closed up cannot be stated. 

In 1870, an organization called the " Warren County Humanitarian 
Society of Spiritualists," was instituted in the county, upon the follow- 
ing basis: " Whereas, The religious sects and denominations of the 
Christian world, after unremittent effort for 1,S00 years, have failed to 
redeem man from the manifold evils incident to human life, and 
Whereas, The spirit of the age in which we live demands improvement 
and progress in the religious, political and social departments of life," 
etc, etc., this organization did but little beyond filing articles of 




SAMUEL BITTINGER is a uati%'e of Franklin County, Pcnn. ; was bora April 
28. 1838, and is one of six living children in a family of nine born to Jacob and Sally 
(Games) Bittinger. At the age of thirteen years, in company with a friend, Augus- 
tus Oler, he preceded his parents on a visit to his mother's relatives in Northern 
Ohio. Instead of returning to Pennsylvania, he and his friend, on their arrival at 
La Fayette, took an inventory of their resources, and found only 2.5 cents between 
them and starvation. They replenished their purses for the time bj' husking corn 
on the Wea Plains. For two j'ears, he was engaged in farm work, but in 18.")3 came 
to Warren County, where he taught school for two terms and farmed in Medina 
Township until he had acquired sufficient means to embark in the grocery trade in 
a small vfij at Poolsville, now Green Hill. He discontinued merchandising in 
18.59, and started West on a prcspecting tour. The spring of 1865, after he had re- 
turned, he enlisted in Company 1, One Hundred and Fifty-fourth Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry. At the close of the war, he returned to his home in Medina Township, 
followed farming, and served as Township Trustee and Assessor until 1874, when 
he was elected Treasurer of Warren County, and re-elected, serving in all four 
years. Since that lime, he has been engaged in the grocery and provision traffic in 
Williamsport, and is now looking after that and his farming interests in tliis county. 
Mr. Bittinger began poor, and has acquired about SOO acres of land in Warren 
County and other valuable property througlr his own exertions. He is a member 
of the Masonic fraternity, in which he has ascended to the Knight Templar degree. 
In politics, he is a Republican. Was married in Warren County to Mary E. Fen- 
ton, to their union having been l)orn three children — Wallace, Oscar and Jessie. 

RICHARD W. CLAYPOOL, grain dealer, was born in Fountain County, Ind., 
Marcli 12, 1831, and is one of nine children who lived to years of maturity, and 
eight of whom are j'et living, born to Wilson and Sarah (Evans) Claypool, natives 
of Ohio. They emigrated to Fountain County, Ind., in 1824. Mr. Claypool died 
on the land be first entered in July, 1870, but Mrs. Claypool yet resides on this 
place, and in the house, which has been remodeled, where all her children were 
born. Abraham Claypool, grandfather of Richard W., moved from Randolph 
County, Va., to Ohio, in 1778, for the purpose of freeing his slaves, as he was radi- 
cally opposed to the institution of slavery. Richard W. Claypool lived to manhood 
in his native county. In 18.52, he came to Williamsport and embarked in the dry 
goods trade, but, in 1854, discontinued that and moved to Ludlow, Champaign Co., 
111., and took charge of the Illinois Central Railroad depot. He soon purchased a 
farm, improved it, and, in December, 1861, came back to Williamsport, where he 
and a brother looked after the general interests of the family while four brothers 
were in the war. Mr. Claypool practiced law for some time in Williamsport, but 
for the past seven years has been dealing in grain. During his diversified business 
career, he has acctimulated comfortable surroundings. He yet owns his farm of 
320 acres in Illinois, besides his town property in Williamsport. He is an inde- 
pendent Democrat, a Mason, and is the father of nine children. He was married, 
m January, 1855, to Eliza T. Pearson, and the names of his children are as follows: 
Evans, Robert, Horace, Rollin, Lorenzo (deceased), Elizabeth, Jessie, Frederick and 

HENRY DANNECKER is a native of the State of New York, was born in the 
year 1852, and is the eldest of a family of four. His family moved to this county 
m 1865, where Henry received a common scliool education. Except five years passed 
at rock-quarrying, he has followed farming^ having now sevenly-two acres under 
good cultivation, with fair buildings and improvements. Henry has never mar- 
ried, his sister. Miss Mary Danneek'er, living with and keeping house for him. 

J. De HART, M. D., a native of Warren County, Ohio, was born May 10. 1841, 
and is one of eight living children in a family of nine born to Dr. Gideon and Ma- 


linda (Patten) De Hart, the former being a native of Elizabethtown, N". J., and 
of French ancestry. To escape a large practice whichi was undermining his health, 
Dr. Gideon De Hart moved with liis family to Logansport, Ind.. in 1853, prac- 
ticed there until 1865, and then removed to La Fayette, where he continued in active 
practice until his death, in 1873. His widow yet survives him and resides with her 
children in Western Indiana. The subject of this sketch remained with his parents 
until the breaking out of the war, when he enlisted in the Ninth Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry. Not having attained majoritj'. his fatlier withheld Ids consent. He 
afterward succeeded in enlisting in the Forty-sixth Regiment, in 18(33, but again 
was recalled by his father. The fall of 18(33, he became a member of Company B, 
One Hundred Twenty-eighth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and, being then of age, 
went to the front with his regiment; participated in the engagements of Resaca and 
all the liattles of the Atlanta campaign, including the siege of that cit}'; ho fought 
in the battles at Pulaski, Franklin and Nashville; also in the battle of Kingston, 
finally joining Sherman's army at Goldsboro in JIarch. 1865. April, 1866. Mr. De 
Hart was discharged as Sergeant Major; he returned to Indiana and recommenced the 
study of medicine under his f.ather. which he had commenced in 1858; also studying 
dentistry under Dr. Moore of La Fayette. He graduated from the Ohio DentarCof- 
lege at Cincinnati in 1869, and the succeeding four years practiced this profession 
and medicine at Chattanooga. Tenn. He then graduated from the Ohio Medi- 
cal College at Cincinnati; he came to Williamsport in 18T5, where he has since re- 
mained as a practitioner of medicine, and has patients not onlv in and near Will- 
iamsport, but in many of the adjacent towns. Dr. De Hart was married in 1878 to 
Miss Joanna Wall, of Williamsport. He is a Repulilican. a member of the I. O 
F. and of the G. A. R. 

JACOB T. ET^TIRE is a native of Butler Countv. Ohio, born in the ye:ir 1S30, 
and is a son of Jacob and R. Etnire. His father came to Indiana in 1833. and en- 
tered land and settled in tliis lownship; our subject. durintr vouth obtained such 
education as the county schools afforded. Later, lie was married lo Rachel Rush by 
whom he has five children— Mary J., Celia C, William T.. Charles C. and David; 
both daughters are married. In 1863, he entered the Seventy-second Indiana Re^i-i- 
ment, and when that was mustered out at tlie clo^e of the war he was transferred 
to the Forty-fourth, in which he remained until the fall of 1865. After his return 
he resumed farming, which his wife had carried on during his ali?;ence. 3Ir Etnire 
has for the p.ast five yeiu's been engaged in making tile; he is one of the leadin^^ men 
in his community. His son, William T. Etnire. was born in 1858, attended the"' com- 
mon sciiool. and assists his father and brothers in the work of the farm 

S. C. FISHER, attorney at law. is a native of Warren Countv, Ohio, born 
August 10, 1631, and is the eldest of eight cliildren, five of whom are vet liviu'^ born 
to Alfred and Elizabeth (Campbell) Fislier. natives respectivelv of North and'South 
Carolina and of English descent. The fall of 1831. the familv emi^n-ated westward 
and Mrs. lislier having relatives in Fountain Countv. thev located near Vttici and 
passed the winter there During this time. Mr. Fisher crossed the river to W;irren 
Counl,y and entered IbO acres of Government land in Adams Township April 6 
1833, they located on this property, and here Mrs. Fisher died in 18,i6 J[r Fisher 
was next married in 1,858, to .-\Irs. Abigail ((\lle) Kidnev, and lived on the 'land he 
entere.l tor oyrrhtty years. He died February 30. 1883, from the cllects of a fall 
on the ice. b.C. fisher ived in AViirreu County tomanhood; was married in 1854, 
toJIiss Amanda L. Sewel. and trom that time until the breaking-out of the war 
was engaged in merchandising in Pine Village, hi. being the l]rst\irv goods store 
open-dathii place. September 7, 1S61, he enrolled his name as private in Com- 
pany H, renlh Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and on the 17th was mustered into 
service. He serve.l as priv.atc and as a non-commissioned officer until Julv 17 1863 
when he wa.s proiiioted over three ranking officers to the Captaincy of Company H 
Oiu. Huiulre, and Sixlecnth Indiana Voluntcr Infanlrv. for meritoiiousVond ic l' Six 
weeks a I te, 1 Ills he was promoted Post Commis.arv :,t Tazewell in Eastern Tennessee- 
January. 181,4. h,. wa. advanced to the position of Chief Commis.arv of the Depart- 
ment; the tall ot 18(,-1, he was discharged, his terra of service having expired Mr 
Fisher served 111 eleven pit.died battles, among them being Sliiloli Perrwille Fi'sh- 
ing Creek ami fort nonelson. and was three times wounded. For ;, fe w vears 
niter 111,, war, he traveled tor his health, but in 1869 settled down in Will amsi^,' rt 
and has since been engaged lu legal pursuits. He is a Republican, and M "so, i-y 
IS one ot tlie lirst ve man who took the thirtv-second degree a New U- 
bany, Ind in I S(,s. u,, s a Camp l>..g,.... Odd Fellow ;uid a nie ub r of he'o 
A. R. He .'nul vile never having ha.l chihlren born lo them, h;,ve adopted one child 
-Ella, -whom they have reared to womanhood ^ 

PlllLlI' GF.M MIJR, Treasurer ot Warren County, was born November 8 183-' 
,n TN;issai., 1;,. His talher. Justus Gemmer, was twice married-Iirst to 'Chris- 


tina Beck, who borr him one son, Philip, and died in the old country after which 
Mr. Gemmer married Gratia Kincel. Philip, in 1846, emigrated with his falher and 
step-mother to the L'nited States, locating first in Tuscarawas County Ohio 
Thence the parents removedto Wabash County, Ind., and there died The' sprin" 
of 18.j0. Phihp Gemmer cauie from Ohio to La Gro, Wabash Co., Ind.. and for two 
years was engaged in cabinet-making, afterward going to La Fayette, where he 
continued this business for some time. He then came 'to West Lebanon Warren 
County, whence he moved to JIarshfield two years later. At that place he enlisted 
m April. 1861. in Company B. Tenth Indiana Volunteer Infantry for three montlis' 
and during this time was engaged in the battle of Rich Mountain. After his dis- 
charge, he enlisted, August 4, 1863. in the Eiglity-sixth Resiment. and was elected 
First Lieutenant of Company E. Before being mustered into service, he was pro- 
moted Captain of his company, and a short "time before starting on the Atlanta 
campaign was commissioned Major of the Eighty-sixth. He was actively engaged 
in the battles of Painesville. Murfreesboro. Chickamauga, Missionary Rid'ge, Atlan- 
ta, Franklin. Nashville, and in the pursuit and capture of Bragu's arniy. Maj. 
Gemmer received his discharge June 11, 186.5. After the war, he engaged at Marsh- 
field two years at merchandising, and then in a warehouse at WilliVimsport. He 
afterward moved on a farm near the county seat. He was elected to the Treasurer- 
ship of the county in 1878, and re-elected, serving in all four years. Maj. Gemmer 
is a Republican, a memlier of the Masonic order and the G. A. R., and has been 
three times married. His first wife, Maugie Moore, bore him one son. Frederick L ; 
and his second wife, Lydia E. Smith, two children— William H. and Lydia E. His 
present wife was Minerva E. Fleming, and the result of their union is one sou, 
George A. 

WILLIAM N". GIBSON is a native of Tennessee, born June 18, 183.3, whose 
parents were Martin and Margaret Gibson. He received his education from the 
common schools, and came to Warren County. Ind.. when he was eighteen years 
of age. In 18.58, he was married to Maria F., daughter of James H. and Elizabeth 
Macintosh, to which union were born two children— Lilla M. and Cora B. Mr. 
Gibson settled on the farm on which he now resides in the spring of 1862. He has 
a fine property, with many and various improvements, all of which was acquired 
by hard labor and frugalit_y. Mr. Gibson has taken an active part in all moral and 
social improvements, and is an esteemed citizen. He and his family are members 
of the Christian Church. 

THOMAS J. GRAVES. Recorder of Warren County, was born August 31, 1835, 
in Ross County; Ohio, and is a son of Willis Ross, wlio was a native of the Old 
Dominion, and was twice married. To the first marriage was born one daughter, 
but both she and the mother are now dead. Jane Carothers was his second wife, 
and to this union were born eight children. In 1851. the family came to this coun 
ty, but after a number of years removed to Benton Cotmty, Mo., where the mother 
died in 1876. In 1877. the father returned to Warren County, but wliile on a visit 
to a daughter in Vermillion County, 111., in 1879, took sick and died. Thomas J. 
Graves lived with his parents tintil the age of thirty-five, engaged most of liis time 
in agricultural pursuits. August 12, 1862. he enlisted in Company D, Eighty-si.xth 
Indiana Volunteers; was elected Fifth Sergeant, and, on his discharge, July 19, 
1864, held the rank of First Sergeant. Mr. Graves participated in a number of se- 
vere engagements, among which were Stone River, Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, 
and, November 25, 1863, in the last-named battle, was twice wounded. After the 
color-bearer had been shot down, another seized the flag, but he, too, soon fell a 
victim to rebel bullets. Sergt. Graves then bore the flag aloft, and, althougli twice 
wounded, succeeded in planting it on the top of the ridge, the first of the entire 
Union army. He was honorably discharged Jul)' 19, 1864, and immediately returned 
to Indiana, where he was engaged in farming until his removal to Missouri in 1869, 
where he still continued that vocation until he again came to Warren Count)', where 
he has since resided. November 21, 1877, Mr. Graves received a severe cut on the 
left foot, which necessitated amputation March 18, 1878, and about this time he 
received a paralytic stroke, which so affected him as to render him comparatively 
helpless, and it was over a year before he could do a man's work. B3' the Republi- 
can party, he was elected to the oflice of County Recorder in 1879, with a majority 
of 1,883 votes, and he is yet serving in that capacity. Mr. Graves is a member o'f 
the G. A. R. and the K. of H. He and wife are members of the M. E. Church and 
the parents of five children — Arthur L., Bertie Mc, Lewis W. , Julia M. and 
Cecil E. 

ELIAS HANES was born in Tippecanoe County, Indiana, July 22, 1840, and 
while yet a lad came with his parents. Joseph and Margaret (Leslie) Hanes, to War- 
ren County, where he has since resided. He received a common school education, 
and on attaining his majority began life's battle on hisownre.spoiisibility. January 


8, 1861, he married Miss Ella Rideuour, of Liberty Township, and after this event, 
engaged in farming in the same township. He continued this about nineteen years, 
then removed to Williamsport, and in partnership with C. H. Porch and B. it. btat- 
tler, erected the Williamsport flouring mills afid embarked in a general merchant 
and custom work. Mr. Stattler's interest was purchased shortly after beginnmg 
operation by the other two partners, and the lirm of Hanes & Porch have ever since 
prosperously continued. The building is a two story and a half, not including a 
stone basement, is 46x34 feet, with an additional room attached, in which is a sixty- 
horse-power steam engine. The ijrinding is executed on what is known as the 
"gradual reduction system," and they have a capacity of one hundred barrels per 
twenty-four hours. They produce an excellent quality of flour, and are doing an 
avera'J-e annual business of $70,000. Mr. Hanes, the senior partner, is one of the 
prosperous citizens of Williamsport; is a Democrat, and he and wife are the parents 
of one daughter — Ladessia. 

HENlir HELD, harness manufacturer, is a native of Germany, born October 
15, 1833, and is one of a large familv of children born to Jacob and Elizabeth (Bow- 
man) Held, both of whom died in jlassillon, Ohio. They emigrated from Germany 
in 1833, and the same year settled in Stark County, Ohio. Henry Held was reared 
to manhood in Ohio; received a fair common school education, and at the age of 
fourteen began learniug the harness maker's trade and doing for himself in Canton, 
Ohio. After serving four years as an apprentice, he began work as a journeyman, 
andinlSol came to Williamsport; worked at his trade with his lirother Jacob, who 
had preceded him to Warren County two years, and who had a shop at this place. 
For two years, our subject worked for his brother, then became a partner, and, in 
1873, purchasing his brother's interest, became proprietor. He has since continued 
as such alone, does a good business, and besides owning good town property, has an 
interest in a farm of one hundred acres in Washington Township. Mr. Held has 
acquired his present propert_y entirely by hard work and industry. For thirty-two 
years, he has been a resident of Williamsport; he is a Democrat in politics, a member 
of botli A. F. & A. M. and I. (_). 0. F., and has been twice married. His first wife, 
Nancy Niroth, died in 1868, leaving him three daughters — Ella, Kate and Nellie. 
His present wife, Helen Koehler, has borne him live children — Fred, Lucy, John. 
Edward and Flora. Mr. and Mrs. Held are members of the Presbyterian Church, 
and esteemed citizens of Williamsport- 

AL"V"1N HIGH, deceased. If being old settlers, and among the most honored 
of her citizens would entitle a family to recognition in: the history of Warren County. 
the High familj', indeed, could not well he passed without an extended notice. 
Charles D. High, father of the subject of this memoir, was liorn in Berks County. 
Penn., in 1807. and his great-grandfather was a native of Germany. In May, 1838, 
he cameto Indiana, and located in Warren County, which was then in a state ofnature. 
On the same day of his arrival, William Hunter and family also located here, and 
in December, 183S. witnessed the marriage of Mr. Hish and Elizabeth D. Hunter. 
The Hunter family were of Scotch-Irish descent. They moved from Greenbriar 
County, Va.. to Oiiio, in about 1806, where Jlrs. High was liorn in 1808: thence to 
Kentucky and from there to Warren County. Ind., in tSi'^. ^Mr. and Mrs. High were 
hard working and worthy people; the parents of twelve children, ten of whom they 
reared to years of maturity. Mr. High died October 23, 1864, but his widow is ye"t 
living in Williamsport at the ripe old age of seventy-five years, the mother of three 
living children, the grandmother of twenty living children, and the great-grand- 
mother of six living children. Their children were named — Alvin. "Austin, who 
served in the late war, and died of consumption, in 1881, leaving a widow and tour 
cliildren; Anson, a soldier of the late war, who died in Libbv Prison in I8I10, leaving 
a widow and two children; Ezra, who died wlien twelve vears old; Catharine. Mrs! 
Gordon B. McClallm; Indiana, who died in 18tiS, the luother of one son and the 
wife of Hornedy; Elizabeth, Mrs. Horace Crane; Charles, who ran awav from 
lioine wheii.rourtcen years old to go into the army, is married and resides in Ivansas; 
William, a soldier of the late warl^ a graduate of medicine, and died in 1873; Johii 
i;., deceast'd; Aniui, died in 1871, the wife of A. Hiukle, and Daniel, who died in 
infancy. AlvIn High, the (ddcst of this family, was boru at \\'aln\it Grove, Warreu 
t!ounty, September 30, l,s:U, and up to his eighteenth year, assisted bis parents on 
the farm. He was engaged in f:iriuing and teaching school until 18."i.'i, when for the 
second time lie w;is compellea to relini|uish active out door pursuits by reason of ill 
health. He removed to Williamsport and embarked in merchandisi'ng. which he 
disconliiiiied after a few years, and in 18111, beeaiue Deputy County .\uditor. In 
1866, he was elected Treasurer of the county, and re-elected in 1868. both times as a 
Kcpublican; besides the above. Jtr. High served in various other positions of'local 
honor and trust, and thr(iU'.;hout all his oHicial duties was an otiicer who gave un- 
bounded satisfaction, lie was an ardent supporter of the temperance can?!', was a 


member of both Odd Fellows and Masonic fraternities and was married October 7, 
1852, to Miss Sarah M. Hawkins, who was born January 13,1834. To this marriage' 
the followine; family was born: Clarissa F., Mrs. W. U." Yeagy, Truman H., Charles 
M., deceased, and Alice, deceased. 

ELISHA KITCHENS. Postmaster, and one of the few of our remaining 
pioneers, was born m Chillicothe, Ohio, August 10, 1806. He was educated and 
married in Ross County. Ohio, his wife being Mary King. Learning the black- 
smith trade, he followed that occupation until about 182§, when he embarked in 
merchandising in the northern part of his native county. In 1833, he removed to 
Logan County, Ohio, and continued business there until the fall of 1836, when he 
came to La Fayette, Ind., and became a partner in a general store for a short time, 
and then returned to Logan County. In 1841, he came to Williamsport, where for 
some time he was engaged in clerking. In 1846, he opened a general store in part- 
nership with his present son-in-law, continuing the same up to 18.55, when he dis- 
posed of his interests, and two years later he and a partner established a grain trade 
in Marshfield, which they carried on for some years. In 18.52, he engaged in the 
same business in Williamsport, combined with the railroad agency, continuing the 
same until 1870. In 1873. he was appointed Postmaster. Although a man of over 
threescore and ten years. Mr. Hitchens has been one of the most active men ever 
in Warren County, and even yet he takes an active interest in all public affairs. 
His wife died in August, 1879, after bearing him three children — Martha, now Mrs. 
William Kent ; Scott, deceased, and Sarah, now Mrs. L. T. Miller. Mr. Hitchens 
is a pronounced Republican, having joined that party in 1856. From 1840 to 1856 
he was a radical Abolitionist, and previous to that was a Democrat. For fortj'-two 
years, he has been a resident of Warren County, and throughout his diversified 
career he has occupied an upright and honorable position. 

JAMES M. HUNTER is the son of John P. and Elizabeth (Anderson) Hunter, 
who were among the pioneers of Warren County, and are now residing near West 
Lebanon. They were of Scotch and English descent, and natives, respectively, of 
Ohio and Virginia. They came to Indiana in 1844, and settled in Jordan Township, 
then a part of Liberty, and there engaged in farming until 1870, when they removed 
to where they now^ reside. The Hunter family are among the oldest of Warren 
County, and the inconveniences and hardships of a frontier life had to be endured 
in order to gain home and property. How successful they have been is illustrated 
by the fact of their owning over three thousand acres of land in and near Warren 
County, besides other valuable private interests. James M. Hunter was born in 
Madison County, Ohio, June 10. 1843. and is one of eight children, seven of whom 
are yet living. He was reared in Warren County, and received a liberal education. 
He was engaged in farming until 1875, when he began the study of law with his 
present partner, John W. Sutton. In 1876, he removed to Williamsport, and in 
February, 1880, the firm of Sutton & Hunter was established, and is now among 
the leading legal firms of Warren County. Mr. Hunter is a member of the National 
Greenback party and of the Knights of Honor, and he yet owns 276 acres of land 
in Warren County. He was married, October 17, 1872, to Miss M. J. Stump, and 
they are the parents of one son, Schuyler C. 

JAMES L. JOHNSON (deceased), father of the present Clerk of Warren 
County, was a native Kentuckian, born in 1800. He was a hatter by trade, and at 
an early day moved to Brown County, Ohio, where he plied his trade successfully 
until 1885, then emigrated westward and located at Williamsport. He was a man 
well qualified for western life by having a robust constitution and an indomitable 
energy, which at all times are the chief reijuisites of the pioneer. He entered about 
700 acres of Warren County land, but, instead of tilling this, was engaged in mer- 
chandising at Williamsport, and became one of the wealthiest men of the county ; 
but he was not allowed to enjoy this long, for in about 1847 he was attacked by one 
of the prevalent disorders of the day, which caused his death. His widow survived 
him until 1856, when she, too, died. This lady was twice married, her first husljand 
being a Mr. Wright. To her marriage with Mr. Johnson six children were born, 
five of whom are yet living, the youngest being Henry C. Johnson. This son was 
born in Brown County. Ohio. December 6, 1834 ; was reared in this county, and has 
known no other home than this. In December, 1859, he married Miss Elizabeth 
Tebhs. Early in 1861, he went to Indianapolis, and for six months served as Deputy 
Clerk of the Supreme Court, but he then resigned his position, returned home, and 
assisted in recruiting Company K, Thirty-third Indiana Volunteer Infantry, of which 
he was elected Second Lieutenant. The summer of 1863, he was advanced to First 
Lieutenant, and later to the Captaincy of his company. Was in a number of hard- 
fought battles, among which were Wild Cat, Cumberland Gap and Thompson's 
StaRon. At the last-named engagement, he was captured, and for seven weeks was 
an inmate of Libby Prison. He was enabled to rejoin his command in time to par- 


ticipate in all the movements of the Atlanta campaign, part of the time as Aid of 
Gen. Coburn, l)ut af tenvard as Aid to Col. Dustin. At Savannah he resumed com_ 
mand of his company, and from that time participated in all the movements ot 
Sherman's army until the close of the war, including the grand review at Washing- 
ton. Since 1865, he has been Deputy in the County Clerk's office the greater part of 
the time but in 1«78 he was elected as principal to thisotbce, and in 1883 re-elected. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Johnson's marriage, si.v children have been born— Kate, deceased ; 
Louis H, Lillian, Anna, Harry and Cieorge W. ^ ■ n , 

HENRY C JOHKSON, lumber merchant, is a native of Champaign County, 
Ohio was horn January 26, 1820, and he is the eldest living child of John and Mar 
garet (Hultz) Johnson, natives respectively of England and Ohio, and of German 
descent. John Johnson served his adopted country in the war of 1812, and received 
a severe l)ayonet wound in the arm, from the effects of which he ever afterward 
suffered the family moved to Vermillion Countv. 111., in 1829, and were among 
the first settlers of that locality, where they died. Henry C. Johnson was reared m 
Vermillion County, 111., receiving only such education as the pioneer schools of 
that early day afforded— when greased paper was used: for windows, the old-fash- 
ioned fireplaces for warmth, and puncheons for seats. In 18.51, he came to Warren 
County to follow the occupation of schoolmaster, and for many terms he was en- 
gaged'in this occupation and farming. In 1852, he married Helen M. Cronkhite. 
and in 1868 moved to Marshfleld. Steuben Township, and engaged in the grocery 
andprovisiontradefora time; but he afterward sold out his store and embarked in the 
lumber trade. In March, 1881. he removed to Williamsport, where he re embarked 
in the lumber business, at which he has since been employed. Mr. Johnson is a 
Republican, a member of the Masonic fraternity, and he and wife are members of 
the M. E. Church and the parents of five children — Emma, now Mrs. Z. J. Stine- 
spring; Rebecca J., now Mrs. A. J. Clifton; Mary Ellen; Lora B., now Mrs. F. M. 
Wolfe, and Albert. 

P. W. LEWIS was born in Johnson County, Ind., February 17, 1S30, and is 
one of ten children, four of whom are yet living, born to Thomas and Sarah (Ware) 
Lewis, natives respectively of Ohio and Virginia. The Wares were of Irish ances- 
tors, but for many years tfiej- have been identified in Virginian history-. Members 
of this family emigrated to Johnson County, Ind., as earl_y as 1815, and here the 
parents of P. 'W. Lewis first met and were married. Thomas Lewis was born near 
Chillicotlie, Ohio; came with his parents to Indiana in 1820. and after his marriage 
with Sarah Ware, he and family, in 1847, moved to Independence, Warren County, 
and made that their home until their respective deaths. P. W. Lewis learned the 
plasterer's trade with Peter Laberdee, a son-in-law of the French trader, Cicott. He 
remained with him two years, then passed one \-ear at Attica, perfecting himself for 
his business. In the spring of 1864, he located in Williamsport. In December, 
1855, he married Sarah J. Schoonover, wlio was born on Independence Day, 1836, in 
Williamsport. Mrs. Lewis is descended from two of the oldest families of Warren 
County, viz. : the Sclioonovers and Chrismans. Her father was Stephen Schoon- 
over, who came to Warren Countj- witii his parents previous to 1830; and her moth- 
er was Sarah ("hrisman. who came with her father. Peter Chrisman. in 1832. P. 
AV. Lewis has fought liis way up from a poor boy to a successful retired tradesman. 
In 1864, he entered the Government's employ in the Assistant Quartermaster's de- 
partment, and during the time of his service had charge of sixty-four mechanics. 
He is one of the ])iililie-spirited men of AVilliamsport; is a strong advocate of all 
temperance prineiides, a Republican, a JIason; has served Warren County as Cor- 
oner a number of years, and in April, 1883, was ap|iointed by Gov. Porter as Com- 
missioner to represent Indiana in the National Mining and Industrial Exposition to 
meet at Denver, Colo., in July, 1883. ih\ and Mrs. t.ewis have had born to them 
two children, both of wliom are now dead. 

S. B. MATllIS. a native of Philadelphia, and .uie of the pioneers of Warreu 
County, was born Octotier 8, 1820; lie moved with his p;irents to Champaign County, 
Oliio, in 1830, wlu-re lie lived until he laime to Warren County, in 18-13." lie is tile 
eldest of eleven children, three only of whom are now living, born to Xehemiahand 
Catharine (Miller) Mathis. He was bound out when eleven years old to a farmer, and 
since that tiiiu' his life has been almost wholly passed ailiong strangers. July 13. 
1843, he marrieil Sarah J. George, and settled in "Western Indiiina. For three y"ears! 
they fanned in Liberty Township, (hen moved to the place Mr. Mathis yet owns, iii 
Jordan Township, where they remained for upward of thirty-five years, lu De- 
eember, IMSl, (hey rented a part of the old homestead, which consists'of 1,6(10 acres, 
moved to Williamsport, erected their brick store and hotel building, ami are now 
engnged in the gro<'ery Iraile and in keejiing a hotel. When tliey first crossed the 
AVabasli River, twenty cents was the sum total of their cash assets. Tliev rented 
laud and farmed under all those disadvantages and hardships of pioneer life, and 


•with their liard earned wages, invested in land from time to time until they are now 
among the heaviest land owners of the county. Mr. Mathis was a Whig until 1856, 
was then a Kepublican and now belongs to the National Greenback party. He and 
wife have had born to them thirteen children — Ephraim G., James E., William F., 
Eli W. 8., Mary A., Catharine E., Samuel B., Almyretta, deceased. Marsh T., de- 
ceased, Sarah J. and three that died in infancy unnamed. Mrs. Mathis was born in 
Champaign County, Ohio, Februarj' 28, 1821, and throughout her life has ably as- 
sisted her husband in all his efforts. 

GORDON B. McCLAFLlN, retired farmer, is a native of the Green Mountain 
State, born September 22, 1825. His father was a native of Scotland, came to 
America at an earl}' day, and, when the Colonies resorted to arms in order to gain 
their freedom from Great Britain, he served throughout the seven j'ears of war and 
was honorably discharged as Lieutenant Colonel. Gordon B, is one of five children, 
three of whom are yet living, born to Arnold and Esther (Metcalf) McClalliu, and 
in 1836, they emigrated west to Indiana, and in Septeml)er of that year settled in 
White Count}'. 5lr. JlcClaflin worked at carpentering, shoe-making and plastering 
in connection with farming until his death in White Count}', in 1848. His widow 
died in Warren County, in 1881. Gordon McClatlin lived with his parents until 
twenty-one years of age, then began doing for himself. Being the eldest of the 
family, he returned home after his father's death, and took his place in the care of 
the family until all had arrived to years of maturity. He received only a common 
school education and two different winters taught public schools. In 1850, the fam- 
ily removed to Warren County, Ind., and settled at Walnut Grove, where, in 1855, 
Mr. McClaflin and Catharine High were united in marriage. To their union have 
been born two sons — Charles and Ezra. In February, 1880, Mr. McClaflin and wife 
moved to Williamsport, where they are yet living retired. He is a Republican in 
politics, owns 297 acres of good land in Warren County, besides the town property 
where they now live, and "he and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal 

WILLIAjVI MOFFITT, County Auditor, was born in Adams Township, this 
county, January 15, 1833, and is one of eight children, seven of whom lived to ma- 
turity and only four of whom are yet living. The parents, David and Frances (Odle) 
MofHtt, were natives of Ohio, the former being of Irish descent. They were mar- 
ried in Ohio, and in 1831, came to Warren County, where they engaged in farming 
until Mrs. Moflltt's death, in 1871, since when Mr. Moffitt has lived retired in Wil- 
liamsport. William Moffitt, with the exception of two years, has always made War- 
ren Countv his home. In 1856, he married Mary E. Warner, a daughter of Daniel 
H. Warner, and in 1859 and 1860, was engaged in farming in Kansas. In July. 1863, 
he enlisted as a private in Company H, One Hundred and Sixteenth Indiana Volun- 
teer Infantry, and was elected Second Lieutenant. During their six months' term of 
enlistment they were located in Eastern Tennessee doing guard duty, but in Febru- 
ary Mr. MofHtt was discharged, and the winter of 1864 helped recruit Company G, 
One Hundred and Fiftieth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, of which he was commis- 
sioned Captain, and their operations were in Virginia, doing guard duty principally, 
between Winchester and Harper's Ferry. Mr. MofBtt was honorably discharged in 
August, 1865 and has since resided in The fall of 1865, he became 
Deputy County Auditor, and in 1868 was elected Auditor by the Republican party, 
and in 1872, was re-elected to this position. He served the four years after tiie ex- 
piration of his term of office as the Deputy of his successor, but in 1880, was again 
elected Auditor and is now serving in that capacity. Mr. Moffitt is a member of the 
Masonic and Odd Fellows fraternities, is a K. of H., and member of the G. A. R. He 
is a Republican, and he and wife are the parents of four children— Frances (Mrs. 
Frank Demmary), Clara J. (Mrs. John Hatton), David H. and Anna M. 

A. NEBEKER, County Superintendent, was born near Covington, Ind., Sep- 
tember 9, 1838, and is one of eight children born to George and Mary (Steely) 
Nebeker. The family is descended from German ancestors, their advent in the 
United States having been previous to the Revolutionary war; lint our subject's 
grandfather married an English lady, and his father a native born American lady. 
His parents were natives of Pickaway County, Ohio, and moved to Fountain 
County Ind at a very early day, and were here married in 1833. His mother died 
in 1870 'but his fa ther'yet lives and resides in Fountain County. After attending 
the common schools of his locality, the subject of this sketch entered Asbury Uni- 
versity but after four years' application in the classical course of that institution 
was compelled to his .studies by reason of ill health. For a number of 
years he was engaged in various occupations, but, m 1868, he decided on the 
teacher's profession as bis vocation. He was steadily employed at this from 1868 
until 1875 but in the latter year was appointed Superintendent of the Public 
Schools of Warren County. In 1877, he established himself in the drug trade in 


Williamsport, at which he has since been engaged, and, in 1881, he was re-appointed 
County Superintendent, and is yet engaged in that capacity. Mr. Jvebeker is doing 
a good trade in the post office building, is a teacher of sixty-nine months experi- 
ence, is a Republican in politics, and a faithful and efficient officer as well as an 
esteemed citizen, and since 1868 has resided in Warren County. 

ROBERT PEARSON, a native of Maryland, was born April 13. 1808. Learned 
his trade of carpenter and joiner in Wilmington, Del. Married Rebecca Barnes in 
December, 1834, and the summer following emigrated to Indiana. July 8, 1835, 
they landed in Warren County, which has eyer since been their home. Mr. Pear- 
son had been in this county in 1832, and had purchased 160 acres of land on Pine 
Creek, in Liberty Township. They lived in Williamsport a number of months; 
there erected a cabin on their land and moved to that place. He hired the greater 
part of the improvements done here, while he worked at his trade. At the expira- 
tion of five years, they moved back to town, where they have ever since resided. 
Mr. Pearson was a tine mechanic, and many of the best buildings of the county 
were erected by him or under his instructions. After a wedded life of forty-eight 
years, Mrs. Pearson died, March 2, 1883, a member of the Presbyterian Church. 
They were the parents of five children— Eliza, now Mrs. Richard W. Claypool; 
George L. ; Carrie, deceased; .lohn 6., and .lulia M., deceased. Of the children liv- 
ing, all reside in Williamsport. .lohn G. Pearson was born at this place April 37, 
1846, and, after attending the public schools of his native town, became a student 
of Wabash College, and remained in the scientific department for three years. He 
then returned to Williamsport. and began the stud_y of law with Maj. L. T. Miller. 
After reading with him two years he began practicing, having been admitted to the 
bar in September, 1871, and to practice in the Supreme Court of Indiana in Septem- 
ber, 1872. Mr. Pearson has md with considerable success, and is the present Mas- 
ter Commissioner of the Circuit Court of Warren County, having been appointed in 
November, 1883. He is a member of the I. O. 0. F.. the K. of JH.. is a Republican 
in polities, and one of Williamsport's progressive citizens. 

JOSEPH M. RABB. Judge of th» Twenty-first Judicial Circuit of Indiana, is 
a son of Smith and Mary (Carwile) Rabh. and was born February 14. 1846. in Cov- 
ington, Ind., the third of seven children, five of whom are yet living. He was 
reared, from the age of si.x weeks to manhood, in Vermillion County. Ind. His 
grandparents were among the first settlers of Fountain County. Ind.. arriving there 
as early as 1826 and 1828. July 32. 1862, Joseph 31. Rabb enlisted in Company K. 
Seventy-first Indiana Volunteer Infantry — afterward in the Sixth Indiana Cavalry — 
for three years, or during the war. His first campaign was with Gen. Nelson" in 
Kentui ky, in August, 1S63, participating in the battle of Richmond, ^vhere he was 
taken prisoner. After being paroled, he returned to Indiana, remainins in camp 
for some lime. Then, on being exchanged, again returned to Kentucky, and while 
doing guard duty was again captured. He was not long a prisoner until exchanged, 
after which he was placed under CtCu. Burnside's command in Tennessee, and" at- 
tached to the Ninth Army Corps as scout and courier. The summer of 1,864. he 
joined Sherman's army in the campaign against Atlanta. Then returned to Nash- 
ville, p;irticipiiting in the battle of thai place and the campaign against Forrest and 
Wheeler. Until the conclusion of the war. "Slw Rabli remained on duty in Tennes- 
see, but after being discharged in June, 18(i."). came home and attended" one term of 
school at Greencastle. In October. 1866. he began the study of law at Williamsport 
with Judge J. H. Brown, continuing the same until 1869, when he entered into ac- 
tive practice as a partner of his |ireceptor. After the death of Judge Brown in 
1873. Mr. Rabb practiced alone and in partnership until his election to his present 
position as Judge of the Twenly. first .ludieial Circuil of Indiana in 1882 Judi-'e 
Rabb is an unswcrying Republican, and a member of the G. A. R. His marriao-e 
with jAIiss Lottie Morris was solemnized June 11. 1872. and five children have 
blessed their union, imly three— Clara, George and Fred— now livin'^ The mother 
departed this life Atay 7. 1882. " ''^ 

WIldAAM I'. RHODES, senior partner of the law firm of Rhodes & Rabourn 
was l)oni .luly 1 ,. 1883, m Tippecanoe County. Iml. He is the second born of five 
cluidren, ol whom James I. and Nancy (Forshee) Rhodes were the parents His 
lather was a nalive ol the Old Dominion, and of Swiss descent; came to Ohio' at an 
early day, where he married. Mrs. Nancy Rhodes is a native of Ohio and of French 
■ ''Tra ■ ,," "'^•^T' ""■■■' '"°'''^:'^ '" Tippt'canoe County, Ind., where Mr. Rhodes died 
in bswi. I Iks widow yet survives him and resides in ^.a Fayette William P Rliodes 
was reared to manhood in his native county, and in 18,-)4" entered coilc-e at Fort 
Wayne, where he remained two years. In 18,-.8. he came to Williamspo-r* to em- 
bark in the pracliee of law. having previouslv studicil his profession about two 
years in the ,.IIice of llulf, Haird & La Rue. of La Fayette. In 1860 he «•■ s ad 
luitted to praeliee m the Supreme t^ourt. In bS61. he recruited Company IcV One 


Hundred and Thirt3--fifth ludiiiua Voluuteors; was elected Captain, and went into 
active service in Tennessee and Alabama. On being mustered out of service in 
October, 1864, he returned to "Williamsport and re-embarked in tlie practice of law 
In 1866, he purchased an interest in the Warren Bepublu'ivi. and acted as its editcn- 
about one year, since when his occupation has been chieflv in tlie practice of his 
chosen profession. In 1870. lie was elected to the Lower House in the State Lesjis- 
lature from Warren County, and in 1873 was elected State Senator from Fountain 
and Warren Counties. He formed his present partncrsliip with with W. L. Eabourn 
in 1882. and the firm of Khodes & Rabourn is one of the best in Warren County. 
Mr, Rhodes is a Republican, a member of the Odd Fellows and the Knights of 
Honor, and his wife is a member of the ^I. E. Church. He was married, in Sep- 
tember, 1859, to Miss Mildred B. Dickson, who was born and reared in Williams- 
port, and to their union have been born three sons— James L., Weslev D. and 
Joseph W. 

jrSTIX ROSS, M. D.. was born November 15. 1839, in Brown County. Ohio, 
one of eight children born to Josiah and Emily (Ferguson) Ross, of whom six are 
yet living. His parents were natives of Ohio and of English descent. His grand- 
father and greatgrandfather came to Ohio at an early period. Members of the 
family settled near Indianapolis. Ind.. where many of their descendants still reside. 
Dr. Ross' father was a farmer and merchant, and with his family moved to Grant 
County, Ind., in 1851, but from there moved to different counties in the State, 
finally coming to Warren County in 1865, where they yet reside. Dr. Ross was 
educated in the common schools, and was engaged in different occupations until 
1864, when he began the study of medicine with Dr. A. D. Kimball, of Xenia. Ind.. 
and after attending two terms at Rush Medical College, in Chicago, graduated. He 
first located at Greentown. Howard Co.. Ind.. but at the end of one year came to 
Williamsport. Dr. Ross is the piresent United States Examining Surgeon for War- 
ren County, and is a member of the Indiana State Medical Association, It was 
largely through his influence that the business of Williamsport was removed from 
the old town to its present location above the railroad. He belongs to both the 
Masonic and Odd Fellows fraternities, in the former having advanced to the degree 
of Knight Templar. He is a stanch Republican and the Secretary of the Board of 
Health of Warren County. Dr. Ross was first married to Eliza Marine, in l8lil. but 
this ladv died in 18i)6. To his marriage with Marietta Egbert, daughter of Dr. 
George Egbert, of Marion, Ind., three children have been born, only two — Hope 
and Arnet Earl — vet living. 

JACOB SHEFFER was born in Warren County. Ind.. in 1840. and is a son of 
Nicholas and Matilda Sheffer. He was educated at the common schools of the da}", 
and entered the volunteer army in 1862. being assigned to the Army of the Cumber- 
land. After his discharge, he attended sch'bol most of the time until the fall of 
1864, when he re-enlisted, was assigned to the army of the Potomac, and served 
until the close of the war. In 1873. he was married to Delphine Schlosser. b}' 
which union they had one child. Wilmer. Mr. and Mrs. Schett'er are industrious 
people, and promising members of their communitv. 

JOSEPH L. STUMP. Sheriff of Warren County, was born near Green Hill, 
this countv, November 5, 1845, and is one of eight cliildreu. live of whom are yet 
liviny. born to Lemuel and Agnes (Brier) Stump, the former of German and the 
latter of Scotch-Irish descent." Joseph Stump, grandfather of Sheriff Stump, emi- 
grated to what is now Fountain County. Ind., and entered the land on which Attica 
Is now situated. He afterward sold that property, and, in 1827, settled in Liberty 
Township, Warren Countv, entering a large tract of land, and at an advanced age 
he departed this life, in 1846. Joseph L. Stump was reared in Liberty Township, 
Warren Countv. where he received his education, and this has always been his 
home. In 1862", he enlisted for the war. but was rejected by reason of l^i.^ youth. 
February 29, 1864, he was mustered in Company H, Seventy-second Indiana Volun- 
teer Infantry, as private, and was discharged at Indianapolis, Septemlier 14, 1865. 
He was with Sherman in the Atlanta campaign, participating in all the movements 
of his regiment, concludins with the capture of Atlanta. After this, he was on 
special detailed dutv for Gen. Garrard until April. 1865. when he rejoined his com- 
pany under Gen. W'ilson. and started on tlie -Wilson Raid " to liberate Anderson- 
ville prisoners. They onlv reached Macon, Ga., when the news was received of the 
collap-,e of the Southern Confederacv. Mr. Stump returned to his native county 
and farmed until 1874, when he became engaged in milling in Rainsville, which he 
continued about three years, when he recommenced farming, at w-hich he was 
engatred when he was "elected Sheriff of the County in 1880. In 1882, he was 
re-elected, and is vet servins in that capacity. Sheriff Stump is a member of the 
Masonic order. Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Knights of Honor and G. A. R., 
and is a Republican. August 3. 1865. w as married to Sarah E, Jones. Six children 


have been bora to this union -George, Gardella and Gertie, deceased; and Nettie, 
Arthur, and James Marion yet living. 

JESSE SWISHER is a native of this county, born in the year 1S4-, ana is a 
son of Jacob and Clarissa Swisher. He lost his father when he was si.x g?ars old 
and worked as a herder of cattle from that period until he was eighteen. Me served 
two years as a soldier in the late war, a member of tlie Twenty-second Indiana Kegi- 
ment; he took part at the siege of Atlanta, and was under Gen. bherman m his 
memorable march in Georgia. His wife is Martha A. Mcintosh, daugliter of James 
H and Elizabeth Mcintosh, to which union have been born three children— Clarissa 
v., Warren C. and Harvey L. Mr, Swisher has a good farm, but without as many 
and convenient buildings and improvements as he desires; but he and wife are 
working diligently to that end. Tliey have an interesting and promising family, 
and are members "of the Christian Church. 


G. W. BIGGS, farmer, is a native of this township, born March 1.5, 1833, and is 
a son of Josiah and Mahala (Garrison)Big'.'s; the fath?r a native of Ohio, the mother 
of New Jersey, both of whom moved to Warren County, in 18J9, and settled on the 
land now owned by G. W. and D. D. Biggs, wliere tlie father died. December 4, 
18i4; the mother is slill living, aged ninety-two years. G. W. Biggs received but an 
ordinary education at the district school, and at the age of twenty-one began farm- 
ing for himself. On December 2T, 1866. he was married to Mrs. "Mary J. Crawford, 
daughter of James H. and Elizalieth Mcintosh. This union was blessed with five 
children — Millie F., FredW.. William H. Essie E. and an infant which died un- 
named; of these, two are deceased. Mr. Biggs now owns 169 acres, of what was a 
part of the old homestead, which is well improved and one of the best farms in 
Warren Country. He is a thorough Republican, and gave his first Presidential vote 
for Gen. Fremont; he is also a worth}' citizen. !Mrs. Biggs is a member of the 
Christian Church. 

DANIEL DUTT<;)N BIGGS, was born in this township January 07, 1836, and 
ie the youngest of tlie eleven children of Josiah and Mahala Biggs. Josiah Biggs 
was one of the founders of the county, and a prominent citizen; our subject received 
his education in the first school of this coun'y, a log building on the land of Dr. 
Daniel Dutton Hall, after whom our subject was cliristened. Mr. Biggs was mar- 
ried September 39, 1870. to Miss Ruth E. Mcintosh, a native of this township, 
daughter of J. H. and Elizabeth Mcintosh. This union was blessed with five chil- 
dren — Nellie, Charles H. (deceased, March 13, 1883), Lewis (deceased. March 3. 
1883). an infant (deceased, unnamed) and Clara. Jlr. Biggs is a Republican, and 
gave his first Presidential vote for Lincoln, in 1860. He is an enterprisins man, and 
a leading farmer of this county. In 187.5, he built his present residence, one of the 
finest in the township. 

ELIAS A. BIGGS, jeweler and fancy goods dealer, was born in this county 
August 3". 1850, and is the fourth of the ten i-hildren of Reuben and Elizabeth 
(Ayles) Biggs, both deceased, the former in l.'^63. the latter in 1877. Mr. Biirgs has 
gained by his industry and observation a good business education. AVlien stxteen 
years old, he was liouiid to Messrs. BelKt Ward, of West Lebanon, to learn wason- 
making, and wlien twenty, began business at Roli Roy. This, owini; to ill liealth, 
lie continued but two years. After visiting Micliigan he came to West Lebanon', 
and, with a younger brother, commenced the liakefy and eonfeetionerv trade, whitli 
after one year he abanchuied for the jewelry and fancy goods trade." On May 38, 
lS7;i, be was married to Miss Heli'na B. Cran'e. a native "of Fourtain County, da'ugh- 
ter of Silas and I5ell J. Crane, Iiy which union were born three children— Leota 
May. Ada B. (deceased Auu'iist 36. 187.-^). and Joseph N. Mr. Biirgs is a Republican 
and east his tirst Presidential vole fcu' Gen. Grant; he is also a Freemason. He has 
lunll the finest hriek liloek in West Leiianon. or in the countv. and is a man of ureat 
worth and enlerjirise. He has been Town Clerk and Treasurer. 

JAMES BKEl^N. denier in lioots, shoes and ruliber goods, was born in Xia'mra 
County, N. Y.. July 13, 1843, and is a son of Patrick and Bridget (Conrov) Brven, 
both natives of Ireland, who emigrated in is;is and settled in" Koekiiort", N. Y.'; 
they were sixty-six ilays ou the voyage, Mr. and Mrs. Breen moved to Delphi.' 
(larroll (,\>.. hid,, when James was four vears old; the father died in Favette 
County, IS73, the mother at Delphi in IS75. \Vhen our subjec'l was fifteen vea'rs of 
age he went to leiirn shoe-inaUing with John Dixon, at Delphi. In Januarv ' U'^63 


he enlisted in the Sixteenth iVrtilleiy, and in Aug,ust was wounded at the battle of 
Cedar Mountain; was taken prisoner at the Second Bull Run and kept in Libby 
Prison tnirteen months, and was lionorably discharged at Washington in September, 
186.5. In 1860. he removed to Missouri and other States, where iie remained three 
years, and returned to La Porte, Ind.; there he worked at shoe-making, and was 
twice elected City Assessor. Afterward, he traveled as salesman for a Cincinnati 
house, and in 1874 came to West Lebanon, and after two years engaged in the boot 
and shoe business with J. H. Wilson, whose interest he afterward purchased, and 
which business he now carries on. On February 3, 1879. Mr. Breen was married to 
Miss Katie Bulger, a native of Pulaski County. Ind. They are members of the 
Universalist Church, and Mr. Breen is a Republican. 

JACOB BRENNER was born in Montgomery County, Ohio, March 13, 1835, 
and is the second of the eight children of John and Frances (Etnire) Brenner, lioth 
natives of Virginia; the former died Sept. 13, 1881, the latter Oct. .31, 1851. Mr. 
Brenner obtained some education from the common schools of Ohio and Indiana, 
and when he was twelve years old his parents removed to this township, where they 
purchased 304 acres. On December 33, 1847, Mr. Brenner was married to Miss 
Susanna James, a native of Fountain County, Ind., daughter of Samuel and Cyn- 
thia James, pioneers of Fountain County. This union was blessed with seven chil- 
dren^SIary E., Cynthia F.. John H. (deceased). Martha J., Jacob H.. William H. 
and Minnie M. In 1850. Mr. Brenner moved to Jasper County, where he purchased 
130 acres and remained seven years, after which he returned to this county and pur- 
chased a farm on Rock Creek. In November, 1881, he came to West Lebanon to 
reside; his farm is one of the best improved in the township. Mr. Brenner was a 
Whig, then a Democrat, and is now a Greenbacker. He is also a liberal and pro- 
gressive citizen. He and wife are members of the Christian Church. 

JOHN W. BROWN was born in Montgomery County, Ind., March 13, 1838, 
and is a son of Annaas and Dorcas (Gibson) Brown. The father of our subject 
being in limited circumstances, Mr. Brown's education was that derived from the 
district school, excepting, however, two years at a select school. At the age of 
eighteen, he became an apprentice to the carpentering trade. Previous to coming 
to this county, he was married. Oct. 3, 1858. to Miss Martha Beck, a native of 
Indiana, daughter of Anthony and Elizabeth Beck, both natives of South Carolina. 
This union was blessed with six children— Viola D., Alonzo F. C, Laura V.,Lula 
May, Nellie and Nova L., of whom Viola D. and Laura V. are deceased. After 
coming to West Lebanon, Mr. Brown followed carpentering for sixteen years, and 
was town officer for fourteen years. On May 4, 1878, he became Postmaster, suc- 
ceeding Dr. A. C. Walker. He also then commenced the grocery business. Mr. 
Brown is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and he and wife are members of the 
M. E. Cliurch. He is an uncompromising Republican, and gave his first vote for 
President Lincoln. He is also a member of La Fayette Commandery, No. 3, having 
been made such in 1883. 

ASHLEY R. CADWALLADER, grain and commission merchant, was born in 
Montgomery County, Ind., January 11, 1854, and is a son of Jesse W. and Minerva 
J. (Silver) Cadwallader, the former a native of Indiana, the latter of Ohio. Three 
brothers of the Cadwallader family came to America from Wales at the close of the 
seventeenth centurv. When Ashley was one year old, his parents removed from 
Indiana to Ottawa, Minn., and thence, after five years, came to West Lebanon, where 
they have since resided. Ashley's whole education was comprised in that obtained 
from the district school. He began teaching when he was seventeen years old, and 
attended two terms at Wabash College. His last teaching was at West Lebanon, in 
1878-79, when he was Principal of the high school. Afterward, in partnership with 
his brother, he began mercantile business at West Letianon. which was continued 
five years In 1881, the firm erected the West Lebanon grain elevator ; this is now 
owned by Mr. Cadwallader, who is the largest grain merchant of the place. He 
was married, September 19, 1877, to Miss Laura C. Fleming, daughter of James M. ■ 
and Sarah C Fleming. Mr. Cadwallader is a member of the Masonic fraternity, 
and Master of Lodge 352. He is. politically, a Republican ; a member of the 
Christian church and Superintendent of the Sabbath school. 

IRA W CADWALLADER was born in Le Sueur County, Minn., March 19, 18o8, 
and is the fourth of the thirteen children of J. W. and Minerva J. Cadwallader. 
When Ira was eighteen months old, his parents came to West Lebanon, m reduced 
health and circumstances, so that he obtained his education from the district and 
graded schools, and was obliged to assist in supporting thefamdy by working during 
the summer season. After a few years, he began the grocery business at Craw- 
fordsville as a partner of his brother Ashley. In 1878, the stock was moved to West 
Lebanon and in 18,S1 the firm built the West Lebanon grain elevator. In April, 1883, 
on account of increase of business, he sold his interest in the elevator, and bought 


Ms brother's interest in tlie store, and now Ue lias a proiitable business. Mr. Cad- 
wallader is a stroniJ- Republican and temperance man. r, laon a- 

HENRY T. CALTON was born in Scott Count}', W. Va., June 7, 1830 and is a 
son of K. G. and Mary (Taylor) Calton, both natives of North Carolina ; the former 
died in Warren County, Ohio, April 8, 184i, the latter m same locality March 17, 1848^ 
Mr. Calton moved to Ohio when Henry was about tif teen years old, where he attended 
but one term of school. He besjan life for himself when twenty-one years of a^e, and 
April 17, 1842, was married to Miss Sarah Nelson, daughter of Henry and Elizabeth 
Nelson, all natives of Ohio. This union was blessed by eleven children, four of 
whom died unnamed, the others being— John W., Mary J., William T. Orange S., 
Luther L., Henry N. and George W. ; of these only three are living. In August, 
1845 Mr Calton removed to Madison Township, Ind., where he remained two 
years thence to Jordan Tonwship. where he pre-empted land, and thereafter con- 
tinued to buy until he owned 400 acres. Mr. Calton was the first m this county to 
break soil by horse-power, his happiest day being when he found a plow to reach 
the prairie loam. In 1874, he moved to West Lebanon. Mr. Calton is a pioneer, a 
Rebublican, a Prohiliitionist, and, as also his wife, a member of the Weskyan 
Methodist Church. For eight years. Mr. Calton was Postmaster of Walnut Grove, 
and Justice of the Peace in Jordan Township. 

GEORGE W. CRAWFORD, farmer, was born in this township October 30, 
1846, and is the tenth of a family of eleven children. His father was a native of 
Ohio, and his mother of Kentucky. George W. Crawford's education was of the 
character taught in the district schools. In 1875, Mr. Crawford purchased the old 
homestead, consisting of 190 acres, and is one of the best farms in the county. On 
January 14, 1875, he was married to Miss Sarah Porter, daughter of Ellas and La- 
vina Porter. To this union were born two children— Stella L. and Porter. Mr. 
Crawford is a man of intelligence and enterprise, and is a Republican in politics, 
having given his first Presidential vote for Geu. C4rant. Mrs. Crawford is a member 
of the Christian Church since 1870. 

THOMAS H. CRONE was born in Frederick County. Md., October 15, 1836, 
and is a son of John and Elizabeth (Leachi Crone, both natives of ^Maryland. The 
great-grandfather of Thomas came to America from Germany previous to the 
Revolutionary war, and was one of the first to form a settlement in the Middletown 
Valley. John Crone died in 1864, and Mrs. Elizabeth Crone in 1881. Thomas re- 
mained with his father, for whom he worked, until he was twenty-four _vears of 
age. On January 17, 1850, he was married to Miss Susan R. Blessing, daughter of 
George and Susan Blessing, both natives of Maryland. This union was blessed 
with seven children — George A., Chancellor L., Minor F., Loretta C. Esther A., 
Stella P. and John W. After marriage, Mr. Crone removed to Amherst County. 
Va., where he purchased 436 acres of land and remained five j'ears; after which lie 
returned to his native State and became a man of all work. In 1858, Mr. Crone re- 
moved to a farm two and one-half miles southeast of Lebanon, where he resided 
until 1881, when he moved to West Lebanon, at which place he now lives. Mr. 
Crone has 430 acres, and a well-improved farm, with a remarkablv commodious barn, 
40x80 feet; cost, ?;l,400. Mr. Crone is a thorough Republican. 

C. V. FLEMING, retired merchant and farmer, is a native of Ohio, born June 
20, 1814, and is a son of Peter and Rebecca Fleming, the former a native of South 
Carolina. Mr. Fleiniug has acquired a practical education: j'et, he never attended 
school one whole year. When thirteen years old, his parents removed from Preble 
County, Ohio, to Warren County, Ind., and settled in this township, where they 
entered and purchased 240 acres, ' C. V. Fleming worked for his father until he was 
twenty-two years of age, after which he clerked in a store in Old Lelianon several 
years. Mr. Fleming was married February 8, 1835, to Miss ^lalinda A. Clifton, 
daughter of William and Elizabeth Clifton", all natives of Kentucky. This union 
was blessed with six children— Peter W., William B., James ]*I., Mason T, Frank C. 
and Jerome; of these, three are deceased: William B. was killed during the late 
war, at the battle of Stone River. Mr. Fleming built the first business'^ house in 
AVest Lebanon, and kept the first stock of dry goods, which he continued twelve 
years. In 1872, Mv. Fh'ining built his present residence, at a cost of §4.000. He is 
a Republican, a pioneer of Ibis eouuty, and is, as likewise his wife, a member of 
tlie Ilniversalist Church, and a liberal "citizen. 

PETER W. FLEJIIN(.5, was b(n-n in West Lebanon. Ind.. November 20 18S8 
and is a son of Cornelius V. and Malinda A. (Clifton) Fleming. Mr. Fleming's first 
Iciulun- was Rev. Mr. Hall, a Methodist divine; he also attended the generafschool 
of the place. From 18.56, he clerked for his father, in a general store, until he wtus 
twenty-(me years of age, when his father gave the store to liim and his brother 
William (who was killed during the war at StoneRiver). Peter W was likewise a 
soldier of tlie late war, having enlisted in Ooni]>anvK, One Hundred and Tliirtv-fifth 


Indiana Infantry, May 4, 1864. He was commissioned First Lieutenant, and iionor- 
ablv discharged September 21, 1864, after wliich lie resumed mercantile liusiness 
with his father, having since added dry goods, boots and shoe.s, etc., to tlie value of 
f 10.000. Mr. Fleming was married, January .5, 1860, to Miss C. J. Sinkes. daughter 
of James M. and Jane Sinkes. To this union succeeded one child—Leland B.i'Mrs. 
Fleming died February 19, 1867; Mr. Fleming was next married, June 1, 1869, to 
Miss Arranna Craft, daughter of W. and Mary Craft, a native of Ohio. To this 
union were born three children, the tirst and last dying in infancy, the second only 
living — Lois B. Mr. Fleming is Past Master in the Masonic order, also a member of 
Covington Chapter, H. R. A. In politics, he is Republican, and was Postmaster 
during the Lincoln adminstration. 

FRANK C. FLEMING, Treasurer of Warren County, was born in that county 
October 12, 1849, and is a son of C. V. and Malinda A. Fleming. Mr. Fleming's 
share of education was obtained at the district schools, with one year at Asbury 
University. When twenty-one 3'ear3 of age, he began mercantile business at West 
Lebanon, under the firm name of Fleming Brothers, in which he has since been en- 
gaged. In 1871, Mr. Fleming was married to Miss Sarah Nj^e, a native of Charles- 
ton, Ohio, who died in October, 1872. Mr. Fleming was nextmarried, June 3, 1881, 
to Miss Ella Wheeler, of West Lebanon, who died'October 18, 1883. In 1876. Mr. 
Fleming was elected Township Trustee, and in 1883, Treasurer of Warren County, 
by a majority of 846. He is a Ro3'al Arch Mason, and a rigid Republican, having 
given his first vote for U. S. Grant. 

HON. J. FLEMING, physican and surgeon, is a native of Preble County, Ohio, 
born March 24, 181,5. His father, Peter Fleming, was a native of North Carolina, 
his mother, Sarah (Caughey) Fleming, of Kentucky. His maternal grandfather 
came from Ireland during the American Revolution, through which he served, and 
during which he was wounded, taken prisoner and sold to thejindians. Dr. Fleming's 
parents died when he was young. At fifteen years of age, he removed to Liberty, 
Union Co., Ind., where he learned the trade of a hatter, and became an expert at 
that business. After serving as clerk for one year, he began the study of medicine 
with Drs. Co.x and Holland, the former of whom was a brother-in-law. In 1839, he 
removed with Dr. Cox to Paris, Ohio, where they formed a partnership in medical 
practice. This was dissolved in 1843, when Dr. Fleming came to Warren County, 
Ind., and located at Lebanon. Previous to this, July 10, 1843, he married Miss 
Mar3' Jamieson, who died in 1860, leaving four children — William H., Edwin, Hat- 
tie M. and Rufus. In 1863, Mr. Fleming married Mrs. Jane Gree; she died in 
1869. In 1872. Dr. Fleming was married to Mrs. Amanda Stephens, a native of 
Ohio. Dr. Fleming cast his first vote for Gen. Harrison, in 1840. He was a State 
delegate when the Republican party was organized, and has since been a stanch 
supporter thereof. In 1883, he was elected Senator from Warren and Fountain 
Counties. He is a rigid temperance advocate, but not of a third party on that is- 
sue. Dr. Fleming is the principal physician in and founder of West Lebanon, 
which should have been namedafter him'. The Doctor is a Freemason, and religious- 
ly a Universalist; his wife is a member of the Cliristian Church. 

JAMES M. FLEMING (deceased) was born in Preble County. Ohio, June 30, 
1819, and was a son of Peter and Sarah (Caughey) Fleming. James M. Fleming re- 
ceived a very limited education, but by study and reading he became exceedingly 
well informed, particularly in politics and religion. When a lad, he went to live 
with his brother, Thompson, and when of sufficient age began to learn the trade of 
tanning, at wtlch he wofEed for his brother until he was twenty-four years old. He 
was married, November 17, 1842, to Miss Sarah C. Hyde, a native of Hamilton 
County, Ohio, daughter of Obadiah and Sophia Hyde. To this union were born 
five children— Ariadne J., Winfield S.. Thomas C, Ann E. and Laura L. In 1843, 
Mr. Fleming came to old Lebanon and engaged in the tanning business; thence 
moved to Attica in 1846, and conducted a tannery some years; and thence to this 
township, where he purchased eighty acres, afterward living in Prairie Township, 
and in Kansas in 1878, where he purchased a claim and died, at the home of his 
daughter, near Spcarville, March 7, 1879. Mr. Fleming was a member of the 
Masonic body; in politics, a Republican, and an honored and enterprising citizen. 
Mrs. Fleming is a member of the Universalist Church. 

CAPT DICKSON FLEMING (deceased), merchant and real estate dealer, son 
of Peter and Sarah (Caughey) Fleming, Avas born April 24, 18-33, in Preble County, 
Ohio and was of Scotch-Irish descent. Capt. Fleming never attended school after 
he was twelve years old, but through his own energy and perseverance obtained 
more than an ordinary education. He was a great reader, and gave special atten- 
tion to the subjects of finance, politics and religion. The early death of his mother 
and the ill financial success of his father impressed him with the idea that to live 
was to work, and, accordingly, at twelve years of age, he supported himself by 


working by the month on a farm. In 1848, he went to CaliforQia, returning, how- 
ever by rtnaon of failing health, in 1850, and making his home in or near West 
Lebanon. The marriage of Capt. Fleming occurred March 4, 1853, to Miss Ann S., 
daughter of Ichabod and Eunice Howe. Mrs. Fleming was born in Hampden Coun- 
ty, Mass. Her mother died July 35, 1835, and father December 34, 1873. To the 
union of Captain and Mrs. Fleming were born two children— Fred and Allie, Fred 
died August 9, 1881. He was a young man of sterling qualities, and of more than 
ordinary intelligence, of much promise. Politically, Capt. Fleming was a thorough 
Republican. He enlisted in 1861, and re-enlisted in 1863, but, on account of ill 
health, was compelled to resign the command given him, and near the close of 1863 
he came home. Capt. Fleming was by faith a Universalist. Mrs. Fleming is a 
member of the Universalist Ch'urch, having joined in 1880. The death of Capt. 
Fleming occurred January 8. 1873. In his death, Warren County lost one of the 
most valued and representative men, and the community a highly honored citizen. 
Mrs. Fleming resides in West Lebanon, and is one of the most amiable ladies in 
Western Indiana. She is a great temperance advocate, and famed for her works of 

WARREN T>. FLEMING was born in this county, May 4, 1850, and is a son 
of James and Lucinda (Purviana) Fleming ; the former a native of Ohio, the latter 
of Tennessee ; the father died in 1853, the mother in 1877. The parents of Warren 
came to this township in 1837, and were truly pioneers. Mr. Fleming received but 
littla schooling, jret he has, by diligence acquired a practical education. After he 
became of age, he commenced the grocery business at West Lebanon, in company 
with R. P. Adams ; this, after three months, he renounced for farming, and in 1873 
purchased the family homestead, on which he be,gan the manufacture of tiles, 
under the firm name of Fleming, Hamar et Co. On April 16, 1871. he was married 
to Miss Ettie French, by whom he had one child, Harry L. Mr. Fleming, in 1883, 
began making tile by the steam-drying process, the firm having manufactured 
300,000 during that year, and has since increased its facilities for the work. Mr. 
Fleming is a radical Republican, and gave his first Presidential vote for Gen. 

ZEBULON FOSTER, one of the pioneers of Warren County, was born in Pike 
County, Ohio. August 19, 1808, and is a son of Richard and Rachel! Browning ? Foster, 
both natives of JIaryland ; the former died in Pike County, Ohio, in 1831, the latter 
in same county in 1856. Mr. Foster received what education he has in the subscrip- 
tion schools of Ohio. He worked for his father uuil he was twenij-live, when he was 
married to Miss Caroline Ostrander on Februarj- 14, 1833, daughter of Dr. Edward 
and Margaret Ostrander. To this union were born twelve children — Edward. Rachel, 
Eliza W., Mary, William and Harriet ; the others died in infancy. After marriage. 
Mr. Foster came to Warren County, where he liuilt a cabin 16x18 feet, and entered 
400 acres, which he subsequently improved. Mrs Foster died June 3, 1871. On 
August 31, 1877, Mr. Foster was married to Mrs. Juliet Russell, daughter of Andrew 
and^Ann Fleming. Mr. and Mrs. Foster are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. Mr. Foster is a stanch Republican, and has been ToNvnship Trustee for 
five years. 

SAMUEL M. FRAME, ex-County Commissiiiiier. was born in Preble r",iunty, 
Ohio, September 37, 1S17. and is a sou of Samuel and Elizabeth (Martin) Frame! 
the former a native of Virginia, who died in Prelile Countv, Ohio, in 1847 ; the 
latter a native of Nortli Carolina, who died in this county in 1831. In 1830, the 
parents of Samuel J[. Frame removed from Ohio to this township, where they 
entered and afterward purchased eight v acres. After his mother's death his father 
and he went to Ohio, where thcv remaineil until 1S;39. Ou October 11 183s; he was 
married to Miss Vilriah Ammermau, daughter of Jolm and Rachel Vmmerman' 
This union was blessed with nine children— Eliza J., Celia Rachel Maiv M 
Henry C, Minerva A., Elizabeth C, Samuel M. and John L. (deceased)' " In '18*39' 
Mr, Jranie returned to this county and purchased land, on which he lived until 
1883, wlieu he moved to West Lebanon. Mr. Frame cast his first Presidential vote 
for Gen. Harrison, in 1S40, Init is now a stanch Re|Hiblican. tie has served as 
Township Trustee, and as County Coinmissioner from 1S68 to 1881 nine iron 
bridi^es, a court house and asylum for the poor having been built durin.' his term 
Mr. I^rame IS a so an Odd Fellow, and he and wife are members of the Soul 
Sleepers t^liurch. 

THOMAS GOOI)^VlNE (d,>eeased) was born in Kentucky August 10 1810 and 
was a s.ui ot James and Elizabeth (Snyder) Godwine. The parents of Thomas 
came to Indiana (then the Northwest Territory) when he was live years old loot- 
ing lirst m .laekscm. then in Bartholomew, and I'ame to this couniy in 18->^ Mr 
(,oodwiiie was a soldier of (he Bhu'k Hawk war. Thomas began tlu' work "for him- 
,selt when twenty-one years of age, his father having given him '^tO acres On 


August 37, 1834, he was married to Miss Eliza A. Baird, a native of Ross County 
Ohio, daugliter of James and Elizabeth Baird. This union was blesseii with ten 
children— James S., Jolin C, Wesley, William W., Rosalin, Elizabeth C. .Jennie 
H., Thomas H., Julian and Scott W. ; of these, five are deceased. Mr. Goodwine 
died October 1, 187i. Mr. Goodwine had four sons in the late war— James S. John 
C, Wesley and William W., the last having died at Bridgeport, Ala., and Wesley at 
home from wounds received in the service. Mr. Goodwine was a prominent citizen 
of this county, and was universally respected. Mrs. Goodwine resides on the old 
homestead, now more than sixty-four 3'ears of age. 

JAMES GOODWINE, land owner and stoclT dealer, was born in Kentucky .June 
19, 1813, and is the third of the eight children of James and Elizabeth (Suj'der) 
Goodwine. The elder Goodwine was a soldier of the war of 1812, also of the Black 
Hawk war; was a pioneer of Warren County, and for many years Commissioner of 
the same. When our subject was an infant his parents moved to Jackson County, 
Ind., and thence to Bartholomew County, where Mrs. Goodwine died and James 
first attended school. Afterward, the family removed to what is now Liberty Town- 
ship. Mr. Goodwine died in this county in 1851. On August 15, 1833, our subject 
was married to Miss Sophia Buckles, a native of Ohio, daughter of William and 
Lois Buckles. To this union were horn twelve children— Mar}- J., John, William H., 
James, Frank, Washington, Louisa L., Christiana, Indiana, Marion, Horace and 
Fremont; of these, five are deceased. Mr. Goodwine's first land purchase was forty 
acres from his father, to which he has continued adding until he now owns 10,3.50 
acres, only ninety of which are not drained and improved; he has also given a good 
farm to each of his children. Mr. Goodwine handles from 1,200 to 1,500 head of 
cattle every year, and has 7,500 acres of pasture, and 1,000 acres of meadow land. 
Since 1874, he has been President of Warren County Agricullural Association. He 
is a liberal and energetic citizen, contributing freely to every worthy enterprise. He 
had three sons in the late war— John (who died "in the service at Savannah), and 
William and Frank (who were in Libby prison). He is a Republican, but liberal, 
and Mrs. Goodwine is a member of the L^niversalist Church. 

FREMONT GOODWIN (named after Gen. John C. Fremont) is a native of 
this county, is the son of James and Sophia (Buckles) Goodwine, and was born May 
23, 1857. When five years of age, he commenced attending school in aframe house, 
one half mile from the homestead, and continued until he was twelve years old, 
when his father sent him to Perdue University, where he entered the freshman 
class and remained for three years, but was taken from college against his wishes, 
and now he designs to complete a course and graduate at some reputable institution. 
In 1878, Mr. Goodwin began teaching, at which he has continued, excepting a period 
of one year, during which he was agent of the Havanna, Rantoul & Eastern Rail- 
road, in 1881, he was elected Principal of the West Lebanon Public Schools. On 
August 15. 1878. Mr. Goodwin was marri<'d to Jliss Ettie A. Walker, daughter of 
Dr. A. C. and A. M. Walker. Mr. Goodwin is a radical Republican and temperance 
man. Mrs. Goodwin is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

REV. COLBRATH HALL, pioneer mini-^ter of Warren County, was born in 
the State of New York January 20, 1806, and is a son of Josiah and Phebe (Dutton) 
Hall, both natives of Connecticut and deceased — the former in Butler County, 
Ohio, in 1830, the latter at same place in 1831. The parents of our subject settled 
in Butler County, Ohio, when he was nine years old, where lie attended the pioneer 
school, and afterward, by diligence and perseverance on his part, he acquired a 
good education, and remained on the home farm until after his father's death. In 
September, 1838, he married Miss Maria Horner, daughter of Naihan and Cordelia 
Horner. To this union were born iwo cliildren— Adaline and Harriet, both de- 
ceased. Mrs. Hall died in March, 1836. Rev. Mr. Hall was next married Septem- 
ber 14, 1836, to Miss Sarah II. Hum. daughter of Rev. William and Matilda Hunt, 
to which union were born eight children — Henrii'ita, Wliittield. William I., Jose- 
phine, Hiram D., Marshal S., Sarah A. and Sarah F., of whom Hiram D. and Sarah 
A. are deceased. In 1834, Mr. H.ill came 10 Jennings County, Ind., and traveled 
Vernon Circuit; in 1835, Lawrencelmrg Circuit; and in 1836 and 1837. AYinchester 
Circuit. After living in old Lebanon six years, he removed to his present home, 
where he has resided thirty-five yi-ars. Rev. Mr, Hall was licensed a minister of 
the M. E. Church July 13, 1833, in Ohio, and was f)rdained at Lawrenceburg, Ind., 
October 24, 1S39, by Bishop Roberts. He has performed 5.50 marriages, preached 
4,000 times, and 700 funeral sermons. He has served rive terms in the Legislature. 
He is a Repulilican, Freemason, and a re|ircsentative man and honored citizen. 

ALEX HAMAR, tile manufacturer, was born in Tippecanoe County, Ind., 
February 10, 1848. and is a son of Joseph and Amy (JlcCrea) H.-imar, both of whom 
are living in Iroquois County, III. Wln'n Alex Hamar was twelve years old, his 
parents moved to Vermillion County, 111., where he attended school during three 

I I 


winters, when the family came to this township, and thence removed to Adams 
Township where Mr. Haraar finished his schooling. In 1861, he enlisted in Com- 
pany Q, One Hundred and Fiftieth Indiana Vohinteers, and was discharged at 
Indianapolis in August, 186.5, from wliicii time until about 1875 he has been engaged 
in threshing and manufacturing tiles, being the senior of the firm of Hamar, Flem- 
ing & Co. On .January 2. 1870, he was married to Miss Mary A. Johnson, a native 
of this county. Mrs. Hamar had four brothers in the late war, three of whom were 
sacrificed. To this union was born one child, Luella (September U, 1873). Mr. 
Hamar is a Republican, and gave his first Presidential vote for Gen. Grant. Mr. 
Hamar came to West Lebanon in 1867, and has been Assessor of this township. Mr. 
and Mrs. Hamar are members of the Universalist Church. 

J. W. HAMAR is a native of Warren County, Ind., born April 10, 1858, and is 
a son of J. C. and A. T. (McCrea) Hamar, both natives of Ohio, and residents of 
Iroquois County, 111. When J. W. Hamar was fourteen years of age, he 
removed to Ohio with his parents, and received some education, of which 
was at Vienna, 111., although he attended the normal school at Valparaiso one year, 
and also a short term at Sandusky. Ohio. In 1880, Mr. Hamar removed to West 
Lebanon, and engaged in manufacturing drain tile, and is a junior member of the 
firm of Hamar, Fleming & Co. On March 22. 1882, he was married to Miss Clara 
E. Biaer, daughter of Henry and Mary Biser. all natives of Maryland. Mr. Hamar 
is a Republican, and gave his first Presidential vote for Rutherford B. Hayes. He 
is a young man of great industrv and enterprise. 

CHARLES HAYWARD was born in Baltimore, April 18, 1811. and is a son of 
William and Keziah (Coats) Hayward, both natives of Maryland; the former died in 
Clarke County, Ohio, October, 1853, the latter in 1848. Charles Hayward received 
some education in his native State, and at the age of fifteen was apprenticed to a 
house-joiner for five years. After finishing this trade, he removed to Cincinnati, 
thence to Vicksburg, and thence to Clarke County, Ohio, where he was married, 
April 23. 1834. to Miss Elizabeth E. Vickers. a native of Ohio, daughter of Richard 
and Celia Vickers. To this union were born five children — Sarah (deceased), Mas- 
tin, Celia K., James W. (deceased) and Ruth A. James W. was a soldier in the 
late war, of Company H. Second New York Cavalry, and was discharged September 
10, 1864; he was captured before Richmond, sent toLihby Prison, and died of disease 
contracted while in tlie service. In October. 1838. Mr. Hayward and family moved 
to Morgan County, Ind,, where he remained until 1840, when he came toWarren 
County and settled in Lebanon. In 1846, he bought 240 unimproved acres, which 
he improved, and in 1869 moved to West Lebanon. He is now a Republican, and 
was an Abolitoniet; he is also a temperance man and a pioneer of this county. 

DAVID JAMES was born February 1, 1819, and is a son of Isaac and Gcvenney 
(Dunham) James. When David was about eight years old. his parents moved to 
Cincinnati, where he attended school and worked in a fruit house. In 1837. he came 
to this township and county, and in the winter of 1839-40 taught in the Benson Set- 
tlement, and in the summer walked to Cincinnati to attend select school, thus con- 
tinuing three years. On July 28, 1844, he married Miss Mary A. Davis, daughter of 
John and Mary Davis, to which union was born one child— Tlieodore jT; Mrs. 
James died November 26, 1845. Mr. James was again married. Septemlier 19, 1816, 
to Miss Sarah J. Hurst, by whom he had three cliildren— Mary H., John W. and 
Sarah G. ; Mrs. James died March 30, 1852. Mr. James was next married to 
Miss Frances Sherwood, September 30. 1852. To this union were born four children 
— Michael \V. .Elizabeth J,. FlorenceE. and Margaret A. Two years ago. Mr. James 
moved to West Lebanon. In 1850. he was elected Justice of the Peace, and has 
mostly held said office since that time. Mr. James is a Repulilican in politics, a 
prominent merchant, and one of the pioneer scb lolmasters For twelv.' years, he 
earriid on a store at Independence. Warren Township, where lie was Postmaster 
from 1862 to 187ll Mrs. James is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Cbureli. 

CHARLES E. JONES, grocer and queensware dealer, was born in Fairtield 
County. Conn., July 6, 1846. and is a sou of David W. and Catherine M, (Judson) 
Jones, the fiu'mer a native of Massachusetts, and the latter of Connecticut. Mr. 
Jones was killed in the battle of Cliancellorsville, Jlay 3. 1862. C. E, Jones taught 
school in his native State for four years, when he emigrated to Lake Count v. 
Ind.. wliere he taught four terms of school. In the spring of 1872. he was 
married to Miss Ella llandley. a native of Lake County, daughter of G. W. aiid 
Sarah llandley. To tliis union has succeeded one child— Euhi C. (born May 81 
1879). In 1875. he was appointed railwayagcnt at Alvin, 111., whence, after 't"bree 
years, he wan transferred to West Lebanon, after which he accepted a like position 
with the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railway Company, whence, after one year 
and a half, he came to West Lebanon, and engaged in his "present business J .nuarv 
1882. Mr. Jones is a stanch Republican, and ' one of the prominent busiiiesV'me'n of 
his locality. 


JAMES KIMBALL, Wabash. St. Louis & Pacific Railway Agent at West Leb- 
anon, was born in Clinton County, N. Y., Ma}^ 11, 1836, and is a son of E. and Susan 
(Case) Kimball, both natives of New York. His maternal grandfather was a sol- 
dier of the war of 1813. His mother died wiien lie was four years old, and he early 
began the struggle for himself. After worlving in the pineries, and when seventeen 
years old, went to Canada, and thence to Minnesota, where he remained four years, 
when he returned to Montgomery County, Ind. In the winter of 18.i9, Mr. Kimball 
came to West Lebanon, and in 1861 he married Miss Samantha Sliillman, a native 
of this county, daughter of Jolm W. and Marj' SlilUman. This union was blessed 
with seven children — Edwin 8., Anna (deceased). Charles H., Carrie, Frank. John 
and Dudley. For six years after coming to tliis county. Mr. Kimball was engaged 
in a saw mill, a flouring mill and in the lumber business. In Februarjr, 1876. he 
was appointed railway agent at West Lebanon. Mr. Kimball is a Royal Arch Mason, 
and also a Republican, having given his first Presidential vote for Abraham Lin- 
coln. He was a Councilman for six years, and is at present a member of the school 
board. Mrs. Kimball belongs to the M. E. Church. 

JAMES H. McIXTOSH, a pioneer of Warren Count}', was born in Lexington, 
Ky., Maj' 17, 18iy. and is a son of David and Jane (McAuley) Mcintosh. David 
Mcintosh was a native of Scotland, and came to America in 1801, and after one 
year emigrated to Lexington, Ky., whence, in 1819, he removed to Madison Coun- 
ty. Ohio, and in 1830 came to this township. He died October 28, 1848, aged eighty- 
four. He was a carpenter, and a most exemplary man. Mrs. Mcintosh died May 
26, 1872. J. H. Mcintosh received his early education from the common schools, 
and when he reached manhood began life for liimself by working at boat-building. 
January 28. 1836, he was married to Miss Elizabeth Dunbar, a native of Sandusky 
Couniy", Ohio. This union was blessed with six children — Marv J., Maria L., Eliza- 
beth R., Martha A., Boston H. and Sarah F. Mrs. M. died August 15, 1879. In 
the autumn of 1836, Mr. Mcintosh purchased his present home. He is a public-spir- 
ited citizen and a worthy man. In politics, he is a radical Republican, and in re- 
ligion, a member of the Christian Church of a standing of forty years. 

BARTOX H. McI^fTOSH was born in this township and county September 17, 
1848, and is the only son in a family of six children born to James H. and Elizabeth 
(Dunbar) Mcintosh, natives of Kentucky and Ohio respectively. Barton received 
his education from the common country school, and lived at home until his twenty- 
fifth year, sharing in the products of the farm after his twenty-first year. On June 
18, 1874, he was married to Miss Morcy Greene, a native of New York, daughter of 
M. S. and Sarah Greene, of West Lebanon. After his marriage, Mr. Mcintosh 
contracted to manage his father's farm until that parent's' In October. 1876, 
he was elected Township Assessor, and re-elected in April, 1878. He was elected 
Township Trustee April 3, 1882. He is Past Master of Ancient Masons and a radical 
Republican. Mrs. Mcintosh is a member of the Christian Church. 

ELIAS PORTER was born in Clinton County, Ohio, February 2, 1813, and is 
a son of Nicholas and Mahala Porter. His grandfather served through the whole 
of the Revolutionary war, and died in White County, Ind., aged one hundred and 
nineteen. His father was a native of Ohio, where he died in l8l4; he was a soldier 
of the war of 1812. His mother is still living, aged ninety-two. Elias came to 
Warren County with his step-father in 1830, and settled in Rock Creek, in this 
township. On February 3. 1833, Mr. Porter was married to Miss Lavina James, a 
native of Ohio, daughter of Thomas and Mary James. Five children have followed 
this union— Thomas J., Prudence, Cornelius, James W. and Sarah E., of whom two 
only survive. After his marriaue, Mr. Porter worked as a laborer, and for long in 
the' field at 25 cents per'day. In 1835, he purchased eighty acres, to which 
he continued to add until he possessed more than 400 acres, and one of the finest 
farms in Pike Township. He moved to West Lebanon March 7. 1872, where he yet 
resides. Mr. Porter is a Republican, and one of the pioneers of the county. Mrs. 
Porter is a member of the Christian Church. 

DAVID B PURVIANCE, one of the pioneer farmers of the State, was born 
in Giles County, Tenn., March 21, 1819, and is a son of Eleaser and Elizabeth (Orr) 
Purviance. His grandfather was a Colonel in the Revolutionary war. His father 
was a native of North Carolina, and died in this township in 1869. When David 
was ten years of age, his parents moved to this State, and settled in this township, 
where they purchased eighty acres, a part of which is now the Union fair grounds. 
Here he attended school and worked fen- liis father uatil he was twenty-one years 
old after which period he received a share of the products. On December 26, 1844, 
Mr Purviance was married to Miss Fannie Hamilton, a native of Ireland, daughter 
of Edward Hamilton. She died October 8. 1858. leaving four children— Edward 
D Mary F., Fannie and Lizzie A. Mr. Purviance was next married. April 1, 
1860* to Miss Mary M. Beck, a native of Union County, daughter of Anthony Beck. 


To this union were born three cliildren— Ida V.. William E. and Rhoda A. Mr. 
Purviance is a Republican, and was formerly a Whig, having given his first vote for 
Gen. Harrison. He is a member of tlie Christian Church, and a respected citizen. 
W. L. RABOURN" was born in Vermillion County, Ind., July 26. 184S, and is 
the youngest of the four children born to Fielding and Rebecca (Shepherd) Rabourn. 
Fielding Rabourn was a native of Kentucky; he died March 13, 1831. The motlier 
of W. L. Rabourn diid when he was yet an infant, and he was taken by an aunt 
until his father's second marriage. His early life was passed in the service of his 
father on tlie farm during summer and attending school during winter. So he con- 
tinued until he was nineteen, when he began teaching. In 1869, he commenced the 
study of law in the office of Davis & Mann, at Danville, 111., where he remained 
two j'cars, wlien, for want of means, he discontinued the law and resumed teach- 
ing. On April 16, 1871, he was married to Miss Dorothy Carithers, daughter of 
Jonathan and Elizabeth Carlthers. Si.x children liave blessed their union —Ldlie, 
Nellie, Ossian, Fannie, Stella and Charles O. In August, 1871, he was admitted 
to the bar of Vermillion County, Ind., and one year later to the bar of Vermillion 
County, 111., and also, in 1877, to the b,ir of Warren Countv, Ind. In 1879. he moved 
to West Lebanon, where he has been since located. Mr. Rabourn is a Republican, 
and in 1881 was elected Town Clerk and Treasurer. On May 1, 1883, he formed a 
law partnership with Hon. W. P. Rhodes, and is esteemed one of the tirst lawyers 
at the Warren Countv bar 

DANIEL W. REED, Marshal, was born in Warren County, Ohio, ]May 13, 
1841, and is the eldest of live children born to William M. and Mahala (Fox) Keed, 
natives of Lawrenceburg, Ind., and Montgomery County, Ohio, respectively, and 
of Scotch-Oerman descent. Mr. Red's parents came to Liberty Town>hip, VVarren 
Count}', Ind.. in 1860; remained until 1871, and then moved to -Jasper County, where 
tliey still reside. Our subject's marriage occurred November 7, 186,>, to Miss Mary 
J. Schoonover, a native of Liberty Township, this county, and daughter of J.-imes 
and Susanna Schoonover. They have had six children— Cora B., Lenora D., Desse 
M., Lura E., Nathan J., and William A. In 1870, Mr. Reed went to Iroquois 
County, III., remaining there until 1877, when he returned to this county. In 18S0, 
he removed to West Lebanon. In August, ls63, he enlisted in Company'F, Seveniy- 
seoond Indiana Volunteers, and was in battle at Chickamaus.i, Atlanta campaiirn, 
Selma, and all engagements in which his regiment participated, except one. He 
was honorably discharged July .5, 186.5. Mr. "Reed is a Kepui)llcan. and a memlier 
of G. A. R. In 1880, he received '357 votes in countv convention, for Recorder 
He was elected Marshal of West Lebanon, May 7, 18^-8. Mr. Reed is an enter- 
prising and creditable citizen. 

JOHN C. STEPHENS was born in Hamilton Countv, Ind. April 34 1849 and 
is a son of Henry and Mary R. (Wells) Stephens, the 'former a native of Ohio 
When John C. was ten years old. his mother ciied. and he lived with an uncle until 
his father was again married. In August, 1860, he moved with his father to this 
county and settled near West Leban.m, where he attended the accessilile schools'" 
When fifteen years of age, he began workin;j; by the month, then a^ clerk in a holeV 
then in the buteliering trade for ten years, then in the confectionerv and tinallv iii 
thesrocery business, at which he is now engaged. On Oclolier 10 b^tiO Mi Sienliens" 
was married to Miss Sarah F. Clawson, a native of Preble Couuiv Ohio bv which 
union they had three children— Everett, Elsie and Mvrtle. Mr "Stephensjs a Re- 
publican, and been Justice of the P.Mce. Town Marshal, and is and has been a 
Town Iruslee; he is also a menibrr of the Mas.mic fraternilv Air uid Mrs Ste- 
phens are meinbers of the Alethodist Episcopal Church 

A. C. '\VALKE1^ M. D was born in Zanesville, Ohio. September 1, 1^33. and is 
son of Andrew anil Mary (Barron) Walk.T, the former a native of IMarvI in,l wl,o 
diecl at Dresden, Ohio, July, 18-16, the latter a native of l^mnA■lvania;•■ ' '.i Dr 
Wa ker was three years of age his parents moved to Dresden,' Ohio, where he at- 
tended school and when sixteen years old his father sent him to attend the medical 
departnv.iit 01 the Universily of P,.nnsvl vauia. wh-re he studied tl.rV yea n 

afterward one year at the University ol New York; he also eha'ked in a \ew York 
drug store oiir year, and gradiniled at the New York Medical rniveixitv in 1^4,5 
Tn 18 0., became to t^Ouinbus, hid., where he was married to Mis Vi , 'Sl r nvu ' 
danghtiM- I. Asa and Ainy SluManan, This union was lilessed with live chh I'e - 
Lmina ^.. -l"'-"!.!.. F. (dee..ased), Eitie A., Essie L. and Elmer S. In 18, e re- 
moved t,o Hob lvo.V;i";l commenced practice, which he conlinued until the late war 
when, in July, lHt)3, lie was coinmiss oned bv Gov Morlnn -Vc,.;., „, q i 

the Sixty-third llegimiait Indiana Volunteeii, ai d s wed um h l^of wh^ 
he returned home, [n b%7. he lu^gan the dru- Ini.lness ii \V . T , ' ',' '? 

1,.. is yet eii.a,ed. Or, Walker is a member o f i ^ ^ .^,X H-aiZiu'" ^1 l'"^ 
staneb Unmhliea,,. Mrs. Walker is a memher of the PivsbyleHan clmn'lu' 



CYRUS CUNXINGHAM, was horn in Vermillion County, Ind., December 15, 
1839, and is the only living child of Thomas and Eliza (Cuuniuffhara) Cunningham, 
three brothers, Nicholas, George and Jared, being deceased. Thomas Cunningham 
was born in Ross Count}', Ohio, December, 1799; was by trade a tanner; moved to 
Vermillion County, in i'ii'iO, of which he was one of the earliest settlers; managed a 
flat-boat on the Wabash and Mississippi Rivers, until 1840, and died in 1846. Cyrus 
Cunningham left Vermil'ion County when he was twenty-five j'ears old, and came 
to his present location. He was married, December 17, 1855, to Mary Oliphant, 
which union was blessed with seven children — Horatio (deceased), Reuben, Walter 
M., C. v., Marriet, Malinda and James. Mr. Cunningham's residence is three and 
one-half miles west of Covington, on his farm of over 1,400 acres, well drained and 
improved, producing good crops of corn, wheat and hay; he also raises and deals in 
stock. Mr. Cuningham having been born just over the line of the county, and hav- 
ing remained in the neighborhood, has had ample opportunity to note the transition 
of tlie country from a wilderness to a garden, and recalls many stories of his father's 
experience with the Indians. Mr. Cunningham has lived a cxuiet, unambitious life, 
and is a high type of the true citizen, and is an industricjus and thrifty farmer. 

F. 6. Dubois was born in Medina County, Ohio. .January 16, 1836, and is one 
of the seven children born to Abraham and .Julia A. (Randall) DuBois, tlieir names 
being — Abigail, Sarah, Washington, Francis, Charles, Martha and William, of 
whom Abigail and Frank alone are living. Abraham DuBois was born in New 
York in 1799. He was a farmer, but had given some attention to blacksmithing and 
stone masonry; he still lives in this township. At the age of twenty, F. G. DuBois 
came to this county, where he has made his liome. He was married, December 25, 
1829, to Caroline L. H. Kent, by whom he had two children— Rebecca K. and Mary 
F. G. Mr. DuBois resides one and three-quarters miles southeast of State Line City, 
on his farm of 300 acres (123 thereof being one and three-quarter miles southeast of 
Vermillion County, 111.). His land is fertile, well drained and improved, and adapted 
to corn, wheat, hay and oats; he also gives some care to the breeding of short-horn 
cattle. Mr. DuBois has a large frame dwelling, with good staDles, fencing and the 
like. These improvements and possessions are the result of close and well-directed 
labor and providence. Mr. DuBois is a much esteemed citizen and exemplary gen- 

J. R. JOHNSON, Sr., was born in Franklin County, Ohio, September 5, 1818, 
and is one of the nine children of James and Carley Ann (Clark) Johnson, their 
names being Thomas (deceased), Henry (deceased), John, George, Nancy, James, 
Polly, William M. (deceased) and Carley Ann (deceased). The father of our subject 
was born in Pennsylvania about 1799; was a farmer and stock-dealer ; was a soldier 
of the war of 1812. and died in Steuben Township, Warren Co., Ind., where also his 
widow died in 1873. In October, 1828, J. R. Johnson was brought to what is now 
Kent Township, Warren Co., Ind.. by his parents, where they located for a short 
time, whence they removed to Steuben Township, where his father owned between 
2 000 and 3 000 acres. J. R. Johnson was married November 26, 1840, to S. B. Steeley, 
by whom he had one child— Elizabeth N. (deceased). Mr. Johnson resides two 
miles southeast of State Line City, on 533 acres (seventy-three being three-quarters 
of a mile distant): he has also 150 acres of timber, two miles southeast, and 245, 
which are well improved, adjoining Hoopstown, Vermillion Co., 111. Over 500 acres 
of these lands are under the cultivation, producing largely wheat corn, oats 
and hay Stock-raising is a specialty with Mr. Johnson. From 1861 to 1873, he lived 
in what is now the finest residence in State Line City, where he was for several 
vears in the dry goods business. In 1872. he erected a magnificent brick residence, 
modernly furnished, costing |10,000, from the observatory of which one may com- 
mand a delectable view of the splendid country. Mr. Johnson is one of the earliest 
settlers and has acquired his possessions by the hardest labor and longest persever- 
ance which will ever be to him a lasting monument. He is a Freemason and an 
Odd Fellow- he has acted as Justice of the Peace, County Commissioner and Town- 
ship Trustee. Mr. Johnson is a true gentleman and worthy citizen, higlily esteemed 
by the community. 

J W KENT was born in Ross County, Ohio, June 24, 1824, and is one of the 
eio-ht children of Perrin and Rebecca (Dill) Kent, whose names are Charlotte, 'V^ill- 


iam, John W.. Sarah, Thomas, Rebecca, Isabel and Caroline. William and John 
alone are living. Perrin Kent was born in Wa.shington County, Penn., July, 1794. 
He was a practical and life-long surveyor, and made many government surveys, 
having located the line between Illinois and Indiana. He was under Gen. Harrison 
in the war of 1812, and died in January, 1882, on his farm, where he had lived since 
1826. J. W. Kent came with his parents at an early age to Kent (then Mound) 
Township, Warren Countv, with whom he remained until he was twenty-four years 
old, and afterward became paymaster for the Toledo, Wabash & Western Railroad. 
After two years, he located in Steuben Township, Warren County, for fifteen years. 
October 1, 18G7, he was married to Kate Wallace, by which union were born two 
children — Gertrude and Maxwell. Mr. Kent resides two and a half miles southeast 
of State Line City, on 312 acres; he also has a farm of 800 acres in Steuben Town- 
ship, and one of 760 twelve miles southeast of Danville, 111. His farms are almost 
exclusively pasture land, producing luostly hay, although he raises some corn. He 
has paid much attention to breeding Berkshire swine and tliorouglibred short-horn 
cattle, and to tlie latter he now gives his chief devotion. In 186.1-66, he erected a 
brick residence at a minimum cost of $12,000. wtiich was burned in May, 1880. In 
1882, he built his present residence, a magnificent frame structure, at a cost of 
$6,500; he is also erecting a fine l)rick residence in Danville. 111., to cost |1.5,000, 
the grandest in Eastern Illinois. In 1817, he was employed by Ellsworth & Co., 
land speculators, members of which company were Piof. Chauncey A Goodrich, of 
Yale College, the Schermerhorns, theDaytons, William Sigournej' and others. Mr. 
Kent was in this service fifteen years, his business being to locate, improve and sell 
lands, during which time he gave attention to his own stock business. Mr. Kent's 
record needs no eulogy; it speaks for itself. He is a true Democrat, and one of old 
Mound's most prominent and successful citizens. 

ELISHA EODGERS was born in Connecticut April 14, 1812, and is the eldest 
,of the eight children of Allen and Sarah (Warner) Rodgers, the names of the chil- 
dren being Elisha, Daniel (deceased), Jonathan M., Jabez (deceased). John, Han- 
nah (deceased), Mary and Samuel (deceased). Allen Rodgers was a farmer and 
cooper, at which latter occupation he at one time employed several men. He 
removed to New Hampshire when Elisha was a child, thence to Hamilton County, 
Ohio, and in the fall of 1825 to Vermillion County, Ind.. where they remained until 
Elisha came to his present place in 1836. Mr. Rodgers removed to Iowa between 
18.55 and 1858, where he died. Elisha was married, in 1840. to Juliet Evans, by 
whom he had one child — Melissa. Mrs. Rodgers died June, 1840. He afterward 
married Mary Ann Jloudy, by whom he had ten children, six of whom are living 
— Sarah, Emily, ]\Iartha, Lincoln. Rosa and Peter. Mr. Rodgers was an earlv settler 
of Veriudlion and Warren Counties. He resides fo\ir miles northwest of CoVimrton 
on a good farm of 393 acres, 200 of which are well cultivated, producim: wheat, 
corn, oats and hay; he has also engaged largely in stock-raising. The site of this 
farm was once a flourishing city called Baltimore, at which period steamers plowed 
the Wabash, and railroads were almost unknown. Mr. Rodgers was Postmaster of 
this town for twenty-flve years; he was also Trustee. Justice of the Peace and 
County Commissioner during the lale war. In 1881. he built a fine brick residence, 
costing $5,000, and comuiaiiding a gruml view of the Wabash River and adjoining 
country. Mr. Rodgers is an aide and iiilluenlial citizen, an advocate of temperance 
and education, having himself built on his premises a fine sehoolhouse, a monu- 
ment to him and a blessing to the township. 

JOHN HOUSE was born in Scioto Countv, Ohio. August 16, 1826, and is one of 
the six rlflldren of Reason and Martha (Olehy) Rouse,''the names of whom are 
Isaac, Rebecca (deceased), Edwanl, John. Dennis and Elizabeth tdeeeased). Reason 
Rouse was l)orii in Delaware in 179I1. In earlv life, he studied medicine, intending 
to be a physician, which he afterward aliamloned to become a farmer ; he died in 
Seioto County. In 1831, after his father's death, .lohn went with his mother to 
Vermillion County. III., where he remained until her death in 1832 when he 
returned lo Scioto County, thence going to Vermillion County, ami coniiu"- lo this 
county in April, 1852. He now resides three and one-quarter miles soutirof State 
Line City, on his excellent farm of 130 acres, well improved, and productive of 
good wheal, corn, oats and liav Mr. Rouse was married, Decemlier 1847 to Phebe 
Villers who died in the following November. His second marria.'c was to Maria 
I Ill-cell ; this union was blessed with twelve children, of wMioiu are liviii" Marv F 
Sarah E.. George W.. Douglas. Marion and Joseph F. Mr. Rouse volunteered for 
tlie Mexican war. but his regiment was not accepleil. He has lived in his present 
neighborhood tor halt a century. He has given much time to stoek-raisin.r ami 
has erected ample slables. as well as other iinprovements. Darin"- the late w'ar he 
was Hegisler. and acted for two ye;irs. Mr. Rouse is an active and lhorou><-h Deiuo- 
crat. iuid an esteemed and enterprising citizen. 



AMOS BROOKS was born in Trov, N. Y., October 33, 1839, and is one of the 
five children of Amos and Elizabeth (tJpham) Brooks, the names of said children 
being Theodore, Francis, .Jerusha, Elizabeth and Amos, of whom the first and last 
alone survive. The father of Amos was born in Massachusetts about 1793 ; was by 
occupation a tanner ; was a soldier of the war of 1813, and died in Troy, N. Y., in 
1843. When our subject was three years old, he removed with his mother to St. 
Thomas, Ont. ; thence they moved to Detroit, Mich., and thence went back to 
Troy, where his mother died ; after remaining ten years, he removed to Kankakee 
County, III, where he was a schoolmaster. In 1883, he came to this county and 
located at State Line City, where he taught four years, and thence, after three years, 
to his present place. Mr. Brooks was married June 19, 1863, to Rhoda Hiser, by 
whom he had four boys— John W., A. Theodore, Alva (deceased) and Paul P. Mr. 
Brooks resides one and a quarter miles south of State Line City, on his fine farm of 
1.57 acres (twenty-five of which lie one and a half miles southeast and fifty-two 
three miles southeast) ; the land is mostly under cultivation, well drained and 
adapted to wheat, corn, hay and oats ; he also raises some stock. Mr. Brooks has 
made many improvements, having a comfortable frame dwelling and commodious 
stables. He is a Freemason, a member of the Christian Church, and an earnest 
advocate of education. 

PATRICK CAyAISTAGH was born in Ireland September 19, 1836, and is one of 
the eight children of Frank and Catharine (Pryor) Cavanagh, the names of which 
children were James (deceased), Patrick, Ellen, Barnard (deceased), Thomas, Francis, 
Stephen (deceased) and John (deceased). Frank Cavanagh was a farmer and stock- 
raiser; he also dealt in stock. After he was eighteen years old.Patrick farmed in 
Yorkshire four 3'ears, and thence went to Lancashire. He reached New Y^ork, 
January. 1849, and worked at brick-makiiig some time; thence he removed to La Fay- 
ette, Ind., and remained two 3'ears, whence he took the " Wahasli shakes," on ac- 
count of which he traveled South. Mr. Cavanagh was married, July 10, 18.53, to 
Mary Keegan, which union was blessed with nine children — Charles P., Mary, 
Thomas, Ellen, Julia (deceased). James, William, Harvey and Lewis. Mr. Cavanagh 
is conducting the only saloon in State Line City, where he has resided since 1859. 
He is a member of the Catholic Church, and universally acknowledged a true gen- 
tleman and a good citizen. 

ABRAHAM CLEM, was born in Butler County. Ohio, May 39, 1836, and is one 
of the four children of Henr^^ and Martha (Carmichael) Clem, the names of the chil- 
dren being Abraham, Elsie, Harriet and Israel D. Henry Clem was born near 
Lexington, Ky., about 1790; was a lifetime farmer, and died in Warren Count}', 
Ind., in 18o5. Abraham came to this county with his parents in 1839, since which 
he has lived within the boundaries of what is now Kent Townsliip. and since 1853 
in his present loeation. Mr. Clem was married, November 31, 1848, to Margaret Ann 
Taylor, which union was blessed with eight children, five boys and three girls. Mr. 
Clem's residence is tliree miles east of State Line City, on a superior farm of over 
300 acres (sixty of which lie three miles southeast), only seventy-five of which are 
not under good cultivation, with natural drainage, and well adapted to raising wheat, 
corn, oats and hay. In 1883, he commenced and finished a handsome and commo- 
dious frame residence, an ornament to the city. Mr. Clem is a Mason and a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Church, also an esteemed citizen. 

ROBERT CRAIG, was born in New York City January 4, 1834, and is the only 
living child of Abraham and Ann Eliza (Sheppard) Craig. Abraham Craig was a 
native of New York, a carpenter, and was killed by the fall of a building in the city 
of New York. When a boy, Robert became errand boy in a diy goods house, in 
which lie served seven years; he afterward became apprentice to a blacksmith in 
Catskill. After finishing his trade, he traveled and worked in many cities, having 
made the ironwork for the first carriage so finished in Port Wayne, which was an 
object of much curiosity; he was also thefirstof his craft in Toledo, Ohio, and in 
La Fayette, whence he removed to Covington and became one of the firm of Craig, 
Lewis & Co.. tlien the most extensive works on the Wabash, and after their destruc- 
tion liy fire Mr. Craig met the lialiilities of the firm. He was afterward in business 
for himself until 1853, when he came to his present place, two and a quarter miles 
southeast of State Line City, on a farm of 190 acres (sixty of which are timber, one 
mile southeast), about 100 being under good cultivation, well drained, and well 


atiapted to the production of wheat, corn and oats; there are many improvements on 
this land. Mr. Craig laid the first tiling in the township, and was the first to use 
wheat and corn drills. September 18, 1851, he was married to F. C. Mitchell, by 
whom he had four children— Martha J., John (deceased), Marietta (deceased) and 
Robert M. Mr. Craig is an old Mason, a trusty man and honored citizen. 

ELIJAH L. OILMAN (deceased) was born in Brown County, Ohio. June 4, 
1816, and was one of the family of John and Lydia (Lindsey) Gilman ; the names 
of their seven children were Samuel. Elijah, Mary. .John, Hannah, Daniel and 
Alice, the last of whom alone is living. When Elijah was about seventeen years 
old. his parents removed to Fountain County, Ind., where the}' died, and where our 
subject remained until after his marriage, when he came to this towns hip and resided 
until his decease. He had in his early life worked with his father at the wheel- 
wright business, but he afterward gave his entire attention to farming. He was mar- 
ried, November 9, 1837, to Martha Oxford, to which union two boys and five girls were 
born, named, respectivel}'. John, Rachel A., Lydia (deceased). Mar}', Josephine (de- 
ceased), Lindsey and Maria. In 1871, an accident befell Mr. Gilman, which resulted in 
his decease; he was endeavoring to cross a stream, near his residence, and. while jump- 
ing from one stepping-stone to another, lost his balance, which in striving to recover, 
he sustained dislocation of his hip-joint ; the principal cause of his death, however, 
was maltreatment of the case by incompetent surgeons. He was a noble gentleman and 
valued citizen, a member of tlie New Light Christian Church, and deeplv mourned 
by friends and relatives. Mrs. Gilman is passing her latter davs on her farm of 197 
acres (150 of which are one mile south), located four miles east of State Line City. 
She is one of the early settlers of Warren County, and a pioneer of Vermillion 
County (Ind.). having gone thither with her parents in 18il, 

GEORGE H. LUCAS was born in Williamsport. Warren Co.. Ind.. Janu;uy 
29. 18-1.'). and is one of the eleven children of Ebenezer F. and Charlotte D. (Kent) 
Lucas, the names of the living being John P.. William K.. George H.. Rebecca E., 
James H.. Tliomas K.. Lloyd S.. Kale B. and Charles. Ebenezer Lucas was born 
in February. 1807 ; he was a teacher, and afterward appointed Deputv Clerk of the 
Circuit Court of Warren County, and in May. 1838. was commissioned by Gov. 
Wallace to fill the term of James Cunninghani. deceased ; he was also Colonel of 
the Sixty-eighth Militia Regiment, and Deputy Surveyor. In 18-14. he was chief 
engineer on the A; Erie Canal, and afterward general superintendent. He. 
died in August, 1871, having ac(|uired both means ancrposition. George H. Lucas 
came to this county with his parents when he was two vears of age. Except a few 
years' employment as a clerk, he has been a lifelong farmer. August 10, 1873. he 
was married to Kitt Delaplane. to which union were born four children— Harriet 
(deceased). Charlotte (deceased), James and Kate Clare. Mr. Lucas resides one mile 
east of State Line City, on his farm of 144 acres (eighteen of which are timber, two 
and a half miles southeast), well drained, fertile, and productive of corn wheal and 
hay. Mr. Lucas has served two terms as Township Trustee. He is an Odd Fellow 
and an esteemed and worthy citizen. 

WILLIAM R. MURPHY was born in this township June 12. 1836 and is one 
of the ten children of George and Mary (Shoemaker) Murphv ■ of these children 
seven are living-John, Hannah, William, Gano. Martha. Gideon and Samautha 
George Murphy b.iru in ()hh>. 1802 : was a farmer, and died in Warren Count v' 
Ind in 1801. William R. Murphy has made the old homestead his lifelon.- home 
and has been enabled to note the transformation of this countv from a h'^iunt of 
wolves to a garden of civiliz.ition. He was ni;irried. August l" 18(il to Maria E 
Stanley, which union was blessed with nine children — Mary. Florence' Lucv 
(deceased), \\illiam, :\Iartha. Eliiora, Charles, Roberta and Waher (deceaseds In 
Seiitembcr, 18(;4. Mr. Murphy was enrollcl in the Fortieth Indiana Veteran Volun- 
teers, and was engagrd in the battles of Franklin and Nashville ; he was discharged 
at New Or.caiis in July, bsii,",, when he returned home. His residence is tive nules 
southeast of State Line City, on his 200-aere farm (twentv-seven of which are on^ 
and a ha I miles southeast) ; his land is improved and very" pro.luetive. particularly 
cilize'r " '""'"■ ■■ "'•'''■' *' ' prosperous farmer and a public-spirilecl 

A. M. PORTER. j\r D.. was born in Fleming County. Ky.. November 24 
182.,, ami IS one of the s,.v,.n c'liildivn of Sell. W. and Cynthia (Davis) Porlei their 
names being .Albert. Ausli,,. Morris. William D., EvMine. Jane and Seb; the 
(iatighters are deceased. Sell. W. Porter was horn .May 29. 1791 ;,t Snow HI Md 
In his youth, he was apprenticed to a shoe-maUer Hn,1 ,v,„.L-„.l .,, ,u. ...\ ■..'.. 1; 

in ii.s youth, he was apprenticed to a shoe-maker, and worked at that trade 'untii 
middle ;,,ge. after which he farmed until his death. He was under t"ol iV dl,.v , 
the war o 1812; was taken prisoner by the Indians, and aneihve ns' ev 
changed at^ „r a bob-tail pony. He died in Mav. 1870. in Boo e County 
Ind. Dr. Porter, with h,s parents, removed to Parke County, Ind. .am the ce to 


Boone County. He studied medicine at Wabash, Ind., under Dr. Loop. In July, 
1847, he came to this county, and after two years began practicing in Jamestown, 
Boone County, and remained two and a half years. In the spring of 185'3, he re- 
turned to AVarren County, atid located in this township, where he has since resided, 
coming to his present location, near State Line City, in IS')'-). After attending 
Wabi-ih College, he received his first lectures, in 1847-1:8, at the Indiana Medical 
College, then located at La Porte, and afterward at the same institution in Indian- 
apolis, from which lie received his degree. Dr. Porter was married, .July 23, 18.50, 
to Eliza Layton, who died in February, 18.>5; afterward, March 13, 1860, he mar- 
ried Maria Layton, by whom he had one child, 8el)a. Mrs. Porter died in 1861. 
His third marriage was to Isabella Calhoun, November 23, 1865, by whom he had 
three children — Carrie (deceased), Albert (deceased) and George Seth. Dr. Porter 
is an enthusiast in his profession, and has two brothers, physicians. He is a Knight 
Templar Mason, an Odd Fellow and a Presbyterian. 

CANO SHOEMAKER was born in Butler County, Ohio, November 30, 1815, 
and is one of the thirl een children of Elias and Catherine (Cox) Shoemaker, whose — - 
names were Michael, Hannah, Elizabeth, Mary, Ann, Abigail; Samuel, Elias, Gano, 
Louisa, Gideon, Samantha and George, of whom Gano is the only cme living. 
Elias Shoemaker was born in Delaware in 1771; was in the war of 1812, our subject 
being named after his commander. Gen. Gano; was a life-long farmer, and died 
about the year 1862, in Warren County, Ind. Gano was about six years of age 
when his parents moved to Union County, Ind. After eight years, he went back to 
Butler County, Ohio, and in 1842 moved to Louisiana, wliere he worked on the 
Atchafalaya for seventeen winters. In October, 1831, he first came to this 
county, but did not locate until March, 18.56, since which time he has resided here. 
Mr. Shoemaker was married, September 27, 1858, to Harriet Clem, which union was 
blessed witli seven children, those living l)eing — Austin P., Albert R., Wilson S., 
George H. and Lucy A. Mr. Shoemaker resides four and one-half miles southeast 
of State Line City on his farm of 110 acres (40 of which lie one-half mile north- 
west), which is well drained and fenced, and produces good wheat and corn; there 
is also a good dwelling and ample stabling. Mr. Shoemaker is an excellent man, 
and a worthv and honored citizen. 

SAMUEL SONGER was born in Montgomery County, Va., February 10, 1810, 
and is one of the eleven children of Peter and Elizabeth (Sawyer) Songer, the 
names of which children were Susan, John, Jacob, Peter, Elizabeth, David, Sarah, 
Samuel, Lewis, Nancy and Mary. Of these, Samuel is probably the only one liv- 
ing. Peter Songer was a farmer, and came early to Dearborn County, Ind.. where 
he died when Samuel was a child, who remained in said county until he was nearly 
twenty years old, when he removed to Vermillion County, 111., and remained there 
nearly thirty-five years. In the autumn of 1869, Mr. Songer came to this county. 
He was married, August 13, 1829, to Sarali Parker, their union being blessed with 
eight children, the names of the living being Lewis, William and Andrew. Mrs. 
Songer died August 34, 1859, and February 5, 1863, he married Rachel A. Ruark. 
Mr. Songer resides five miles southeast of State Line City, on a good farm of 165 
acres, under fair cultivation, well drained, and adapted to the culture of wheat and 
corn. He has a good dwelling, commodious staliling, and other improvements. Mr. 
Songer is a worthy citizen, and a memlier of tlie New-Light Church. 

DAVID THANEY, was born in Warren County, Ind., May 5, 1849, and is the 
fourth of six children born to John and Margaret (Long) Thaney, such children ' 
being Sarali, George, Margaret, David, Henry (deceased) and Frederick. The father 
of David was born in Hesse-Cassel, Germany, in 18' i5; he was in the main a farmer, 
though he had learned weaving and coopering; he died in Stueben Township, War- 
ren Co., Ind., in April, 1880. David Thaney resided in Steuben Township untd 
March, 1880, when became to his present home, two and a half miles south of 
Marshfield. He was married, September 28, 1875, to Marietta Briggs, who has liorne 
him two children-— Gertrude and Claudius. Mr. Thaney farmed with his father 
until 1874, after which he conducted a grist mill and saw mill in Steuben Township. 
On coming to this township, he constructed a tile factory, having a capacity of 
5,000 feet of tile per day, and at that time the only one in the township. After hav- 
ing received a fair .school education, he attended one year at Wabash College. Mr. 
Thaney has lived within a radius of half a mile all his life. He has greatly improved 
his farm, adding a comfortable dwelling, witti commodious stabling; his chief prod- 
ucts are wheat, corn and hay, and he makes a specialty of stock, principally sheep 
and cattle. Mr. Thaney is asucccssful farmer and an esteemed citizen. 



P W ANDERSON", was born iu Clarke County.Ohio. April 33, 1831, and is one 
of the twelve children of James and Ruth (Vickers) Anderson wHo were named 
Joseph, Peter, Mary (deceased), Elizabeth (deceased). William (deceased), Edward, 
Cecelia (deceased), Charles (deceased), Augustus, Howard, James L. and John. 
The father of Peter was born June 28, 1804. in Maryland; he was a farmer and stock- 
raiser, and died in 1871, in this township. P. W. Anderson, at the age of twenty-one, 
came to his present location. In April, 18G1, he enlisted for three months in the 
Tenth Indiana Infantry, and was in the battle of Rich Mountain. In 1862, he re- 
enlisted in Company E, Eighty-si.Yth Indiana Infantry, as .Sergeant; he was engaged 
at Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Franklin, and in minor engagements; and was dis- 
char'j-ed June, 1865. Mr. Anderson was married October 31, 186,, to barah B. Mar- 
tin- The V have three children— Nellie. Clifford and Oracle. He now resides three 
and a lialf railed northwest of Marshtield, on his farm of 181 acres (sixty acres of 
timber lying three and a half miles southeast); the 12U acres are well cultivated, well 
drained,' well improved, and producing good wheat, corn, oats and hay; he also 
raises some stock for his own use. InlH76,he was elected Justice of tlie Peace, and 
re-elected in 1880. Mr. Anderson is a memlier of the Masonic order, the Grand Army 
of tlie Republic, and of the Baptist Church. 

ELIJAH C. BYERS was born in Washington County, Md.. August 1, 1831, and 
is one of the hve cliildren of Samuel S. and Nancy L. (Bo'wers) Byers. the names of 
said family being— Ann (deceased). Jacob, Margaret, Elijah and Ellen (deceased). 
The fattier of our subject was born in Washington County, 5[d., October. 1801; was 
a weaver and dyer by occupation, which he followed until he was thirty-eight years 
of age. In the fall of 1888, he removed to Noble County. Ind.. thence to Fountain 
and Warren Counties, residing in Washington and Pike Townships; after going to 
Missouri, in 1868, he came to this township, where he died in October, 1874. Elijah 
C. Byers came to this township in March, 18.52. and since December, ly.").). has lived 
on his farm of 27.5 acres (ninety-five of whicli are three-fourths of a milewest. with 
twenty of timber in Kent Township), 2.'j.") acres of which are under good cultivation, 
with neat frame dwelling, convenient stables and other improvements, such as or- 
chards, general shrubbery, etc.; this land produces good corn, oats and ha}^ Mr. 
Byers was married. November 18. 18" Sarah A. Shankland. by wlioiu he has one 
child — William F. Mr. Byers is a memlier of the Church of God. Mrs Byers hav- 
ing become a proficient taxidermist, her services have been secured by Prof. A. H. 
Alexander, of Hoboken, N. .1. 

JOSEPH C. CHAVERS was born in Putnam County. Ind.. April 14, 1836. and 
is one of tlie ten children of Alexander and Phcbe Chavers, the names of said fam- 
il}' being Elizabeth (Cunningham), William, Sarah J.. Joseph. Nancy A., Alexan- 
der, John A.. Rebecca, Mary C. and Ellen, of whom Joseph, John and Mary sur- 
vive. The father of Joseph was born in Virginia in 1806; came to Monroe County, 
Ind.. about 1828. where he married. He died in Boone County in April. 1850. 
Joseph C. Chavers was taken to Boone County when six years of age. and re- 
mained there until 1852, when he came to this township. He has resided where he 
now is since February, 1864. September 8. 1857. he was married to Orilia Barnes, 
who died September 4, 1865, leaving three children— Mary A.. Eveline and Adelia. 
Se|it<'inber 25, 1866, he married Nancy A. Brinegar, by whom he had two cliildren 
— William II anil Joseph L. Mr. Cliavers' residence is five and three-quarter 
miles iiorlliwest of Marsbfield. on his farm of ninety acres iforly being in \ ermil- 
lioii Coiiiily, III.), all of which is cultivated, fenced, with good frame dwelling, 
staliliiig, elc.. and productive of wheat, corn, oats and hay. His place is also very 
beaulifully ornamented. Mr. Chavers commenced his career without means, biit 
has, by persevering industry, aeiiuireil his (iroperty, as well as the respect of all. 
lie is a member of the Masonic fraternily and of the Church of God. He is also a 
much esteenu'd citizen. 

.lOlIN W. CHUMLEA was born in Knox County. Tenn.. May 3. 1832. and is 
one of the two children of William \V. and Jane (Anderson) Chumlea. their names 
being John and Rebecca P. (deceased). William W. Chumlea was born in Knox 
County, Tenn., in March, 180(i. He was cliiefly a farmer, but something of a 
mechiinical genius, having worked at twelve different trades. While in Fountain 
County, Ind., he was Justice of the Peace and Township Trustee. He died at his 
son's house in December, 1880. The parents of John moved from Fountain County 


to Steuben Township in 1854. where our subject has since resided, and since March 
1875, on his present place. He was married May 10, 1860, to Anna E. Starry, from 
which union have resulted si.\ children— William, Lawrence W. (deceased), Esther 
J. (deceased), Lizzie E., Miles P. and George W. Mr. Chumlea resides two miles 
northwest of Johnsonville, on his excellent farm of 186 acres (80 of which lie three- 
fourths of a mile northwest), fenced and drained, and adapted for wheat, corn, oats 
and hay. He also raises sufficient stock for his private use. In the fall of 1875, he 
erected a handsome frame dwelling, and his farm is well improved. Mr. Chunilea 
has served three terms as Township Trustee, and has been for years a Mason and 
member of the Christian Church. He has never sought office, and is a much 
esteemed citizen. 

MARSHALL COMPTON was born in Ross County, Ohio, March 4, 1811, and 
is the fourth of the six boys born to John and Catherine (Davis) Compton, their 
names being— John, William (deceased). Garret (deceased), Marshall, Nelson and 
Jackson. The father of Marshall was a soldier of 1812, and was badly wounded in 
that war, after which he devoted his life to farming. While our subject was a 
boy, he went to Pike County, Ohio, to learn the blacksmithing trade, at which he 
served six years, and afterward worked for fourteen years. In October, 1846, he 
came to this township, and purchased his present place. Decemlier 18, 1859, he 
was married to Nancy J. Nelson, which union gave issue to three children — Alice, 
Charles and Jesse (deceased). Mr. Compton's residence is two miles north of 
Marshfleld. on his farm of 346 acres (30 of which, in timber, are four miles south, 
with 40 in Pike Township). All except the timber are under good cultivation and 
improvement, and are well adapted to corn, wheat, oats and hay. He also raises 
horses, cattle and Berkshire hogs. Mr. Comptfm has a flue frame dwelling and 
observatory, which affords a charming view of the country. He is a Freemason; 
was Trustee of Kent Township several terms, and has held other minor offices. 

JOHN D. CRAWFORD was born in Pike Township, Warren County, Ind., 
April 23, 1838, and is one of the eleven children of William A. and Lutitia (Snod- 
grass) Crawford, then- names being Martin (deceased), Milton (deceased), Samuel 
(deceased), Louisa J. (deceased), 8. Margaret, John D., Lutitia (deceased), William 
(deceased), Harvey H.. George W. and Sarah. William A. Crawford was born in 
Kentuck)' in 1804 ; devoted his entire life to farming and stock-raising, and died in 
this county in 1854. Our subject lived at the scene of his birth until February, 
1878, when he came to his present location. He was married, January 15, 1874, to 
Ruie Morton, by which union were born three children, of whom but one, Clara L., 
survives. Mr. Crawford resides on his farm of 274 acres (seventy of which are one 
mile north, in Pike Township), all of which is fertile, and'most under good cultiva- 
tion, well drained, and adapted to wheat and corn ; in addition are many improve- 
ments, as a large, convenient barn, etc. Mr. Crawford is an exemplary man, a 
member of the Christian Church and an estimable citizen. His parents were among 
the oldest settlers in this locality, having come hither as early as 1837. 

WILLIAM H. CRONKHITE, Township Trustee, was born in this township 
December 15, 1844, and is a son of Hosea and Eleanor (Garretson) Cronkhite, the 
former a native of New York, the latter of Ohio. Hosea Cronkhite came to this 
township in 1838, where he died February 13, 1864 ; Mrs. Cronkhite died January 
24, 1874. The grandfather of our subject was afsoldier of the war of 1812. Will- 
iam H. Cronkhite attended the district schools in youth, and when twenty-three 
began hfe for himself. He was married, October 10, 1867, to Miss Mell Smith, 
daugliter of P. G. and Eliza Smith, a native of Boone County, Ind., to which union 
was born one child, Guy. After marriage Mr. Cronkhite began farming for him- 
self. In 1873, lie moved to the old Cronkhite homestead, one mile north of Marsh- 
field, and one year later purchased the farm where he now resides, it being one of 
the best in the township. Mr. Cronkhite is a Republican, and was elected Town- 
ship Trustee, in 1883, over his opponent, likewise a Republican, by sixteen votes ; 
he is also a member of the Church of God. 

JAMES C. HALL was born in this township June 4, 1837, and is one of the 
ten children of Daniel D. and Jane J. (Buell) Hall, the names of this family being 
Harvey (deceased), Frances (deceased), Joshua (deceased), Celia (deceased), Walter 
B., Isaiah, James C, Isaac. Charles (deceased) and Frances M. The father of our 
subject. Dr. Daniel D. Hall, was born in Canada in 1803, and while yet a young 
man began the study and completed a course of medicine at Miami University, 
Oxford, Ohio. He came to Indiana in 1829, and located three miles south of West 
Lebanon, where he established his practice and obtained a wide reputation in the 
adjoining country. At the same time he commenced preaching the doctrines of the 
Christian Church, and organized the first society of that denomination in West 
Lebanon and all Warren County. In addition to these professions, he found time 
to farm. He was one of the earliest pioneers of this locality, and was an able 


minister, a skillful musician, a warm-hearted friend and genial gentleman. He 
died in Pike Township. September, 185'2, uni\'ersally esteemed and mourned. 
James C. Hall lived at the scene of his birtli until he came to his present location, 
in 1864. He was married, .January 1, 1861, to Elizabetli James, liy whom he had 
si.Y children— Frank E., Haryej' H. and Isaac L. alone surviving. Mr. Hall resides 
Ave miles southwest of West Lebanon, on his attractive farm of 181 acres (twenty- 
flve of which are one-half mile southwest). This land is highly fertile and well 
improved (with fine frame dwelling and good stabler), producing well in wheat, 
corn, oats and hay; he also raises some st-jck, chiefiy hogs. Mr. Hall is an esti- 
mable gentleman and public-spirited citizen. 

JAMES JOHNSON was born in Franklin County, Ohio, September 37, 1835. 
His father was an old and prominent settler, and was tiie purchaser in the first con- 
veyance of land made in this county, in January, 1838, the settler being Natlianiel 
Butterfield. Mr. Johnson afterward owned six sections. [For family record, see 
J. R. Jobnson's sketch. Mound Township.] The parents of our subject removed to 
Mound Township, and thence to Steuben Township, where he has made his home. 
He was married, November 24, 18.53, tci Mar^^ L. Lyon, who has borne him four 
children— Norwell, Carrie B. (deceased), Dora B. and James. Mr. Johnson resides 
three-fourths of a mile east of Johnsonville, on his excellent farm of 375 acres, all 
of which is fenced, under good cultivation and in pasture, well drained and produc- 
tive, mostly of wheat, corn, oats and hay; he also raises stock, chiefly cattle and 
hogs, to which it is well adapted by the presence of a large spring wliich forms a 
stream through his land. In 1854. Mr. Johnson erected a handsome frame residence. 
He has been for a number of years a member of the Masonic fraternity, and has 
acted as Justice of the Peace, and Township Assessor. From his long, unbroken 
residence, he has observed the growth and progress of these scenes— once the home 
of wild men and beasts, and now that of a high cultivation. 

GEORGE S. KISER was born in Vermillion Countv. 111.. July 24. 1.S33, and is 
the fifth of twelve children born to George and Elizal)eth (Starrv) liiser. their names 
bemg John. Hannah (deceased), Catharine (deceased). Daniel" aleceased). George 
Samuel, William, Nicholas (deceased). Alexander. Harvev (deceased). Mary 
J. (deceased) and Jeremiah. The father of our subject was born In Virginia in 
1799; he was in early life a teamster, but after coming to this State engaged 
in farming, and died in this countv in June. 1868. Wiien a few years old our 
subject was brought hither by his parents, where he has lived, almost continu- 
ously since that time, having come to his present site in 1868. He was married 
November 32, 1857, to Mary Guinn. a union which has been productive of nine 
children— Sophia, Eva S.. Nicholas ideceased). William. Jeremiah. James 
Daniel, Stella and Olive G. (deceased). Mr. Riser resides two miles northwest of 
Johnsonville. on his fine farm of 185 acres of well improved, drained and fertile 
land, all cultivated or in pasture, and adapted to oats, corn and hav he also '^ives 
attention to raising stock. cliieHy hogs. In 1883. Mr. Riser built a large, handlome 
trame dwelling, besides making otiier improvements. Jlr. Riser is an old resident 
and greatly esteemed by the community. 

THO.MAS LL()YD was born in Stark County. Ohio. April 3. 1836. ami is oue of 
the five sons of William and Nancy (Cunningham) Llovd. tlie names of which chil- 
dren are^John, C.eorge. Edmund. Th.uuas and David, "of whom Thomas alone sur- 
vives. 1 he lather of our subject was a native of Virginia, a farmer and died in 
Stark Comity m 1839. Thomas was eleven years old when he was re no- ",o Ross 

"™ I's^ T? "'"" Township, whence he came to his present location, in Febru- 
a y. 188(1. He was inarr.ed. November 10, 1850, to Jlalinda Brings; this union was 
blessed with sev,m children- Mary A., Josephine (deceased). ^Nllliam (deceased)' 
Elmer L Ch.arhs, deceased). Edward and Celia. Mr. Llovd ix^sidos three mi es 
norlhwest of Marshlield. on his excellent farm, all of w liich is"well cultivat id fe c el 
dratned. and adapted to the production of wheat, corn, oats and hav; 1 e i nv r ises 
only stock for his own use, but formerly raised and dealt larirclvin a variety of 
A"n r '',^^'"•\'' ";', '".'''"''^■'' "f ">^' N"^' I^'sl^t tJhurch. but is-an atte dan otMl e 
' i?l'r .i 'i"'.';'!n, ^''' '" '' "■"'■"'>• man and estimable citizen ''">-"^''>"' ''^ ""• 

.1 AMES J. I\11ICIIELL iiorn in Jlontgomery County. 


Johnson, by -which union they had seven children— Clay. Oscar T., Laura E., Clar- 
issa J., Edgar (deceased), Eugene and .Jessie. Mr. Mitchell resides three-fourths of 
a mile northwest of .Johnsonville. on his 900-acre farm (having 160 acres of timber 
one and a half miles southeasi). Of this land, 660 acres are well cultivated and 
drained, being adapted to wheat, corn, hay and oats, and all but tweuly acres are 
fenced; he gives attention to raising cattle, horses, sheep and hogs, particularly the 
former. Mr. Mitchell has a well improved home, having a conifortable dwelling, 
commodious stables, windmill, etc. He is a member of the Methodist Church and a 
public-spirited citizen; his family was among the first white settlers iu this region 

THOMAS C. POWELL was born in Dearborn County, Ind., August 25, 1840, 
and is one of the seven cliildren of Martin and Jeannette (Churchill) Powell, whose 
names were William JL, Thomas. John (deceased), Mary A., llvah M., Daniel C. 
(deceased) and Eliza J. The father of Thomas was born in England in 1811; was a 
fuller and cloth dresser, hut became a farmer in afterlife; came toDearborn County 
when twelve years old, and thence to Warren County; he is now living at State Line 
City. Our subject came to this town,ship with his parents iu March,'l8;5.5. In Sep- 
tember, 1861, he enlisted in the Thirty-third Indiana Infantry, and took part in the 
battles of Wild Cat Jlountain. Thompson's Station (where the entire brigade was 
captured and confined one month in Libby Prison), Resaca, Lost Mountain, New 
Hope Church and Atlanta, where he was discharged September, 1864, when he 
returned home. He was married. March 16, 1868, to Margaret P. Logan, by whom 
he had one child — Lillie M. Mr. Powell resides two and one-half miles west of 
Marshtield, on his excellent farm of 16 i acres, well improved, drained and fenced, 
and adapted to raising wheat, corn, ha}^ and oats; he also raises and deals in stock, 
cattle and Berkshire hogs principally. Mr. Powell is a member of the Masonic 
order, and a highly esteemed and worthy citizen. 

MILES ST.iUliY was born one-half mile east of Johnsonville, in this county, 
August 16, 1837. and is the eldest of the three children of Daniel and Esther (Simp- 
son) Starry, the names of such children being Miles, Daniel L. and Anna. The 
father of Miles was born in Virginia in 1S08; was a life-long farmer and stock-raiser, 
and died in Steuben Township in April, 1869. When Miles was very young, Iiis 
parents moved to where he now lives, andw^herehe lias almost continuously resided. 
He was married, Februarj' 24, 18.59, to Keziah Guinn, which union was blessed with 
twelve children — Charles, Daniel. Anna. James, William, George W., Clark (de- 
ceased), Guy, Eddie (deceased), Eva, Pearl and Lou. Mr. Starrj' has alarm of 500 
acres, one-quarter mile south, one-half of which is cultivated, the otherpasture; this 
land is fertile, well drained, and adapted to wheat, corn, oatsandhay; he also raises 
cattle, horses and hogs. He is a good citizen and esteemed bj' all who know him. 
The father of Mr. Starry was an early settler, and began the improvement of the 
home farm, which his son continued; Mrs. Starry, mother of Miles, resides on the 
homestead of 160 acres, which is one and a quarter miles north of Johnsonville, 
which Miles has rented since 1869. 

D. L. STARRY was born in this township October 1. 1839. D. L. Starry lived 
on the homestead until October, 1868. when he moved to John W. Chuiulea's place, 
and in November. 1871, came to his present location. He enlisted in August. 1862, 
in the Eighty-sixth Indiana Infantr3', and participated in the battles of Stone River, 
Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, sieges of Atlanta and Nash- 
ville. After a faithful service of thirty-three months and seven days, he was mustered 
out at Nashville, June, 1865, and finally and honorably discharged at Indianapolis. 
He was married, September 17, 1868, to Hannah Guinn, by whom he had two children, 
one of whom survives — Gertrude. Mr. Starry resides two and one-half miles north- 
west of Marshfield, on his flue farm of 247 acres (eighty acres lying seven miles 
southeast, and seven, three miles south of his home), nearly all of which 
is well cultivated, drained and fenced, and produces good wheat, corn, oats and 
hay; he also gives much attention to stock-raising. Mr. Starry has made most of 
his farm improvements since he came to live thereon. He has passed his whole life 
in this township, and has witnessed and had taken part in the many improvements 
since the pioneer days until now. 

ISAAC N. TAYLOR was born in Rockbridge County. Va., April 23, 1819, and 
is one of the eight children of Mark and Margaret (Amyx) Taylor, the family names 
being Adeline (deceased), America (deceased). M,atilda R., George W., Nancy 
(deceased), Matthew F., Isaac N. and Harvey P. (deceased). The father of Isaac 
was a native of Rockbridge County, Va. ; was a farmer and stock-raiser ; had a fine 
stock-farm, and died in his native county in 1824, agod forty-five years. The grand- 
father of Isaac, George Taylor, was a native of Ireland ; was a farmer, also a sur- 
veyor and civil engineer ; came to America before the Revolution, in which war he 
was a soldier ; was supposed to have been a signer of the Declaration, and died in 
Rockbridge County. In 1842, I. N. Tajdor removed to Xenia, Ohio, where he 


worked as carpenter, having served four j^ears at that trade, and thence to this 
county, in April, ISoll, where he, in partnership with Daniel Fauber, erected a saw- 
mill at a cost of $4,500, which they manai^ed fourteen years ; he also worked in this 
county as a carpenter. He was married, January 31, 18.")4, to Elizabeth Fauber, 
v/ith an issue of live children — Bayard. Joab, Charles, Elizabeth E. and Grant. 
Mr. Taylor has resided at his present home since April, 1874 ; it is one and a quarter 
miles nortlieast of JIarshfield. and a farm of 310 acres (170 of whicli lie four miles 
southeast), half of tliis being well cultivated, drained and fenced, and well adapted 
to wheat, corn, oats and hay. l\Ir. Taylor having compltted a course of surveying 
at Xenia, Oliio, he was elected County Surveyor in 1862, and served two terms, but 
declined a third. He is a member of the Presb3'terian Church and a true friend of 
Wabash College. 

GE(JRGE C. TYLER was born in Medina (now Summit) County, Ohio, Novem- 
ber I, 1828, and is one of the nine children of Parker and Anna L. (Wright) Tyler, 
said family names being William II., .Alary (deceased), George C, Martha S. 
(Jones), James, Ilirani B., Harriet M. (deceased). Homer C. and John Q. The 
father of our subject was born in U.vbridge, Mass., in 1789 ; he had learned the 
coopering trade in his early life, at which he was a proficient ; l)ut afterward 
turned to farming, which he followed until his death in Liberty Township, Warren 
Co.. Ind.. in 18.53. George C. Tvler was twelve vears old when his parent-; moved 
to Liberty Township, where he resided for several years, as well as in Jordan Town- 
ship and Vermillion Coanty. III., and in 1875 came to his present dwelling-place, 
two anil a half miles west of Marshtield, on a good farm of 280 acres, under fine 
cultivation, undulating, and very productive of the principal staples. ' >[r. Tyler 
also raises stock, and makes a specialty of Norman horses. He was married. October 
14, 18.52, to Harriet Swank, by whom he has seven children — ^Martha J., 8ar,ah F 
Mary E., Julia A., Emma A., Laura A. and G. Clinton. Mr. Tyler is a member of 
the Masonic order and of the Methodist Church, aTid in 1882 was elected Countv 


SAMUEL K. ABOTT is a native of Fountain Countv. Ind.. where he was 
born in 1841). He worked on the farm in summer, and went to school in the winter 
until the year 18/0, when he determined to take ii partner f(U- life ; he accordino-lv 
married Laura Haas, who was born in Fountain County in 1854 In 1877 JNIr 
Abott purchased lo4 acres of good land in this county, where he and wife and child 
reside in life enjoyment. Mr. Abott is a much respected citizen and a member of 
the Baptist C hurch ; his wife is a menihcr of the Presbyterian Church She is like- 
wise much respected in the community. 

ROGER ADAMS was born in th,. State of D.^laware in the year l.'-iOO and is a 

eral farmer and slock raiser. Mr Adams is -m ■inlenf R,.iV,',i,i'r,„\' """ j ^" '" i'^^"' 

ued .itizen. He and ,vile are niemlu'i-s of llu. m'" ' Co . "'''^""' '^"'^ ^^ "^"^" ^'^^l" 

JOHN J. ANDREW is a sou of Jacob and Mary Andrew ■ is a ualiye „f R,„l t 

County. Ohio, and was horn in 1811!. In 18,53 hisfalher iV, ve 1 t ; Tn r \ , 

lo tins uni,m have succeeded two diiUlivn. Mr Andrew is nm nri , ; """■ 
cantile business in this counly near the Kickapoo Mi Is and e ysf ^ od 1 l^!;" 
He IS a hi lb degree member of Hie I O O F 'ind ,if r ,^„,, v; J -V^ '^ y^^^'l ''•>dc. 
is a, also ,1 strong DemoernI and a worlliy ciUzen ' '^"' ^^"''^"- ^'^ ''^'^ ' ^'^^ 

. AMLS I. HARR is a s,,n of Ivan and Judith (Torbert) Harr and is ., n-.i;,- , .f 
this township, where he was hern in 18-15 He receive,! ,, , V '"!'' '"■ f "'"^^ '^^ 
O and afba-waid e,i^.uied in faruiim and s ,, 1 r i. ,,' 'l'"''''"'^" >'>luc.ation iu 

in Hiis township, with s^^^i iiouse! u::"r.ZtX>'^,^:::L,±l'!Z:':^:^.!:^' ^'^^ 

seveiity-hve heac 
born in 18(8, dai; 
have three childr 

Klren^Thonias, bornin 1875; Charlie, horn in 1877, ,„ul Torbert, 


born in 18T9. Mr. Barr is a member of Attica Lod^e. Xo. IS, A., F. & A. M., and 
also of Attica Lodge, Nn. 33. I. O. O. F. He was appointed County Commissioner 
in 188'2, and was elected to that office in the autumn of the same year, with a ma- 
jority of 1,050. Jlr. Barr is a stanch Republican. 

DeWITT C. BOSGSis a native of Warren County, Ind., was born in the year 
1854, and is a son of William and ilary Bosgs. He obtained a current school edu- 
cation, and became a teacher in 1875.' The'same year he was married to Mary C. 
Schlosser, by whom lie had one daughter, now six years of age. Mr. Boggs is the 
owner of sixty-live acres of very excellent land, containing excellent improve- 
ments ; this land he inherited from his father. He is a general farmer and stock- 
raiser, a strong Republican and an esteemed citizen. 

JOHN" B.'CLAWSON" is a son of Timothy and Nancy Clawson, and was born 
in this township February 10, 1854. He remained at home and passed his boyhood 
with his father, whom he assisted in summer and attended school in winter. March 
27, 18T9, he was married to Melissa Pearson, of this county, daughter of Samuel and 
Jane Pearson ; to whicli union have been bestowed two" children— Celia and Zada. 
He was elected Justice of the Peace, and served for eighteen months. About 1880, 
he engaged in mercantile business at Independence, wliich he still continues. In 
1882, he was elected Township Trustee by the Democrats. Mr. Clawson is a Mas- 
ter Mason, and a Past Grand in the order of Odd Fellows. He is, besides, a very 
worthy gentleman and a highly esteemed citizen. 

JOSEPH COX is a native of Montgomery County, Ohio, was born in 1815, 
and is a son of Jonathan and Charity Cox. He obtained but a limited education 
from the subscription schools, and in 1826 he came with his father to this county, 
where he now has 207 acres. In 183i3, he was married to Sarah Hinshaw, daughter 
of Elias and Sail}' (Williams) Hinshaw, born in Highland County. Ohio, in 1812, 
to which union were born four children — one boy, deceased, and three girls, now 
married. .Mr. Cox, having loVated here at an early dav, has experienced the com- 
mon hardships of a pioneer, having in the beginning onl}- an ox-team. Mr. and 
Mrs. Cox are members of the United Brethren Church, and are higlilj' respected 

JOSEPH DOTY is a native of Pennsylvania, born May 1, 1795, and is a 
son of Samuel and Mary Doty. His father was a fanner in limited circumstances, 
hence the school days of his son were few and short — about eight months in all — 
the other portion of his time being passed in labor on the farm. His famiU' having 
moved to Ohio in 1812, there. May 16, 1816, Joseph was married to Effa Thomp- 
son, of Ohio, which union was blessed with ten children — five bo5'3 and five girls. 
In 1830, he removed to Indiana, and settled in Independence, in this township, 
where he followed farming and stock-raising. Mrs. Dotv died in March, 1848. and 
in the same year he married Cynthia A. Freeman, daughter of Henry and Mary 
Sharp. To this union were born two boys, one of whom died when three and the 
other when fourteen j^ears of age. Mrs. Doty is a member of the United Brethren 
Church, which he also attends. Mr. Doty is now in his eighty-eighth year, yet he 
enjoys good health, and can tell many interesting stories of the early settlement 
of this county. 

ENOCH H. FOSTER, a son of John and Thinetta Foster, was born in Put- 
nam County. Ind., in 1826. In 1833, his family moved to Benton County, where 
he assisteil his father in the work of the farm, who, in 1835. purchased 220 acres in 
Warren County, where Enoch labored until 1846, when lie was married to Mary 
Gaskell. daughter of Ezra and Nancy Gaskell, of Indiana. Mr. Foster then located 
in B -nton County, where he remained until 1853. when he removed to Illinois, and, 
in 1861, enlisted in the Seventy-second Illinois Volunteers. After returning from 
the war, he purchased 120 acres of improved land in this county. l\Ir. and Mrs. 
Foster are the parents of five children, of whom all are living. Mr. Foster is a 
member of the M. E. Church, an upright man and esteemed citizen. 

JOHN P. 6I_'XKLE, dealer in walnut lumber. Independence, was born in 
Butler County, Ohio, December 26, 1844. After 1853, he resided in Warren County, 
Ind.. and, in 1861, enlisted in the Fortieth Indiana Volunteers; he was taken 
prisoner in 1864, and confined at barbarous Andersonville for three months, thence 
removi-d to Charleston and Florence, S. C, whence he w-as paroled in the beginning 
of 1865. Thereafter he located at Battle Ground, White Co., Ind., and attended 
school two years. He then began the grocery business at Pine Village, and while 
living there "married Mary Wade, on the 17th of October, 1873. About 1876, he sold 
his store and moved to Kansas, where he remained two years, wdien he returned to 
Indiana and located in Independence. Mrs. Guiikle died in 1877, leaving one child, 
and December 22, 1881, he married Nancy R. Puckett, of this county. In 1822, he 
was elected by the Republicans Justice of the Peace. He is a member of Lone 
Star Lodge. No. 549, I. 0,0. F., and of Shawnee Encampment, No. 25 ; he is also 
a fellow of Post 47, G. A. R. 


PETER J. HICKMAN, son of Roser and Mary (Jenkins) Hickman, was born 
in Delaware March U, 18i)8. His father was a farmer, and a soldier of the war of 
1813. Peter worked for his father until manhood. .Januar.7 13, 1831, he was mar- 
ried to Mary Gulleit, daughter of John and Sarah (Justus) Gullett, and to their 
union were born eleven children— James S., Elbert G., Ann E., Eliza J. (deceased), 
Jolin W. (deceased), Martha, Charles, Peter, Sarah, Roger W. and Mary C. Mr. 
and Mrs. Hickman moved to Indiana in a wagon, and arrived at Attica after six 
weeks. Mr. Hickman purchased eighty acres in Warren Township, Warren County, 
on which he built a cabm and made improvements ; this he sold after five3rears and 
moved to Missouri, where he remained seven years ; he then returned to this county 
and pin-chased the Kickapoo grist mill, which he CDuducted some years, and after- 
ward bought 270 acres, the first settled farm in this township and containing the 
first brick liouse erected here. Mr. Hickman is a raiser of stock and general farm 
produce, and he and wife are inembers of the M. E. Church, of which he is a 
trustee. His children are all married, save one — Roger. He is in politics a 

JOHN W. KELLER is a son of David and Maiy (Suiter) Keller ; he is a native 
of Maryland, and was born in 1810. In the year 1858, he came to Indiana and 
located in Wayne County, where he was married to Lydia Kiplinger, a naiive of 
Warren Count}', and born in 1847, also a daugliter of Jacob and Theresa Kiplinger. 
Mr. and Mrs. Keller liave three children, one boj' and two girls. In 1874, Mr. 
K(ller came to this county, where he now owns 1,].5 acres of excellent land, 
having received |1,,'J00 from his father. He is an industrious and well-respected 
citizen ; he is also a Democrat. 

WILLIx^^M G. KIGEIi was born in Greene County, Ohio, in 1828, and is a son of 
Samuel and Susan (Limerick) Kiger. He was reared on the parental farm, and assist- 
ed his father until 1817, when he married Harriet H. Wakeman. a daughter of 
Gideon and Debbie Wakeman, to wliich union f^uir children succeeded. Mr. Kiger 
enlisted, in 1863, in the One Hundredth Indiana Infantry. He returned to this 
coaniy in 186.5, and in 1871 erected a sleam saw mill near the Black Rock Narrows of 
the Wabash, and later he built a flouring mill, both of which he is now conducting; 
these mills are valued at §10,00(1; besides this property, he owns 330 acres of excel- 
lent land. Mr. Kiger took part in twenty-three engagements during the late war, 
including the course of Gen. Sherman across the SUiTe of Georgia, in all of which 
he was preserved from in.jury. He is a prominent Republican and worthy citizen. 

MARION KIGER is a son of William G. and Harriet Kiger; is a naiive of 
Wabash County. Ind., and was born in 18,50. While he w:is a youth, his family 
moved 10 a farm in Benton County, and afterward to Warren Coviuty, in 1861. near 
the Black Rock Narrows of the Wabash River, where his father buift a saw mill, in 
1871. or which our subject was fireman. On an occasion, the boiler bursted and he 
was thrown sixty feet, with but slight iu.iury. lu 1873. he was married to Sarah 
Watts, a daughter of John and Eliza (Lister) which union have descended 
four cliildren. Mr. Kiger owns a farm of sixlv acres' in this county, with o'ood im- 
provements, lu, from failing health, he began to acquire a knowledge of the 
general lu-anches of education, and, up in examination, received a two years' license 
to teach. He is now Noble Grand of Lone Star Lodge. No. .549. and also a revered 
citizen and leading Republican. 

WILLIAM S. McAD.VMS is a son of Valentine and Evaline Mc Vdams .^nd was 
born m Warren C(nnily. Ind., in 1813. He was mostly engaged with his father on 
the home fai-m and attended sch.iol hut six months. "Sulis^equenlly he married 
to S;irah t. Waymiri', a daugliter of Alexander and Louisa Waviiiire Darin"- the 
war he wasdralted, ami was e\emple,l on account of an aecid'eut previously^us- 
hiin,. ; but he was aiiMous to culisi, Mr. and Jlrs. McAdams have Ihree children. 
JMr. MeAdams is a gcncr.d larmci-. yet he ha^ some good stock- he is re-^idin.'- -it 
pr,.se,it on his f.dher-in law's farm " He is a Republican, and was twice Town'hiD 
rru-^tee. having receive,! al the last election a maiorilyof 303 He is -i M-ister 

unbc:, Br;',i:i^!:rchm-:i: ''"'•^' '"' ''-■ ^~' '^- ^^'-^ ^^-^'^-- - ^^ --^^ ^^^ 

DAVID B. i\[lLLER is a native of Tippecanoe County, Ind., was born in 1844 
an,l ,s one ol the tan.ily ol Abraham and Elizabeth Miller.' In 1863. durin- the -Ue 
va.,-, Iieenbste, inlheOne Hundred and Sixteenth Indiana Volullt,■er^ln which 
1.' served anlil 1863, when he returned home ;ind resumed farming is he h-ts con 
til u.-d having a good I arm of 10) acres. In 1867. he was marril- 1 S- ,-1011,., T 
S,b,-e a daughter of Peter and Elizabeth Sibreil, which union h^ ,^,':!;::^^',f^ 
tive c 1 hire,,. Mr. M, ler ,s a e.e„eral far,uer and stock-raiser ; he bclon-s to t he 
Iveimblieaii party, a, III IS ;i rcpnt.ibic citizen 01 ion.,> to the 

BI'ISTANA iMUX.sON is a native of Wa-ren C.iiiiiiv Tn f 1 ■ , 

1813, and ,s a so,, of Sino a„d |.:iiz:,b;„ul'e.Uou)^M;;;;:;i,.^"i^- ^-™,- ri;,^;:;;? 


education and lived at home until 1863, when he enlisted in the Seventy-second In- 
diana Infantry, in which he served eigliteen moutlis, and afterward as a cavalry- 
man. He was in the engagements of Chickainauga, xltlanta and several minor bat- 
tles, and was discharged in 1865. In 18ti6, he was married to Edna Harmon, a 
daughter of Abraliamand Elizabeth Harmon, bj' which union they have three chil- 
dren — William S.. born in 18(58; Sarah E., born in 1873; and George, born in 1874. 
Mr. Munson is a Master Mason of Lodge 455. and is a much respected citizen. 

HAMILTON NOWLES is ;i son of James and Susanna Nowles, and is a 
native of Ohio, born in the year 183li. While a youth, his father and family moved 
to Indiana and located in Fountain County, where his parents died shortly afler. 
Our subject was instructed in the trade of farming by a family friend. In 1843, he 
learned l)lacksmithing, which trade he has since followed. In 1848, be was married 
to Delia Simpson, who died in 1860, leaving eight children ; and in 1868, Mr. Nowles 
married Harriet Chapman, who is yet living. Mr. Nowles .served in the army to- 
ward the close of the war, in 1865, and belongs to the G. A. R. He is a much 
esteemed citizen. Mrs. Nowles is a member of the M. E. Church. 

S. M. RIED. M. D., was born August 37, 1843, in Shelby County, Ohio, and is 
the only living child of William R. and Susanna(Young) Ried; both nativesof Ohio; 
Mrs. Ried died March 30, 1863, and Mr. Ried married Miss Jean Henry. This new 
mother, who was an excellent scholar, and fully appreciated the value of education, 
commenced to educate our sul)ject, and, bj' her Ci:ristian mildness, won his obedi- 
ence and love. At the age of seventeen, 8. M. Ried began teaching in the public 
schools, and in 1863. entered college in Delaware County, Ohio, but soon returned 
home to enter the service of his country, but was prevented therefrom by a severe 
illness. He then began the study of medicine under Dr. W. B. Venard. of Platts- 
ville, Shelby County, Ohio. During 1865-66, he attended lectures at Columbus, 
Ohio, and at the close of the term was, by merit, chosen by the faculty surgeon to 
the St. Francis Hospital for one year. He then located at Independence, in this 
county, where he soon obtained a good practice. October 38, 1866, he was married 
to Miss M. J. Johnston, of Shelby County, Ohio, to which "union were born three 
children — Frances A., W. Johnston and B. Lee; of these, the last only survives. B. 
Lee Ried was born Februarj' 4, 1876. Dr. Ried is a Master Mason and an Odd Fel- 
low, being Past Grand Representative of Lodge 549. Dr. and Mrs.Ried are members 
of the United Brethern Church, and are exemplary Christian people; their life is 

ALEXANDER E. RUSSELL, is a son of William and Mary (Elliott) Russell; is 
a native of Cumlierland County, Penn., and vpas born in 1814. He worked on the 
home farm until 1830, when he began to learn the trade of a carpenter, at which 
handicraft he has since labored. He passed some time at Perrysburgh and at Woos- 
ter, Ohio. In the year 1840. he married Catherine Kinneard, born in Franklin 
County, Penn., in 1834, and daughter of John and Sarah Kinneard; seven boys and 
three girls have blessed their union. In 1853. Mr. Russell located in this county, 
where he has since resided, and where he owns 140 acres of superior land, the fruit 
of his unaided work, having had but 110 to begin the world after his marriage. He 
is an earnest Republican and a good citizen. 

PETER A. SIBUELL, a son of Henry and Elizabeth Sibrell, was born in Ross 
County, Ohio, September 13, 1831. He assisted his father on the farm during the 
summers and attended school during the winters, nntil 1843, when his father 
removed to Carroll County, lud. In 1846, our subject returned to Ohio, and on 
August 11th of that year married Elizabeth Edmonds, daughter of Robert and 
Margaret Edmonds; to which union were born four girls. After marriage, he 
purchased 160 acres in Tippecanoe County. Ind., where he settled and followed 
farming and stock-raising for twenty-tive years. About the year 1871, he exchanged 
his farm for 483 acres in this township. He is now living in the village, and his 
children are married and living on farms given to them by him. Mr. Sibrell served 
in the Ninth Indiana Battery, and is a member of Post 46, G. A. R. He is an ardent 
Republican, and a highlv esteemed citizen. 

JOHN VANDERBILT, is a son of Abram H. and Julia A. Vanderbilt, and was 
born in New York, June 1, 1833. His y(jui li was passed in assisting his father on 
the farm and attending school until 1850. when he began the carpentering business, 
at which he continued two years. In 1853. he located in this township and worked 
for a farmer, and afterwards taught school. In 1854, he went to New York and 
remained until 1857, when he moved to Kansas, where he assisted in laying out 
Prairie Cily, and entered eighty acres. Later, he traveled over Colorado, wcTrking 
at his trade and mining; he then realized asmu(h as 130 perday,but hepaid iflSper 
week for board, other necessaries being correspondingly high. In 1864. he traversed 
Montana with a scouting party, and from 186-") to 1869 worked for the Midas Mining 
Company. In 1870, he went again to New York, where he remained until 1873, 


when he moved to the West, and in 1879, came to this county, where he is still 
engaged in farming. Mr. Vanderbilt is a stanch Democrat, a member of the Pres- 
byterian Churcli anfi a second cousin of the great capitalist Wm. H. Vanderbilt. of 
New York. 

ALEXANDER WAYMIRE, a son of Valentine and Elizabeth Waymire, is a 
native of Montgomery County, Ohio, born February l.i, 1816. While a youth, his 
father removed to North Carolina, where he farmed for a time, but returned to 
Ohio, and afterward came to this count}' in 18i7. Here our subject was married, 
August 26, 18^8, to Louisa Marlow. daughter of George and Eilith Marlow, of this 
township. The union was crowned with four children, one of whom was made a 
prisoner in the late war, and contined in the Andersonville stockade, where he died 
in 1864. About 1866, he suffered a loss of about §2.000 by fire, from which, how- 
ever, b}' diligence, he soon recovered. Another and greater affliction was the loss 
of his wife, who died February 7, 1871. Soon after, he married a lady of Indepen- 
dence, where lie now resides, having rented his farm of 212 acres to his son, the 
revenue of which is suffleient for his support. Mr. and Mrs. Waymire are mem- 
bers of the United Brethren Church, and are very generally esteemed. 


ROBERT C. ANDER.SON is a native of Boone County. Ky., born January 8. 
182.5. and is a son of William G. and Catherine (Cook) Anderson, the former a' na- 
tive of JIaryland. the latter of Penn.sylvania. In 183b. the family moved to Foun- 
tain County, Ind., where his father had entered and cleared some land and erected 
a log cal)in, in all of which Robert a.s a bov assisted. His father died when he was 
thirteen, wlien our subject attended school at Attica, and afterward learned the 
blacksmithing trade, at which he served four vears with Joseph Peacock. After 
this, he commenced in general blacksmithing with John B. Campbell, to whom he 
sold the business after two years. In 184;:). after merchandising at Painesville he 
went to California over the plains, and there cut wood for ex-tfov. Booth, at S8' per 
day and board. He soon saved !p3,000 bv variiuis labors, and in 18.50 returned to 
Indiana and located in Warren Countv. where he farmed on rented land and pur- 
chased some m Illinois. November 22. 1,854. he married Letitia Frvback dau-rliter 
of John and Letilia (Emerson) Fryback, of Pickawav County Ohio ifter^'mar- 
riage, he lived in Illinois one year, had a grocerv'in Attica some time and 'in 
1858 came to this township and purchased a farm. He now has 234 acres with 
good buildings and improvements. He is a Republican and an Odd Fellow ' Mr 
and Mrs. Auders..n have ten children-Alice C. Ll,.wellvn F.. Edgar E.. Robert 
C, berena M.. Anna L., James A.. ..biliii F.. Bessie N. and' Susanna " 
7 ici^^^^V^ BROWN was born in Warren Township. Warreu Co.. Ind.. January 
7 1836 and IS he son of John B. and Hester tHurlev) Browu. wh,i were amon- 
the earliest selllers of that county. The father died in 18.56. the mother in 1846 
Our subject was in attendance at the primitive log schoolhouse about one-third of 
each year, the other tw.i-thirds being given to work on the farm. December 13 
18o9 he was married to Ann James, daughter of Banes E. and Alaluida 1 (Huff- 
man) .lanies Two children have followed this uuion-Lillie M. (born MaV 18 186-" 
and H (born April 24. 18.i-l). In 1867, Mr. Brown obtained forlv acres in Sec- 
Uon 3 of this township, lie now has ninety acn<s. all in g,iod . ultivation Mr 
Ual cit,/en ^^ '"''""■ '"™' '""^'- "' '" ^' P^''"'HMal. and a subslau- 


a.a-e farm in Prairie Township, where he resided until 1872 ; this he sol md bou"ht 
b^r U"l^l'" m Cwm ?:• :n' ->- ''"P'-ovcnunUs. Here bisVue dil' Xo^' 

\nLI AM I WV 1 ,''T'''''*- %';'"^'^,^'»' '1'^"' ^'ml an upright citizen, 

on ,Qi,. ,• '"\'',"-^ ^^^'s lioi" "1 line Townsh p. Warren Co ln,i \nril 

20. I8I(.. and is a son of John W. and Margaret (Peoncr) Brown \ff,' '"''■.-H^"' 

schoolgoing our subject worked on the h\rm' l,ml ' ,^ w ^ ve.;^'ve.;VrTa;^^ 
December 2!., 1872, he was married to Melissa Grames, daugluc^- oY wl 'ISd 


Elizabeth (Palmer) Graraes, who died with her infant child December 13. 1873. Mr. 
Brown afterward married, Febrnarj' 1. 1876, Elizabeth F. Pepper, born August 25, 
18iO, diui^hter of .Jacob ani Naomi (Fraucea) Pepper, both very early settlers of 
Warren County. Mr. and Mrs. Browu have had two children — Nellie C . boru June 
30, 1877, and ^Vilmer T., born January 22, 1883 (deceased). Jlr. Brown is an active 
Democrat, and he and wife are greatly respected in the community. 

GEORGE D. BUTLER was born m Lycoming 0(ranty. Penn., June 13, 1835, and 
is a sou of Robert and Sarah (Farr) Butler, also a cousin of Gen. and Gov. B. F. Butler, 
of Massacliusetts. George received but a small share of schooling, as he was 
required to assist his mother, after his father's death, who. in 184-t, sold the farm 
and moved to this township, where she purchased land, which our suljject managed 
until his marriage, whicli occurred November 8. 186(5, to Minerva Van Reed, 
daughter of Levi R. and Amelia (Bowman) Van Reed, natives of Berks County, 
Penn., and early settlers in this county. Mr. and Mrs. Butler have four children — 
Clara C. Roliert A., Levi V. R. and George C. In 1868, Mr. Butler purchased 
eighty acres, with some improvements, in this township, and now owns 296 acres, 
well Improved, and as good land as the township affords. He is a general auc- 
tioneer, and has made sales for twenty years. He is an active Denrocratic partisan, 
and has lieen twice a candidate for SlierifE. He is an estimable citizen, and he and 
wife are generally respected. 

THOMAS CLINE was born in Ireland June 19, 1815, and was a son of William 
and Annie (Cline) Cline. Thomas passed a portion of liis time at school and the 
rest in lalior on the farm until March 3, 1844, at which date he was married to 
Catherine Doud, by wliom he had nine children — John, Michael. Steplicn, William. 
Bridget. Thomas (deceased), Maria (deceased), Joseph and James. In 1846. he emi- 
grated to America, and after a short stay in Albany. N. Y., settled in Hamilton, 
Ohio, wliere he bought a home and followed farm work until 1868, when lie came 
to this township, purchased 18 ' acres, and farmed and liandled some stock: tliis farm 
he improved by erecting a .good frame house, and in other ways. After a lingering 
illness he died, June 19. 188", universally respected. He was a meml)er of the 
Catholic Church, and a Democrat. He bcVjueatlied his property to iiis family. 

EZRA J. COVEY is a son of Elisha and Lucy (Main) Covey, botli natives of- 
New York, born in 1796, and bolb yet living. Our suliject was born in Cayuga 
County, N. Y., IMarch 25, 1817. From the age of fourteen. he attended an academy 
for five years, when he received a certificate to teach, and did so in the public schools 
for five years, when he enlered and graduated from Hamilton From 1844 
to 1847, he studied for the ministry^ and in the latter year was ordained by the 
Baptists. In 1851. he moved to Jackson. Mich., and preached there. He then 
traveled in several States, and while in West Virginia, in 1861. went to the field 
with the Twenty-first Oliio Regiment (the government did not then appoint Chap- 
lains), ancl in a skirmish received a slight wound in the arm. In 1862, he came to 
Indiana, and engaged in teaching and preaching at Attica, until 1867, when he pur- 
chased land in this township, on which he liuilt a brick house, and variously im- 
proved. July 4, 1869, lie married Auuusta A. Adams, daugliterof Sumner and Lucy 
(Taylor) Adams, of Massachusetts. In addition to his farm of 185 acres, he lias 
property in Attica and land in Warren Township. He is an active Republican, has 
heen twice Justice of the Peace, and is an Odd Fellow. 

WILLI.IM CROW was born in Lincoln County. Ky., January 12, 1816, and is a 
son of Benjamin and Susanna (Sullivan) Crow; His father was born at Frankfort, 
Ky., December 35. 1790; his mother in Tennessee. March 22. 1793. When William 
was four years of ase the family moved to Bartholomew County, Ind., where his 
falher entered land"and where William attended school in a primitive log school- 
house 12-\U. In 1830. his fatliercame to what is now Liberty Township. and entered 
240 acres au'l made improve luents, where his son assisted in the clearing. Decem- 
ber U. 1834, he married Martha Young, born February 14. 1818. daughter of 
Matthewand Sarah (B;rry) Young; to tliis union were liorn nine children — W.alter 
H., Clarissa J., William H. (a soldier of Company K, Eighty-si.xlh Indiana Regi- 
ment who died in Louisville, Ky.. from disease contracted in the service), Mary M. 
(deceased), Benjamin F., V.nnficld S., Horace G.. infant boy (deceased) and Abra- 
ham L. (deceased). After marriage, Mr. Crow purchased eighty acres in Section 30, 
where he lived five years, then went to Iowa, and thence returned to this township 
and purcliased forty acres in Section 26. He now has 560 acres, well improved, 
also 64) acres in Jordan Township. Mr. Crow lost his wife March 13, 1867. He is 
a general farmer and stock-raiser, a member of the Universalist Church, a Master 
Mason and has been County Commissioner anfl appraiser of real estate for five 
years- he was a Republican, and is now a Greenbacker. Mr. Crow's great-grand- 
fath<M- was a Revolutiomu-y soldier, as was also his grandfather, who was present at 
he surrender of Cornwallis. 


JOHN FETTERLINGwas a native of Berks County.Penn.. where he was bom 
February 14, 183-3, and was the son of John aud Catherine (Steffey) Fetterling. Ihe 
father (if our subject was a farmer in Berlis County. John Fetterhna; worlved on 
the farm and attended school untd he was twenty years of age, when he caini to 
this township, where he worked diligently and saved his money, whicn enabled him 
to buy eighty acres in White County. December 21 18S0, lie was married to 
Fayetta Lark, a native of Berks County, Penn. To this union were born four chil- 
dren— Emma (deceased). Ervin. James and Ellen. Soon after his marriage, Mr. 
Fetterlin;'- purchased a farm in this township, wliich he improved and on which he 
raised some stock. Hard labor was too much for llr. Fetterling, and after a short 
sickne-ss he expired, August 31, 1881, leaving his property to his farail.v, who still 
live on and manage the farm. Mr. Fetterllng was a Republican, and an excellent 
husband and father. 

WILLIAM IIIClvM-VX was born in Greene County. Ohio, September 18, 1836, 
and is the son of William and Marv (Lowe) Hickman. When our subject was three 
years of age. his father moved to tills county and entered land. Here William ob- 
tained some schooling and remained until his marriage, November J, 1847, to Mary 
J. Davis, daughter of Mahlon and Ann (Smith) Davis, of this county. Their union 
has been blessed by twelve children— Infant girl (deceased). George W. (deceased), 
Rachel A. (deceased). David J., infant boy (deceased), infant girl (deceased). Will- 
iam C John J., Francis A.. Maria J.. Louis S. aufl Sarali E. Mr. Hickman con- 
tinued to farm until 18ii3, when he enlisted in Company D, Eighty-sixth Indiana 
Volunteers. Soon after going to the field, he was injurefl in the right eye by a twig 
of underbrush. He was then detached for duty as teamster, and was present at 
Stone River, Kenesaw Mountain, and other engagements. He was mustered out 
June fi, 185.T. At that time, the sight of the right eye was lost. On returning to his 
family, he resumed work on the farm he had purchased before the war. His left 
eye is also affected, and he is almost blind. He receives a small pension from the 
Government, and has a good farm of l.~)8 acres. He is a member of the G. A. R. 

JOHN P. HUNTER is a son of James and Sarali (Higgins) Hunter, and was 
born December V2, 1."<1S, in Franklin County, Ohio. His father was born in Ireland 
in 1780, his mother in JIaryland in 18(,l0. Both emigrated to Ohio at an early day, 
where they married in 1817, and farmed on Big Darby Creek for eight years, and 
afterward on Litlle Darby Creek. John P. Huuler received but little education in 
youth, having to give most of his time to his father in farm work. May 34. 1843, 
he married Elizabeth Anderson, horn in Madison County, Ohio. November IT. 1815, 
daughter of William and Susan (Crumpton) Anderson. To this union were born 
eight children— James JI., Harriet, Susan, William A., ITszas, ^Matilda. Almira and 
Arabidla. In 1813, ilr. Hunter moved to Jordan Township. Warren Co., Ind. He 
was President of the board that organized said township, and Justice of the Peace 
for iiin ■ years. In l!-i7(.1. he purchased forty acres in this township, where he now 
lias 3, Ol)() acres, in good improvement, where he deals largely in stock, in addition 
to general faniiiiig. Jlr. Hunter is a Republican, and religiouslv a deist and spirit- 
ualist. He is versed in history and astronomy, and greatly esteemed b_v his 

BENJAMIN JUDY, son of Benjamin and Elizabeth (Osborn) Judy, was bora 
in Clark Counly, Ohio, December 33, 1831; the former born in tventucky in 1794, 
the laller in \lr;;inia about the same year. The fathirof our suliject was a farmer! 
who died when Henjaniin was eight nnuiths old. Afler residing with his mother 
until he was twelve yearsold, he was binind to an uncle. Wben"[ie was twentv-one 
his mule ilird ; he liien received a horse, saddle, bridle and !?4O0 from his father's 
eslale. In 1S13, he weni to Coles County, 111., and entered UiO acres, and thence 
III Ohio, where. Decnnber 14. 1843, he "married Nancy Goodfellow, daughter of 
Moore and Isabella (Nicholson) CTOOllfellon^ of Clark t'ountv. Ohio.' By This mar- 
riage, they had olie child— Isabella (deceased). In 1844. he sold his farm and moved 
to Noble County, hid., where he purchased 130 acres. Jlrs. Judy died March 30 
18.11. Shr was a mcnilier of the t?aplisl Church. In 18.")3, he sold his land and 
came 111 ihis lownship, where he houghl 100 acres, with some improveiuents. Sep- 
tenilier 33. I s,i:!, lie married Elizabeth Briar, boin Januarv 33, 1831 dau"hter of 
(b'orge and Lclilia (Mltchein Briar. They have live children— Isaac G Jennie C 
Aiigiisliis, t:ynlhia A. and William. Mr. Judy has 1.100 acres of improved land' 
witli line brick hoirse, swinging gates, elc.—a model farm. He raises some sl'iort- 
honi callle. and has some imported sheep. He is a Republiiau. He prides himself 
on tlie sacredness of his wchhI. He is the oldest reuler in the counly hayiii"- rented 
the Boyer p:islurc of 340 acres for Iwenly-eiglit years 

JAMES iMoCLAFLlNMs a native of" Ohio, 'where he was born December 
1,837, and IS a .son of Arnold and Esther McClafiln, both natives of Vermoni and 
I'arly scttlersof Ohio. The talherof our subject moved afterward to White Counly 


Ind., where he farmed and "worked at house-budding. .James assisted his father 
and went to school until 18.50. when he came to this county and follovved farming. 
Being economical, he was soon able to purcluise a half-section in Jordan Township, 
and in 1871 he bought 100 acres in Liberty Township, having now in Liberty 200 
acres, with some improvements. Mr. McClaflin was never married; he prefers the 
life of a bachelor. His father (Arnold McClaflin) died in 1848. his mother in 1881. 

WILLLAM B. OWENS was born in MoiUg)m.;ry County, Ky., September 7, 
1833, and is a son of .John and Mary (Ewen) Owens. About 1835. his father moved 
to Preble CounlJ^ Ohio, and afterward to this township, where William B. attended 
school in a log building of the time, and when Indians were abundant. He also 
did farm work for his father. September 37, 18-l:(j, he married Lucy Rakestraw, of 
Edgar County, 111., born April 1.5. 183). daughter of Thomas and Eliza J. (Owens) 
Rakestraw, by which marriage they had eleven children — Lydia A. (deceased). Eliza 
J., Harvey ^f., Mary O.. Amanda A., Frances L., Lucinda F., Tillman C, Minnie 
A. (deceased). Melissa B. and an infant boy (deceased). After mu-riage. Mr. Owens 
worked in WiUianisport. and in 18.")1 purcliased a farmof eighty acres in Liberty 
Township, where he lived until 18.57. when he moved to Iowa and farmed until 1831 ; 
he then returned to thistown^hip. built a loghoaseand followed g'ueral farmingand 
stock-raising, dealing largelj'ia hogs. He has 18J.r acres, of whicli 10) are in good 
cultivation, with good house and outbuildings. Mr. Owen5 is a Democrat, and a 
worthy citizen. 

PETER W. 8CH00N"0VER is a native of this township, born April 4. 1853, 
and is the son of .James and Susanna (Chrisman) Schoonover; the father born in 
Clark County, Ohio, December 26, 1819. James Schoonover came to this township 
with his brother when nineteen years of age, where. December 26, 1839, he married 
Susanna Chrisman, daughter of Peter and Sarah (Stout) Chrisman, by wdiom he 
had nine children—Sarah A. (deceased). Joseph F. (deceased). Benjamin F. (de- 
ceased), Mary J., Francis M. (deceased). William J. (deceased), Peter W., James S. 
and Louisa B. Shortly after marriage, he purchased eighty acres in Section 31, to 
which he added, unaided, until he had several hundred acres. In 1853, he built a 
good house, which was burned in 1874. He died September 8, 1878, universally re- 
gretlf d. Peter W. Schoonover went to t chf ol until about i-evcnt( en yc ars old, and 
afterward attended the Attica High School. In 1873, he was givi u a certificate to 
teach, and he taught in the public schools during 1873 and 1874. December 25, 1873, 
he married Amanda M. Wilson, daughter of William and Amanda (Pearson) Wil- 
son. To this union succeeded three children— Lizzie M. (born September 5. 1875). 
Gemmie H. (born September 14, 1877), and James W. (born Octolier 13, 1883). Mr. 
Schoonover is a Republican, and in 1880 was elected Justice of the Peace. He is a 
general farmer, raising some stock, with 185 acres of good land and good improve- 
ments Mrs. Schoonover is a member of the M. E. Church. 

ZARA T. STEARNS is the son of Zara and Mary (Smalley) Stearns; the former 
was born November 33. 1794; he was a soldier of 1813; the latter in 1798. Our sub- 
ject was born in Vermillion County, 111., July 15, 1840. When six years of age, his 
father moved to Texas, where Zara T. attended school and herded cattle. After a 
time the family returned to Vermillion County, 111., where Zara T. taught school 
some time. In 1857, the family came to this town.ship. In 1863, our subject enlist- 
ed in Company F, Seventy-second Indiana Volunteers, and was made Sergeant. 
He was in the battles of Hoover's Gap. Murfreesboro, Chattanooga, Atlanta and 
Chickamau<^a. He was also a clerk for four months. His regiment was mounted 
at Nashville" In the fight of Okalomo. Miss., he was very nearly captured, and 
was in the saddle twenty days while pursuing Wheeler's Cavalry. After set-vice in 
many engagements and " hair-breadth 'scapes," he was discharged, July 34, 186.>, 
when he resumed farming. October 4. 1866, he was married to Nancy Barrett, born 
April 17 1843 daughter of Moses and Nancy (Wilson Barrett, by wiiom he has four 
children— Mary Maud, Clarence C, William B. and Alice E. Mr. Stearns has a 
fine farm of 185 acres; he also raises some stock. He is a Republican, and a mem- 
ber of the G A. R. In 1880 and 1883, he was elected Township Trustee. His 
mother resides with him, aged eighty-five, and is well and active 

PHILANDER T STUMP, T>orB May 6, 1837. is a son of .loseph and Mary 
(Reed) Stump- the former born in Wayne County, Ohio, in 1800, the latter in 1801. 
In 1829 the father of our subject entered forty acres in Fountain County, Ind., on 
which he built a cabin, and which he improved. This he sold, and purchased 160 
acre.s in Medina Township, in this county. Five years later, he purchased a farm 
in Liberty Township, on which he lived and farmed. Philander 4 . Stump worked 
at the plow and attended school three months of each year until his marriage, April 
17 1861 to Mary E. Van Reed, born December 11, 1843, daughter of Levi R. and 
Aiiielia (Bowman) Van Reed. This union was blessed with ten children— Lillie E., 
Clara M Dora B., Amelia M. (deceased), Sarah C, Lizzie M., Mary E., Bertha V., 


J'lorence and John H. Mr. Stump resides on the old farm. He raises some stock, 

^^ '^ J^^VA^REE^ so^ i^fl^fa ^ImSS^wman) Van Reed. was,.orn 
in thPs townlldp May 39, mS. The parents of John came '"'l^\^.f7'7. Berks 
County Penn where ihey were born, in 1S3S, and entered land. Hi. father had 
.^rr^ulatoriV.OoS acres, and died April 27. lY^-/l-%'^«''^" Jf,^,"];?,':^ ^^-.^^/e^l,^ 
he was a member of the German Lutheran and she of tli<; Pf.^. J^^™ 
,Jolm attended school one-fourth of each year and took care of the ^tock until hs 
sixteenth year. After attending terms of mstruction at L'^f'^-^ "."''„ f^'i^^to.ku ell 
he commenced farniin^^ for himself on forty acres rented ^'■'>^^^'%l^l^f-,^,^^-J% 
■mnrried December 17 1874. to Zillah Burr, born January lo, is.^fi, daughter of 
SeYson'andsIrt (Butcher, Burr, wlueh union ,ave issue t. two chadren-Nelson 
E born November 4. 187.5, and Earl, birn June 2o, 18,9^ Aftei mauiage his 
father gave him the use of 160 acres. In 1881. he purchased eighty-tive acres in- 
cluding the Marshall homestead, where he now resides. The fa her of Mrs. Burr 
was born in New Jersey in 1813, and moved to Ohio at an early age. where his 
mother died. In 184.5, he married Hope Mantle came to this township and bought 
a grist-mill on Pine Creek, knou-n as Burr's Mills. There bis wife died, and, on 
April 1, 18.-.5, he married Sarah Butcher. Mr. Burr sold his mill in 18o9, and pur- 
chased the farm on which he died March 28 1883. 

DR ROBERT H WIOOFF, son of John and Margaret (Oassell) Wicoff, was 
born in Wayne Coantv, Oliio, Feliruary 25, 18313. He attended school in boyhood, 
and also workeil for his father in the carpenter shop, untd the family moved to 
Williams County. Here our subject attended an academy until he was sixteen years 
old after which having obtained a teacher's certiticate. he divided his time between 
teachin'^ and farmiu'^ ' Ar th" age of twenty h= commenced to read medicine with 
Dr Turner He was married. April 25. 185 ), to Irene J. ircConnell, daughter of 
John R McConiiell, of William, Coiintv. O'aio, to which union were born four 
cUiUlren— John B,, Lm-v (deceased), Marv M. and Irene J. In 1863. he msved to 
Michin-an and assoeiate'd himself with Dr. Armstrong in reading and practicing 
medicine During 1865 and 1866 he attended Rush Medical College. Chicago ; he 
then removed to Rainsville, Ind,, and began practice. Mrs. Wicoff died October 29, 
1869. In 1876, he purcliased 121) acres in this township ; this he improved and now 
manages in conneciioa with his practice. In l'^77. Dr. Wicoff married his second 
wife, from whom lie is now divorced, and lives with his three children. He is 
highly esteemed by his neighbors. 


JOHN H. DAY born in Preble County. (Ihio, .Uiue '.), 182S. and is the 
fourth child of John N. and Ann (Worthington) Day, natives of Kentucky and 
Ohio respectively. John N. Day was the sou of John Day. who was of English 
descent, and who settled in Kentucky in an early day, and moved to (~)hio in 1802. 
settling near Eaton, where he remained until his death. He had seven children, 
among them four sons— William, John X., Samuel and Nicholas. John N. Day 
(father of subject) was born in Kentucky in 1701!, and moved with his parents to 
Ohio, where, Marcli 3, 1820, he married Ann Worthington, who was born in Ohio, 
in 1802. In 1831, he moved to F.nmlain County, Ind., where they spent the 
reniaindi'i- of their lives. His wife died in 18-Hi. and he survived her four years. 
Tliey had the following chihlren — William, Miry. Ln'ina. John H., George, ,ruliel 
(V., .Joseph, .laines, Ellen, We^tlev and Tiieodare. John II. Day was married in 
Warren County, Ind., February 3, 1,S5;'., to Deliiliine. a daughter of Curtis and Ann 
Newell, and bnru in Fountain County, Ind,, Fehruary 18, 1835. They have had 
Ihirli'cn childrini —Ella (deceased), Cordelia (deceased), Laura. Lawrence N., Luella, 
Thi'odore, Ch;irles, Horace, Wilmer, Emma (de 'c isimK. Eva (deceased), Elmore (de- 
ceaseill and tJeeil. Slnnaly after marriag •, he settled in this county. He owns 780 
acres of laivl. and is Tnisiei' of the township. 

ABNEU GOODWINE. was born in Bartholomew County, Ind., 'July 10.1826, 
and is the son of James and Sarah Goodwiue, natiyes of Kentucky and Virginia 
respeclivcdy. James iJoodwine was born in 1780, and was of English descent. His 
fattier, John Goodwine, settled in KentiK ky in an early day, and there died. James 
married in Kentneky Elizabeth Snyder, by whoiv he had seven children — Eliza- 
beth, Thomas, .bunes, Indiana, jNIartha, Harrison and John W. He moviai to Jack- 
,Min Coiinly. Ind.. where bis lirsl wife died. He then married Mrs. Sarah Logan, 
widow of VViUiain M. Logan, and danghler of John Shiimaker. By this marriage. 


there was one child — Abner. James subsequently moved to Bartholomew County, 
Ind.. and in 1828 came to this county, where he died March 12, 18.51. He was a 
pioneer of Warren County, and an extensive land owner. His wife lived with her 
children until her death, June IT. 1872. Abner Goodwine was married in this 
county. October 30. 1851. to Miss Barbara J. Pence; born in Bartholomew County, 
Ind.. bctober 19. 1830; and a daughter of George and Mary Pence. They have had 
twelve children — George (deceased), .Mar}' C, Newton C. Bell (deceased), Sarah E., 
Clara V.. Frank S., Olive. Nora. Cora. Leola J. and Harry M. Mr. Goodwine is a 
laro-jlaiid owujr and stock dealer. His farm is well improved; aad lie has a 
fine brick house. 

HORACE G. GOODWINE is a native of Warren County, Ind., where he was 
born Februarv 9, 1845. His parents are named respectively James and Sophia 
(Buckles) Goo'dwine, of Pike Township. Warren County. Horace is one of a family 
of twelve children. He was married in this county November 8. 1874. to Mary A.. 
daughter of Eli and Cyrena Briggs, a native of this county, born September 29, 1856. 
The union of Mr. and Mrs. Goodwine has been favored with three children— Ora J., 
Edna L. and Arley 0. Mr. Goodwine is a very promising and much esteemed young 

LUTHER JONES was born in Hamilton County, Ohio, September 8, 1840, and 
is the fifth- of six children born to Robert and Elizabeth (Logan) Jones, natives of 
New Jersey and Hamilton Couatv. Otiio, respectively. Robert Jones was born 
September 17. 1795. His father. James Jones, settled in New Jersey, in an early 
day. where he married Elizabeth Todd, by whom he had nine children— John, Katie, 
Poliy. Ann. Robert, Enoch, Lydia, William and James. He afterward moved to 
Ohio, where he died. Robert Jones moved with his parents to Hamilton County. 
Ohio! where he married Elizabeth Logan; who was born October 19. 1807. They 
had the following children— Hezekiah. William. Sarah E.. David M.. Luther and 
Julia A After marriage, he settled on his father's old farm in the same county, 
where his wife died January 14. 1862. In 1863. he moved to Warren County, Ind., 
where he died December 22. 1866. Luther Jones came with his father to this 
county in 1863. Februarv 3. 1876. he married in Hamilton County, Ohio, Susie, a 
daughter of Ledwell and Elizabeth Jones; she was born in Hamilton County, Ohio, 
December 6, 1853. They have two children- William W. and Julia M. Sliortly 
after his marriage he returned to this county, and settled on the farm purchased 
by his father, where he has since remained. 

CH A.RLES G. McCLAFLIN is a native of this county, and was born August 13, 
1856 He is the elder of the two sons of Gordon B. and Catherine (High) McClaflin, 
of Williamsport Ind. About the year 1847. Gordon B. McClaflin removed to this 
county and settled on the Walnut Grove Farm, and in 1854 removed to that of 
which our subject is now resident; thence he removed to Williamsport. where he and 
family now are- they have two children— Charles G. and James E. Our subject, 
Charles G was married in this county, September 5, 1878. to Alice K.. daughter of 
Peter and Sarah Zimmer. a native of Wiscon Jn, born April 11. 18,o8. which union 
was favored with one child— Grace A., born in this county October -j. 1879. Mr. 
McClaflin is a very excellent and promising young man^ 

JOHN PUGH was born in Lawrence County. III.. March 18. 1826. His father. 
George Pu'di was born in South Carolina. August 22. 1789. and was a son of John and 
Nancy Pu<?h'of Scotch and Welsh descent, who at an early period settled in South 
Carofina "After the death of John Pugh his wife removed to Tennessee, where 
Geor-e Pui^h and Nancy Long were joined in wedlock, and whence they emigrated 
to Lawrenc'e County. III., where Nancy Pugh died. In 1832, Mr. Pugh married Miss 
Elizabeth Anderson and removed to this county, where he died. He was father to 
seventeen children-Wilford. Sarah. Eliza and Betsy A.-by his first wife , John. 
Geore-e Mary J William M.. Celinda. James M.. Rebecca. Washington H.. Joseph, 
Henry H Caroline, Martha and James B. by his last wife. John Pugh came to 
this couniv with his father in 1832. When about twentj-three years old, he learned 
hlacksmithino- at which he worked three years. Mr. Pugh was married February 
W 185^ to Nancy Etnire, born in Ohio November 9, 1832 and died August 8, 1880, 
leaving nine children-Sarah F. (deceased). George A. (deceased). Fl""" H.. Wi - 
Ham D (deceased) Forman (deceased). Alvin L.. Edmund E.. Edwin E. (deceased) 
and 'Nl-irv L In 1877 ilr. Pugh removed to his present home. 

DAVID H SAUNDERS was born in Norfolk Co., England. February 13, 1830. 
His father John Saunders, was a native of the same place, born October 20, 1802, 
whose parents were John and Mary Saunders, who were born and died in England, 
Tohn father of David, being the only one who emigrated to America. He married 
in Ena-land in 1821. Maria Raimer, Ijorn in England in 1804. In 1837, they moved 
to this State lived in Fort Wayne and Lafayette, also in Danville, III., where his 
wife died April 26, 1842. He afterward married Susan Cozart, and about 1847 


removed to a farm near Danville, where he died Jp.T-T JLrOavW H "\"ark^ 
eight children: By his first wife-Williatn C, David 'deceased) Davd H^ ^1^«- 
James and Benjamin F. (deceased) ;. by liis second "^'f^-ff f/"'^ /"l^I^' gtrnp and 
ject, David H. Saunders, was married, September l'^^:. 1*^'^'„ ''^J^'^Ylf^^-XPnce he 
afterward purchased a farm and settled >■! /ernaillion County III, whence he 
removed to Covington, Fountain Co., Ind where his wife died Deceniber 4, 1877, 
leaving three children-Maria R. (deceased), Henry J. J"^ ^;J,^'|,^Ip,.^^° l^?.^,^' '^'^.^ 
28 he married Mrs Rebecca J. Cronkhite, widow of AVilliam F. Cionl^hite. Mr. 
Saunders soon after removed to this county, of which he is a much-respected citizen. 
He is a m-mber of the Masonic fraternity. . th n^^amhpr Q 18-^S 

GEORGE W. SMITH was born in Vermillion County, I"d„- December 9 1838, 
and is the eldest of eight children born to James W^ and Eliza (Pugh)hnith^ 
James W. Smith was l)orn in Warren County, Ohio, March 28 1818, and wdien 
young lived with his grandfather. In 1837 he was married, and has smce ived m 
Vermillion County, Ind., Edgar County, Ills.. Warren County Ind., Kansas, and 
since 1872 has resided in this county. His children were as follows : George W 
Frances M., Maria A.. Harriet A., James W.. John M.. William F. and Joseph L. 
Geor.>-e W Smith in is6i, enlisted in Company K. Thirty-third Indiana \olunteers. 
and served until February 23, 1864. He re-enlisted in same company and served 
until the close of the war'. April 9, 1867, he married, in this county, Julia A. Jones 
who was born in Hamilton Countv, Ohio. November .5. 184:3, and is a: daughter of 
Robert and Elizabeth Jones. Tliey have two children— Robert A. and iNettie^ J. 
After his marriage, he settled on a farm, which he had previously bought in \ er- 
million County, 111, In 1876, he returned to this county, and now owns 800 acres ot 
fine land, all of which he has acquired bv his own industry. ^ 

J W WARRICK was born in Fountain Countv. Ind.. October 2,, 1848, and is 
the third of six children liorn to John and Keziah Warrick, both natives of Warren 
County Ohio. They were born June 30, 1819, and August 9, 1825, respectively, and 
were married in Fountain Countv, Ind., in 1846. and afterward settled in the same 
county. They have had the following children— Ezra. Huldah 0.. James W., 
SylvaU., Mary B. and Birdie. J. W. Warrick attended the district schools until 
sixteen years old, then entered the Union Christian College at 3Ierom, Ind.. and 
two years later the Wabash College at Crawfordsville, Ind, In 1872, he studied at 
the Michigan University at Ann Arbor, taking a full law course, and received the 
degree of L.L. B. In June, 1874, he was admitted to the bar, and began practising 
his profession at Indianapolis, continuing until 1877. He then moved to the farm 
in this county, which he still owns. He was married in this county to JIary A. 
Rogers, April 20. 187."). Mrs. AVarrick was born in this county March 24, 1854. 
They have three children— Dole R.. Ira C. and Edison J. Mr. Warrick is a member 
of the M. E. Church, also of the Masonic fraternity. He is much respected by his 


CHARLES J. DAWSON, farmer and stock-raiser, is a son of Thomas and 
Sarah (James) Dawson, and was born in Warren County, Ind., in 1836; His early 
education was obtained from the pioneer schools, after which he attended Harts- 
ville Seminary in Banliolomew County, aciiuiring at that institution a gniid jirao- 
tical educalion. His parents were among the early settlers of Medina Township, 
having located tliere as earl}' as 1826, when there were woods on all sides of tliem 
and settlers were few and scattering. C. J. Dawson was engaged as stock broker 
during the rebellion, but has since been engaged in otlier pursuits. He now owns 
428 acres of well improved laud. In 1862, his m;irriage with iliss JIarv JIunson, 
daughter of Orin and iMargaret Munsou. was solemnized. Mr. Dawson is a Repub- 
lican in politics. He and wilV are membersof the United Brethren Church, and are 
well known and liighly respected citizens. 

JAMES FOSTER, a native of tlic Buckej'e State, was born in Madison Countv 
in 1827, and is a son of Lackey and Elizabeth Foster. When but three years old. 
Ill' came with his p;ireiils to this county. He received only a limited education, as 
I lie advantages of schooling were very meager in those early days. In 1857, he was 
united in marriiige witli Eli/.n J. Midvinnis. daughter of Philip and Margaret McKin- 
nis, and to this marriage six children — three liovs and three girls— have been born, 
Mr. Foster owns a farm of 50(1 acres, with good buildings, farming implements and 
ccmvenient water privileges. He is much interested in stock-raising, ami thus far 
has lieen very fortunate in securing a good breed for his farm. jlr. Foster is a 
Republican in ]iiditics, and is a respected citizen of llie countv. 


JOHN POSTER, sou of Lackey and Elizahetli Foster, i,s a Iloosier by birth 
born in Warren County in 1835. He received a common school education Enlist- 
ed in the service of his country in the Tenth Indiana Volunteer Infantry in 1863, 
and after serving two years came home and engaged in agricultural pursuits. He 
now owns a farm of 296 acres of good land, well improved, and is employed in gen- 
eral farming and stock-raising. In 1887. his marriage with Anna E. Woodhams, 
daughter of George and Anna Woodhams. was consummated, and by her he is the 
father of four children. Mr. Foster is a Republican in politics, and takes an active 
interest in all the movements of his party. Mrs. Foster is a member of the M. E. 
Church, and the family of John Foster is among the best families of Medina 

JOSEPH H. GRAY, M. D., one of the rising young physicians of Warren 
County, is a son of Joseph and Elizabeth (Myers) Gray, and was born in Wayne 
County, Ind., in 1859. He received a good practical education in youth, and in 
1877 went to Dublin, Ind., where he attended two terms of the high school of that 
place. After this, he was clerk in a drug store until 1880, when he entered the 
Indiana Eclectic Medical College at Indianapolis, where, after two years of hard 
work, he received his diploma as M. D. February 8, 1883, he located at Green Hill, 
where, by close attention to his profession and gentlemanly conduct, he has ac- 
quired a good practice, in which he has been very successful. Dr. Gray is a Re- 
publican in politics, a member of the United Brethren Church and a highly respect- 
ed citizen. 

WILLIAM A. HOCK, a native of the Buckeye State, was born in Preble Coun- 
ty in 1825, shortly after which his parents, Jacob and Sarah (Sellers) Hock, emi- 
grated to Indiana, locating in Fountain County, where he remained until seventeen 
years of age. In 1843, he began learninp; the trade of wagon-making, and this has 
ever since been his occupation. His wife, Huldah L. McClure, was born in Darke 
County, Ohio, in 1835, and she is a daughter of Samuel and Anne McCIure. To her 
marriage with Mr. Hock a family of eight children have lieen born. In 1863, they 
removed to Independence, Warren County, from where Mr. Hock, in 1865, enlisted 
in the One Hundred and Fiftieth Indiana Volunteers. After the war, he returned 
home, worked at his trade until 1876, then removed to Green Hill, where he owns 
good propert}'. He is a strong Republican politically, and Mrs. Hock is a member 
of the United Brethren Church. 

JOHN W. JAMES, farmer and stock-raiser, is a son of David and Jane (Hurst) 
James, and was born in Warren County, Ind., in 1850. He received a good practi- 
cal education, and was engaged in helping his father in the store at Independence 
until twenty-one years old, since when he has been doing for himself. He has a 
farm of 100 acres in Warren County, on which he has erected a fine residence with 
convenient and comfortable surroundings. Mr. James takes an active interest in all 

Solitical issues of the day, and is a radical Republican in politics. He married 
"ancy J. Thompson, daughter of George W. and Elizabeth Thompson, in 1870; they 
are tlie parents of one child, and the mother is a member of the United Brethern 

ANSON B. McADAMS, one of the enterprising young men of Medina Town- 
ship, was born at Green Hill, Ind., in 1856. and is a son of Valentine and Eveline 
McAdams. His youthful days were passed in assisting his parents on the farm and 
attending the district schools of his neighborhood. On attaining his majoritj', he 
began farming for himself near Independence, but, in 1878, he began attending 
Green Hill Seminary, teaching school and reading law. In politics. Mr. McAdams 
is a stanch Republican. He was married, in 1883, to Miss 'Flora Bailey, a daughter 
of H. J. and Leah Bailey and a member of the United Brethren Church. 

GEORGE W. NOLIN, is a son of Thomas and Jane Nolin, and was Ijorn in 
Ohio, in 1838. In 1830, he moved to Fountain County, and in 1850, to Benton Coun- 
ty, Ind., where he purchased 20U acres; and in the same year married Miley Stone, 
daughter of Thomas Stone; she died in 1851, and Mr. Nolin next married Nancy 
Lank, in 1855, who died in 1857; his third marriage was to Eliza Munson, widow of 
Sino Mun.son. and a daughter of Thomas and Elizalieth Littrell. Mr. Nolin has 
property in Green Hill valued at .§700. He is an upright man and esteemed citizen. 
Mrs. Nolin is a meml)er of the United Bretliren Church. 

GEORGE W. THOMPSON, a son of Jasper and Elizabeth Thompson, was born 
in Ross County, Ohio, in 1835, and when twelve years of age, came with his parents 
to Warren County, where, in 1818, he was united in marriage with Elizabeth, a 
daughter of Joseph and Eleanor (Bailey) Tlmmons. He and wife began married 
life after the manner of pioneers, without any pecuniary means, but supplied with 
plenty of energy and determination; by hard work and economy, they have secured 
a good home and a well improved farm of 3.50 acres, which is supplied with an excel- 
lent grade of stock of all kinds. Mr. Thompson is a stalwart Republican, and since 


1883, has served as Road Superintendfint of his township. Having liad one leg 
broken in an accident, he is somewliat disabled, as the injured limb is two and one- 
halt inches shorter than the other. Throughout his Ion? residence in Warren Coun- 
ty, Mr. Thompson has become prominently identified with its best educational, 
political and religious interests. He is a progressive and enterprising citizen, the 
father of seven cliildren, and he and wife are memljers of the United Brethren 

WILLIAM B, VICK, M. D., a native of (xuilford County, N. C, was born in 
1837, and is a son of William and Elizabeth Vick. When eight years old, he be- 
came a resident of Indiana, learned the shoe-maker's trade, at which he worked un- 
til 1818. and the succeeding year was united in marriage with Sarah Hershman, who 
was born in Hamilton County, Ind., in 18-30, and who is a daughter of .Jacob and 
Sarah Hershman. After receiving a good English education in j'outh, he began 
the study of medicine in 18.53, under the advisement of 'Dr. .John Alter, near Wol- 
cott, Ind., and then attended two courses of lectures at the Fort Wayne Medical 
College. Succeeding this, he continued his studies under Dr. Lacey for two years, 
and then began the practice of his profession at Rockfield. Carroll Co., Ind. He 
then removed to Tippecanoe Countv. near La Favette. where he continued practic- 
ing until his location at Green Hill "in 187.3. lu 1881. Dr. Vick graduated from the 
Indiana Eclectic Medical College, and he is one of the well established ph_ysicians 
of the county. He is a Master Mason, of Green Hill Lodge. No. 45.5, Past Grand 
Representative of Tippecanoe Lodge, I. 0. O. P., and is a Republican in politics. 
He and wife are the parents of eight children, and Mrs. Vick is a member of the 
M. E. Church and the Rebecca Lodge of Odd Fellows at La Fayette. 

WILLIAM T. WAGNER, son of .John M. and Margaret "(Day) Wagner, was 
born in this county in 18315. He received but a common school education, chose 
farming as his vocation through life, and at present owns a good farm of 330 acres. 
In 1855, he married Margaret E., a daughter of Young F. and Rebecca Turman, 
and to their union have been born a family of six children. Mr. Wagner is among 
' the enterprising men of Medina Township, is a Republican, and a Master Mason of 
Green Hill Lodge. No. 455. Wagner's Grove, situated near his residence, was 
named in honor of his father. 

HENRY WOODHAMS, farmer and stock-raiser, is a native of England, and 
was horn in Sussex County in 1840. About the. year 1850, his parents, George 
and Anna (Brooker) Woodhams, emigrated to tlie United States, and soon after 
this found a home near Pond Grove, in Warren County, Ind., where George Wood- 
hams is yet living. Since being a resident of Warren County, Henry Woodhams 
has been chiefly employed in agricultural pursuits, and now possesses" 133 acres of 
good land in Medina"Township. When our country was imperiled in 1861. Mr. 
Woodhams enrolled his name in her defense as a member of the Tenth Indiana Vol- 
unteers, and served in all the important movements of that regiment until he was 
discharged in 1864. He is a Republican, and was married in 1868 to Lucy C. Tur- 
man, who has borne him a family of six children. 


ZDIHI ATKINSON (deceased), was liorn in Greene Countv, Ohio, December 31. 
1837, and was one of the twtdve cliildren liorn to Thomas and Frani'cs(Hcad) Atkin- 
son, both natives of Ohio, and of Gernuin and Irish descent. When a lad, Zimri 
Atkinson moved with his parents to Benton County. Ind., where he received an 
academic education, and was employed in farming at" home until he was twenty-one 
years of age. August 30. 1857, he was married' to ilarv J. Buckley, of Benton 
County, Ind., born November 17, 1889, daughter of Step'hen and Sarah E. (Wake- 
man) Buckley, both early sel Hers of said county. Mr, and Mrs. Atkinson had six 
(■hildrrn. lour of whom .ire living. After marri'age. Jlr. Atkinson moved to Warren 
Township and purchased land, on whieb he lived ten years; this he sold, and' pur- 
chased 43(1 acres in this township, which was his home until death, Februarv 36. 
18H3. Jlr. .Vtkinson had lieen County Commissioner for eleven years, and" had 
amassed a baiulsinue property; he was a Freemason, a Knight of' Honor and in 
politns ,'1 Repuliliean; he was also a lamented citizen. jMrs. Atkinson is livin.'- on 
the lionu' farm. ' ^ 

•lOIlN BLIND, farmer and stock-raiser, is one of the pioneers of this eovintv 
was born in Boss County, Ohio, March 0, 1834. and is the second cliild of the famiiv 
ofJolii\ and Catherine (Wagner) Blind, both natives of Gernianv The father of 



our subject emigrated to the United States and settled in Ross County Ohio wh. 
^T^j""°'>n™'^°' ''Od worked at farming on shares, and married. In 1S33 he moved to 
Medina Township, Ind., where he entered 160 acres, which lie improved and on 
T'V'^- ^'^!'f "^•^'r'^'^^V-^ '^'^ '^'"''''' J'in>iary 30, 1863, aged si.xty eight; Mrs. Blind died 
July ,, 1»S3. Mr. Blind owned at his death 400 acres of land. 'The suliiect of this 
sketch farmed with his father, the latter years on shares, until he reached the aoe 
of twenty-eight. In 1853, he liouglit 160 acres in this township, and later 110 moiT 
on which he has since resided, comprisintc 370 acres, all well improved He was 
married February, 1847, to Harriet Godfrey, a native of Tippecanoe County; to this 
marriage followed two children, but one of whom survives— Marcellus Mrs Blind 
died July, 1849. Mr. Blind next married, December 16, 1851, Frances M Gwinn of 
Greene Count_y, Ohio, by whom he had four children- Benjamin F Georo-eN 
Charles 0. and Anna M. Mr. Blind is a Republican, and he and wife belolig to 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

BENJAMIN" F. BRIER, farmer and stock-raiser, is the twelfth of the thirteen 
children of Isaac and Mary (West) Brier; the former a native of Penn.sylvania, the 
latter of Xoth Carolina, and of Scotch and Welsh descent. Benjamin was born in 
Pine Township, Warren Co., Ind., May 28, 1834. His father emigrated to Ohio, 
when a young man. where he married and followed agricultural p'ursuits. About 
1831, he moved to Pine Township, Warren Co., Ind., where he entered 330 acres, of 
which he made a farm and a home until his death, November, 1852. Benjamin F. 
Brier, after the death of his father, farmed on and managed the home farm for two 
years, when he purchased land in Prairie Townsliip, afterward 180 in this township, 
and in 1882. he bought the farm on which he now lives; he owns in totality 631 acres' 
mostly well improved. He was married, April 18, 1858, to Ellen Jones, of Warren 
County, Ind., which union was blessed with thirteen children, of which number five 
boys and five girls are living. Mr. Brier is a member of the Masonic fraternity; he 
is also a Republican. 

JAMES F. BUCKELS was born in Warren County, Ind., August 21, 1845, and 
is the only living child of Jackson and Mary E, (Mills) Buckels, natives of Ohio, 
and of English and Scotch descent. Jackson Buckels came to Indiana at an early 
age, and was married in Warren County. His father gave him eighty acres in Pine 
Township, which, in 1851, he sold and purchased a saw-mill in "Iroquois Countj', 
111., which he managed until his death, in August, 1853, James F, Buckels lost his 
mother when but three years old, and lived witli his grandfathers until his major- 
ity. In August, 1863, he enlisted in Company H, One Hundred and Si.xteenth Indi- 
ana Volunteer Infantiy, in which he served until his discharge, in August, 1864, 
In 1867, he began the drug business with Dr. Fenlon at Pine Village, and afterward 
continued it himself. He then farmed in Pine Township several years, and later 
commenced tile manufacturing at Pine Village. It was the first and is the most ex- 
tensive tile factory established llieie. He vas married, March ]9, 1871, to Verlinda 
T. Turman, a native of Wairen (ounty. Three children have been bom lo thtm, 
two of whom are living — Bertie E. and Chester E. Mr. Buckels is a Republican, 
and he and wife are members of the M. E. Church. 

ALBERT COBB, merchant, was born in Pine Township, Warren Co., Ind., 
August 17, 1850, and is one of the four children of William and Alice (Rhode) Cobb, 
the former a native of South ( arolina, the latter of Ohio, and of Welsh and Ger- 
man descent. William Cobb moved to Pine Township in this State in 1840, where 
he eniered 300 acres of land, which he improved. He added to this farm, until it 
now comprises 500 acres, and is now living thereon, aged seventy-eight years, Al- 
bert Cobb received a fair school education, and labored on the home farm until he 
was twenty-one years old, when he farmed on shares for six 3-ears. In 1878. he 
purchased a half interest in a saw-mill-, which he afterward sold, and in 1883 moved 
to Pine Village and engaged in the mercantile trade with J. D. Rhode, under tlie 
firm name ofRhode & Cobb, Mr. Rhode left the business in 1883, when the firm 
was changed to McCord & Cobb, who carry a large stock of dry goods, groceries, 
glass ware, hardware, boots and shoes, hats and caps and notions, and are doing a 
very large business, averagimr per year sales of $15,000, Mr. Cobb is a Democrat, 
and one of the most enterprising young men of the county, 

WILSON C06HILL, farmer and stock-raiser, who was born in Porter County, 
Ind., April 19, 1837, is the eldest child of Leonard H. and Mary (Slusher) Coghill, 
the former a native of Virginia, the latter of Kentucky, and both of German de- 
scent. The father of Wilson, when a boy, moved to Montgomery County, Ind., 
and in 1833 went to Fountain County, where he married; after which event he 
bought land in Porter Cotinty. In 1855, he came to this township, and purchased 
200 acres; this he sold to his son Wilson in 1883, and removed to Attica. Wilson 
Coghill gave his time to his father until he became of age, when he purchased eighty 
acres, made thereof a farm, and resided there ten years; this he sold, and purchased 


another, 160 acres; this he also sold, and in the fall of 18S3 purchased the home 
farm, on which he is living. December 33, 186J, he was married to M.ihala Heuton, 
a native of Cincinnati, Ohio. Nine children have blessed their union. Mr. Oog- 
hill is a Democrat and a member of the Odd Fellows. 

ROBEKT H. COTTINGHAM. farmer and stock raiser, was born in Montgom- 
ery County, Ohio, December H, 1810, and is the third of the eiglit cliildreu of 
Joshua E. and Elizabeth (Herrett) Cottingham, the former a native of Maryland, 
the latter of Pennsylvania. .Joshua Cottingliam. when young, emigrated with his 
parents to Kentucky. He afterward went to Montgomery County, Ohio, where he 
married, and in 1824 moved to Miami County, Ohio, where he purchased a farm 
and resided until his death, August 11, 1879, aged eighty-eight. He was a member 
of the M. E. Church, as was liis wife, who died February .5, lySi, in her ninety-first 
year. Robert H. Cottingham worl^ed on his father's farm until he was twenty- 
three, when he farmed on shares for nine years. In 1851, he came to this township, 
and in 1834 bought 160 acres, on wliicb he still resides. He now owns well-im- 
proved farms in Warren and Benton Counties, aggregating 505 acres. March 9, 
1843, he was married to Lavina Mahurau, of Miami County, Ohio. They were 
blessed witli six children, three of whom are living. Mrs. Cottingham died May 3, 
1835. Mr. Cottingham was ne.Yt married December 31, 1856, to Sarah A. Harris, of 
Waj'ne County, Ind., born August 7, 1839. Five children were born to them. Mr. 
Cottingham is a Republican. 

SAMUEL C. FENTON, M. D., was born in Adams Township, Warren Co., 
Ind., November 39, 1844, and is the second of the three children of Joseph A. and 
Margaret (Campbell) Fenton; the former a native of Indiana, tlie latter of Ohio, and 
of German and Scotch descent. Joseph A. Fenton came to this township in 18:j3, 
and after his marriage purchased eighty acres of wild land, which he impioved and 
to which he added until, at his death, he had 140 acres; he was a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Samuel C. Fenton received a fair education, at school 
and academy, and after his father's death, he, with an elder brother, managed the 
farm until 186(1. In 1863, he commenced studying medicine in Tippecanoe County, 
with Dr. H. D. Riddile, and attended Rush Medical College, Chicago, during 1866- 
67 In 1867, he began practice at Pine Village, and in 1869-70, attended further 
lectures at said college, from which he after graduated. September 33, 1809. he was 
married to Anna Pearce, a native of this county. Dr. Fenton is a successful practi- 
tioner. Freemason, a Republican, and a prominent citizen. Both himself and wife 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

DAVID FRAZIER was liorn in Pickaway County. Ohio. January 18. 183s, and 
is tlie sixth of the eleven children of David and Zema (Frazier) Frazier. both'natives 
of Maryland, and of Scotch and HoUandish descent. The father of our subject, 
after emigrating to Pickaway Coimty, (Uiio, entered the war of 1813 as a teamster- 
he afterward married and engaged in farming for several \ears, when, in ItioO, he 
moved to wliat is now Adams townshiii, Warren Co., Ind.! and entered 64o acres, 
which he improved, and on which he lived until his death. June, 184 !; he was one 
of tlie earliest pioneers of this cnunty. Our subject worked for liis father until the 
age of twenty-one, wlien he removed to Illinois and engaged in breaking prairie. 
After a time, he returned to tliis county, and for three vear's operated the "first saw- 
mill, having a circular saw; he then, with two brothers, purchased 480 acres in 
Benton County. In 1H33, he sold his interest in this and purchased 340 acres of the 
uld homesteail. in this township, where he has since lived. In December, IWio Mr 
Frazier enlisted in Company I, Seventy-second Indiana Infantry; he served throu^^h 
the war, and was disiharged November, 1865. Jauuarv 1, U->tib. he married Sarah 
D. Best, of this county, liy whom he has three children— Holmes Frank and DoUie 
F. Mr. Frazier is a Democrat. 

JACOB HARjMAN, fanner and stock-dealer,was born in Frederick County Va 
September 6, 1S03, and is the third of the seven boj's of John and Elizabeth (Slusher) 
Harnian, liotli natives of Virginia, and of German descent. John Harmau was 
reared :i)id married in liis native State, where he followed the plow for life He 
served through the w;ir of 1813, anil died in his ninetieth year; lie and wife were 
members of the Lutheran Cluirch. Jacob ll.irimiii remained with his father until 
he was sevenlecn, when he emigrated to Hoss County. Ohio. In 1835 he came to 
the site of this township, and settled on 4S0 acres which he had since 18 '0 and on 
\v iich he still lives, and to this he has added until he owns 1460 acres in Vdaius and 
Warren Townships, making (Uie of the bestfarms in the neighborhood Mr liar 
man has also a stock tarni of 3000 acres in Iroijuois County,' III ■ he is the lar^'csl 
stock dealer in the township. ;\lr. llarman was never mariied; he is a Rrnul)'li?an 
and a leading citizen of ihe county. 

ABliAlIA.VI U. II AUN is a native of Boone County, hid born \u-ust 't 184^ 
and one ot the ten cliil.lim of Shepard B. andTliurza ( JtcDonnel) Haun? tlieVormJr 


a native of Tennessee, the latter of Virginia, and of German and English descent 
bliepardB. Haun was a miller by occupation. He was married in Boone Couuly 
where he owned and operated the Sugar Creek Mills, until 1863, when lie came to 
Pine Village and bought a steam flouring mill, which he operated until his death 
iMarch. IbW; he was a Freemason. Abraham H. Haun was enrployed with his 
father until that parent died, when he operated the mill until February, ISGo- he then 
enlisted m Company G, One Hundred and Fiftieth Indiana Volunteers, and served 
until August, i860. On returning, he followed the harness-making trade, which he 
C(mtinued until 1874, when he engaeed in the drug business at Pine Village Jllr 
Haun was married May 3, 186T, to .lennie Ritenour, of Warren County; they have 
two children— Theron C, and Claude. In 187.5, he opened a general store, which he 
has made succes.sful. Mr. Haun is a Freemason, also a Republican. 

JACOB P. ISLEY was born in Warren Township, Warren, Co.. Ind., August 
12, 1838, and is the eldest of the four children of Benjamin and Margaret (Southard) 
Isley, the former a native of ISTorth Carolina and the latter of Virginia, both of 
German descent. Benjamin Isley emigrated to Preble County, tjhio, with his 
parents, when he was eight years old. He was married in Warren Township. War- 
ren Co., Ind., whither he came in 1829, and settled on 160 acres, which he improved. 
After twelve years, he entered 120 acres in this township, where he lived until his 
decease. February 6, 1866; he was a member of the United Brethren Church. 
Jacob P. Isley remained with his father until he became of age, after which he 
managed the home farm for eight years, and, with a brother, purchased 120 acres in 
Benton County, to which they added until it aggregated 600 acres- In September, 
1881, he sold his interest in said land and boui^rht" 200 acres in this township, on 
which he now lives. He was married, October" 5, 1881, to Mary Hickman, of this 
cimnty, by which union succeeded one eon— Clement B. Mr. Isley is a Royal Arch 
Mason ; he is also a Democrat. April 4, 1883, Mr. Isley, with three others, engaged 
in hankina; at Attica, Fountain County, with the title "The Citizens' Bank." 

ISAAC JO!NES. farmer and stock-raiser, was born in Warren Tow nship, War- 
ren Co., Ind., July 6, 184o, and is the third of live children born to Clement G. and 
Nancy (Russell) Jones, the former a native of Maryland, the latter of Ohio, and of 
Welsh and English descent. Clement G. Jones received his early education in Del- 
aware, whither his pai'ents removed. He emigrated to Chillicothe, Ohio, and was 
there employed until 1831, when he removed to'Warren Township, Warren Co., Ind., 
and entered eighty acres, residing thereon until 1849, when he purchased his present 
place ; he at one time owned 2,400 acres, one-half of which he has deeded to his chil- 
dren. Isaac Jones w^as given an academic education, and remained with his father 
until he was twenty-one years old, when he received from his father a partially im- 
proved farm of 10.5 acres, which, in 1870, he sold, and purchased 832 acres in Warren 
and Adams Townships, where he now. resides; he has also 240 acres iji Benton County. 
February, 12, 1867, he was married to Elizabeth McCord, of this county, to which 
union have descended four children — two bo3's and two girls. Mr. Jones is a Dem- 
ocrat, and one of the leading men of the county. 

JAMES McCORD, farmer and stock-raiser, was born in Liberty Town.ship, 
Warren County, Ind., July 18, 1834, and is one of ten children of James and Hannah 
(Morris) McCord, both natives of Pennsylvania. The father of our subject was a 
cabinet-maker, and when a j'oung man removed to Huron Count}', Ohio, then a 
wilderness; he was a soldier in, and served through the entire war of 1812, soon 
after which he married. In 1820, he came to Indiana and settled on White River. 
In 1824, he entered eighty acres in Liberty Township, on which he resided until his 
death, September 20, 1872, at which time he owned 320 acres. Our subject obtained 
but little education in j-outh. which he improved by reading and observation. He 
worked for his father until his majority, when he was given 120 acres in Liberty 
Township, which he imi^roved, and on which he resided until the spring of 1868, 
when he sold this and bought the 336 acres on which he lives— one of the best in 
the township. He was married, September 13, 185.5, to Esther A. Little, of this 
county; tiiere have succeeded four children. Mr. !JIcCord is a Republican and a 
leadiiisr citizen. 

Jz\MES W. MESSNER, farmer and stock dealer, is a native of Butler County, 
Ohio, born Kovember 30, 1844, and the eldest of the ten children of Daniel N. and 
Reliecca A. (Wood) Messner ; the former a native of Pennsylvania, the latter of 
Ohio, and of German and English descent. J. W. Messner, when eleven years old, 
after rei eiving a fair education, began to learn carpentering with his father, at 
which trade he labored twelve or fourteen years. In 18(32, he enlisted in Compaii}' 
G, One Hundred and Sixteenth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, in which he served until 
the close of the war. and was discharged in the fall of 1865 In 1866, he commenced 
to farm on shares and to deal in live stock, which he has continued with much suc- 
cess. He was married January 4, 1866, to Eveline Barker, a native of this county. 


who (lied January 12, 1875. Mr. Me.ssncr was afterward married, March, 1878, to 
Lizzie Ellis, a native of Warren County, Ohio, wliich union was graced liy four 
children, three of whom are living— Anna, Edith M. and Silva. Mr. Messner is a 
member of A. F. and A. M. ; he is a Repuijlican and an enterprising citizen. 

JOHN R. METSKER, farmer and stock-raiser, is the eldest of the twelve chil- 
dren of Isaac and Reheeca (Richards) Metsker; the former a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, the latter of Kentucky, and of HoUandish and Welsh descent. J. R. Metsker 
was horn in Greene County^ Ohio, March 19, 1817. In 1830. his parents came to 
what is now Adams Towiiship, wliere his father entered 240 acres, on which he 
resided until liis death, JIarch 37. 1857; he owned in all 960 acres. He was for 
many j'ears Township Trustee, aud for fifty years a memlier of the M. E. Church, 
as was also his wife, who died December 25. 1865. John R. Metsker attended the 
schools of the day ami worked on his father's farm. After farming on sliares, he 
purchased a farm in this township, whicli he sold, when he bought one in Pine 
Township, and resided there twenty-four years. In 1871. he moved to the old home- 
stead, and has now a good farm of 265 acres. In 1851. he assisted Ids father in 
laying out Pine Village. He was married, September 20, 1888, to Sarali M. Freeman, 
a native of North Carolina, and daugliter of George and EUinor (Brumit) Freeman; 
this union was blessed with twelve children, nine of wliom survive. Mr. Metsker 
is a Repuhlican, and lie and wife are prominent members of tlie JI. E. Church. 

JOHN W. METSKER. farmer, is a native of Adams Township, Warren Co.. 
Ind., born September 28, 1842, and is the second of a family of twelve, the children 
of John R. and Sarah M. (Freeman) Metsker (a sketch of whom will be found 
above). Our subject received the ordinary course of education and assisted his 
father until he was twenty-three, after which he farmed on shares for four years; 
he then purchased 160 acres in this township on wliich he resides, and to which he 
has added eighty acres, and which is now one of the best-improved farms in this 
section. He was married, March 5, 1868, to Sarah Z. Little, a native of this county, 
which union has been blessed with five children, two of whom are living — Carrie V". 
and Newlon W. Mr. Metsker is a Republican, and he and wife are meinbers of the 
M. E. (Uiureh. 

JOHN W. MILLS, farmer and slock-dealer. is a native of this township, born 
April 6, 1832, and is the seventh of the thirteen children of Jacob and Jane iCassel) 
Mills, both natives of South Carolina. When a young man, Jacob Mills emigrated 
to Warren County, C^hio, where he married, and'where he farmed for several years. 
In 1829, he came to what is now Adams Township. Warren Count v. Ind.. and 
bougiit eighty acres, after paying for which he had SI. 25 remaining; "he improved 
his farm, and in 1876 sold it to his son Jolin, since when he has made a home 
with his children, having accumulated 320 acres. He was Trustee of Adams Town- 
ship for twenty years, and is a member of the Baptist Church. J. W. Mills worked 
for his father until he was twenty-one, after wliich he farmed on shares for several 
years. In August, 1803, he enlisted in Company F, One Hundred and Sixteenth 
Indiana Volunteers, and served until JIarch, l'86t. He was married, January 1, 
IHiiO, to Hannah A. Frazier. a native of Warren Countv; thev have no children "but 
have adopted several orphans. In 1869. ilr. Jlills purchased" 320 acres adjoining the 
liomestead. and in 1876 purchased said homestead, which is now his home. "" Mr. 
Mills is a Demoeiat. 

HON. RICHARD G. OOLE was liorn November 15, 1889. in this township and 
is the fourth of a family of six horn to Thomas D. and Adelia (llorton) Odle; the 
former a native of Ross, the latter of llighlami Conntv. Ohio, and both of Scotch 
descent. Thomas D. Odle was by trade' a hatler. but "after his marria"e he farmed 
in Ohio, and came to Indiana in 1832, wbiac he purchased i'iglil\- acres Tn this town- 
ship, wlncli land he improved, and hi which he added until he o'wned 360 acres well 
unproved. He died January 19. ISS2. Richard G. Odle received an academie edu- 
cation, and divided his time between the farm and teaching until he was iwentv-oue 
yens (dd. In July, 1,S62. he enlisted in Company I. Sevi ntv-second Indiana Volun- 
leers; lie served until March 81. 1868. when he was honorably discharged He tau^Hit 
,seho(d until hSIi.i, when he bought a farm in Pine Township, and a."ain ess-ivcd'a"- 
nruluire; tins he sold in 1S66, and purchased the old hmueslead in this township 
where lie has since resided. In the .session of 1872 and 1878 he represented this 
county ill Ihe lower house of the Slale Lc-islature. December 37 1864 he was mar- 
ried lo Margaiel A. Campbell, ilaugliler of Rev 8. N. Campbell; they have had live 

'.;,' iui-'i''i!,"'"/;n"''""' :"V '''''"- "'■"• '^'"^' ''''"'' ^''''-''l' 5' l-^^'. :'»>1 on October 
M ,,'n' ■ '■ ">'i'iie.l Susan El.erly. by whom he has one daughter. Rerlha G 

A m^'<4\""i'.',"w,''It"" ^"'"^;^"'<' r>-^it''-nily. and also of the Knights of Honor, 
.lAM^.S l-.lvt) WEN general merchant, is a nalive of Warren Countv hid 
HMii Ic iniaiy ... 18.,,, and ,s the son of James R. and Mary C. (He Caiiipi Rowen,' 
both natives ot Ohio. J.-mies F. Rowen obtained the usual education of Ihe day 


and was employed in his father's store until he was twenty-one years old, when he 
opened a harness shop at Pine Village. He was married, February 10, 1878, to 
Anna McCord, a native of this county, to which union have been born two children 
— James E. and Charles R. In 1882, he purchased his father's business, and has 
successfully conducted the same. He has a well selected stock of dry goods, gro- 
ceries, woodenware. queensware, glassware. and notions. Mr. Rowen has been 
Postmaster at Pine Village; he is a Republican, and one of the rising young men of 
the county. 

JOSEPH W. ST. JOHN is the youngest of the six children of Seth and Mrs. 
Ruth A. (Campbell-Richards) St. John; the former a native of New York, the latter 
of Ohio, and of French and German descent. He was born in this township June 
26, I8.i3. In 1796, Seth St. John, then four years old, was brought to Hamilton 
County, Ohio. In 1803, his father entered land in Warren County, where Seth was 
afterward married. Seth St. John was a soldier of the war of 1812, and served under 
Gen. Hull until his surrender to the British. In 1832, he removed to this township, 
and settled on 340 acres, where lie lived until his death, August 21. 1874, aged 
eighty-one years. Mrs. St. John died January 1, 18.i9. J. W. St. John resides on 
the old homestead, 160 acres of which he owns, and where he has passed his life. 
He was married, April 11, lS73,>to Harriet C.Kiger, a native of Benton Count}-, Ind 
Their union has been blessed with three children — N. S., Anna I. and Jacob W. 
Mr. St. John is a Republican, and one of the enterprising farmers of the township. 

JOHN" F. SALE, hotel keeper, wa^ born in Warren Count3^ Ohio, December 
9, 1809, and is the eldest of tlie family of Robert and Magdalena (Smith) Sale, both 
natives of Virginia and of French descent. Robert Sale, when a young man, emi- 
grated to Greene County, Ohio; thence to'Warren County, where, November 8, 1808, 
he married and purchased 191 acres of military land, wnich he improved, and on 
which he resided until his death, October 1, 1823, aged thirty-eight. He served 
under Gen. Wayne during the war of 1812. John F. Sale worked at home until he 
was twenty-tive, after which he farmed on shares for seventeen years. He was 
married. February 27, 18.34, to Lydia A. Wilkinson, by whom he had seven children, 
six living. Mrs. Sale died November .5, 1867. In 1857, he purchased 160 acres in 
this township, which he sold in 1876, in order to engage in the hotel business at 
Pine Village. January 26, 1879, Mr. Sale was married to Mrs. Elizabeth A. (Camp- 
bell) Metsker, born in Warren County August 12, 1833, daughter of Jonathan and 
Evaline (Moore) Campbell. Mr. Sale was Justice of the Peace from 1858 to 1878, 
also a Notary Public. He is a Republican. Mr. and Mrs. Sale are prominent 
members of the M. E. Church, of which Mr. Sale has been a local preacher for more 
than forty yaprs. 

ABRAHAM SHACKLETON is a native of Yorkshire, England, born October 
29, 1816, and is the son of John and Sallie (Allan) Shackleton, both natives of Eng- 
land, John Shackleton was a wool comber and weaver, which occupations he 
followed through life. Abraham's education was mostly acquired from tiie Sunday 
schools, but he later acquired much by reading and observation. When a boy, he 
worked in a machine shop, and later learned wool-combing, which he followed un- 
til 1842, when he emigrated to the United States. He W(u-ked at farming and wool- 
combing in New York and Massachusetts. He afterward moved to Bulier County, 
Ohio, where he labored until 1857, when he came to this township, and settled on 
the 120 acres which is still his home. He now owns 240 acres of good, well-im- 
proved land. Mr. Shackleton was married, September 30. 1849, to Mary E. Wallace, 
of Maryland, by which union succeeded six children, five being yet alive. Mrs. 
Shackleton died November 9, 1870. Mr. Shackleton is a Democrat and a leading 

WILLIAM R. STREET, Postmaster of Pme Village, was born in New York " 
City October 16, 1830, and is the second of the eight children of James W. and 
Joanna (Clark) Street, both natives of New York. James W. Street was a wagon- 
maker, which trade he followed through his life. In 1834, he emigrated to Jackson 
County, Ohio, and thence to this county, where he resided until his death, in 1849. 
His wife died'in 1848. She was a life member of the U. B. Church. William R. 
Street obi ained a frontier education, and from the age of eight to twenty-one he 
worked by the month. In 1852, he commenced farming on shares, which he con- 
tinued nine years. December 12. 1861, he enlisted in Company D, Fortieth Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry. At the battle of Kenesaw M(mntain, he was severely wounded 
in the thigh and cheek, entailing a loss of his right eye He was discharged Novem- 
ber 23, 1864. After his return, he was compelled to abandon farming, and worked 
at shoe-making until 1881, when he was appointed Posi master at Pine Village, and 
in 1881 began the grocery business. Mr. Street was tirst married to Mary D. Wliite.^- - 
December 11, 1851, a native of Tippecanoe County, who died August 17, 1863, hav- 
ing borne six children, two of whom are living. Mr. Street was next married, Au- 


gust 1, 1805, to Mrs. Lucinda (Odle) Am))ler, a native of Warren County, to which 
union were born two children, one of whom is living. Mr. and Mrs. Street are 
members of tlie M. E. Cliurcli. 

.JAMES M. 8WADLEY, wagon-maker and l)laclvsmith, was born in Indian- 
apolis, Ind., Feliruary 17, 1838, and is tlie second of a famdy of si-V born to Nicholas 
and Nancy (Clianey) Swadley, both natives of Pennsylvania, and of German 
descent. The parents of James W. were married in Highland County, Ohio; the 
father was a wagon-maker, and worked in Indianapolis until 1833, when he removed 
to Shawnee Prairie, Tippecanoe County, where he began farming and wagon niak- 
iny-. In 18o8, he came to this county, and resided upon 360 acres until his death. 
Feliruary, 1874. lie was a soldier of tlie war of 1S13, had been Assessor and Jus- 
tice of the Peace, and was a temperance advocate. James M. Swadle.r. at the age 
of twelve, began to learn his father's trade, which has been his occupation. In 
1848. he came to Pine Village and moved into one of the three houses then erected, 
where he commenced wagon-making. In the same year, he was married to Martha 
Crowell, a naiive of Ripley County, by wliom he liad three children, two of whom 
are living. Mrs. Swadley died in l8-')3. and Mr. Swadl-y was ne.xt married in 1855, 
to Sarah Jane Thomas, a native of this couutv ; one daughter followed this union — 
Anna M., now Mrs. Theodore Doughty. Mrs. Swadley died April 8, 1883. Mr. 
Swadlej' was Postmaster of Pine Village ; he is a Republican, and a member of the 
M. E. Church. 

HORACE W. WAGNER, druggist, was born at Wagner's Grove. Warren Co., 
Ind., November 10, 1854, and is the third of the family of five born to George D. 
and Elizalieth (Ale.xander) Wagner, both natives of Ohio. The parents of (.xeortte 
moved to Medina Township. Warren Co.. Ind., when he was four years old. His 
father was a farmer and extensively engaged in the live-stock trade. He was a 
Whig until 1856, when he was elected bv the Repulilicaus as Representative, and in 
1858 as Slate Senator. In 1861, he was commissioned Colonel of the Fifteenth 
Indiana Volunteers ; he was promoted Brigadier General and later Brevet Major 
General, and served with honor and distinction throughout the war. After his 
return, he practiced law at Williamsport until his death'February 11. 1869. A few 
days before his decease, he was appointed Minister to Berlin. Gen. Wagner was a 
very prominent Mason, was for several years President of the State Agricultural 
Society, and was one of the bravest and best of Indiana's patriots. Horace W. 
WagTier obtained an academic educaticm, and when nineteen years old bought a 
farm in this county, and engaged in agriculture until 1880, when he came to Pine 
Village and coinmenced the drug busiu'ss, nhicli he ha< since continued. April 6. 
1881. lie was married to Alice M.JIalher, a n.ilive of Medina Town>hip ; they have 
one daughter— Blanche M. Mr. Wagner is a Freemason and a Republican. 


ABIGAIL yVKERS (widow of Georire Aker^l was born April 13, IsiJS. in 
Butler County. Ohio, and is one of the eleven children of Frederick and Nancy 
A. Alenduir, natives, respectively, of Ohio and .Maryland ; the former born Occein- 
ber -1, 17ii:!. The grandfather of our subject was killed and scalped by the Indians 
in 171)4. Her grandmother became Mrs. Jolm l)i( ki'rson, and afterward removed to 
Iowa, wlicre she died, aged ninety-si.\-. Her famdv embraced si.x chiliiren— Fred- 
erick, Polly, JIary A., Hannah, .lolin and Calheiinc. Frederick Alenduff was reared 
by a brother, and after his marrian'e purchasi'd land in Butler County Ohio where 
he remained until IS.'S. and thence rcmnycd ti Fountain County liid where he 
(lii-d April 2. 1877, and his wile March 4, 1864. leaving ileven children— Catherine 
Elizabeth, Mary, John. Plubc Andrew. Henry. William. Alii.'ail Jane and 
Amanda. Our subject was j.uncd in x\edlo k to Mr. Akers, January 8 1844 in 
Fount am County, Ind. George AUers was born in Butler County Ohio February 
14, 1SJ4. Ills parents. Fredericdv and N.incv Akers, were eariv'.settlers of Tipn6- 
canoe County; the tormcr was twice married and the father of ei-hieen children 
Alter her marriage, iMrs, Aliigail Akers r.^sid d in F,>uut.ain Countv iiniil ab>mt 18W 
when she removed to her hinuc in Warrei, County. Mr. Akers' died October 04'. 
1H70, leaving thirteen children -Eilmond, J.mics. Gein--e M Annie \.in inda E 
Joseph II . Virginia C., l\IaiT K... ,Melvin, Jo cph Charlie, Allen and Eliza ) ' 

.lOSEPll ALE.XANDEU was born in Bniler Ciuinty. Ohio November''; 18'\) 
and IS a.sonol Sainu(4 and Mary Alexander, natives of" Peunsvlvania and Ohio re- 
speclively. Samuel Alexander was a son of Jose]di and FraiU'cs Alexander early 


settlers of Moatsomeiy Countj-, Ind. They -were parents of ten children seven of 
whom were sons— James. Joseph. Richard, Franklin, Hartley, John and Samuel 
Samuel married Mary Kelley. in Ohio, and moved to Monlgomerv County Ind. in 
1835, where lie died in 1840. In 1848, Mrs. Alexander and family removed to Tip- 
pecanoe County, and two years later to Warren County, where "she died, in 1858 
They had a family of eleven children— Sarah, Frances, Margaret. Mary, Joseph 
James, Samuel, R. ^V.. Jane. Geoi-ge and Elizabeth. Joseph, our subject, came 
with his mother to Warren County where. September B, 1857, he married Miss 
Frances Hanlis, born in Ross County. Ohio. November Ifi. 1816. daughter of .Joseph 
and Margaret Hanks. Mr. Alexander is the father of three children— Wallace B 
(died in the United States military service). Honora E. (deceased), and Runick W. 
He also possesses i88 acres of land. 

THOMAS BARTLETT was born in Henry County. Va.. December 5, 183T, and 
is one of twelve children born to Thomas and Sabrina Bartlett. His paternal grand- 
father, John G. Bartlett. was an early settler of Henry County, and there died in 
his eighty-third year; he had been a soldier in the Revolutionary war. and was the 
father of the following children: William, .John H.. Betsy. Martha and Thomas. 
The last-named, the father of our subject, was born in Henry County. Va.. June 
16, 1790. and was married to Sabrina Hill, born in Frederick County. Va.. April 1. 
1793. In 1830. he came to this county, and here died June 29, 1863. his widow fol- 
lowing December 10. 1866. His children were John, William. Washington. George, 
Maria. Sabrina. Thomas. Levi G.. Eliza V., Martha J.. Nancy and Elizabeth. Our 
subject came to this county with his parents, and December 13. 1849. married Mar- 
garet E., daughter of John and Eve Keenan. and born in Frederick County. Va., 
March 34, 1830. The children born to this union were a son. who died in infancy, 
and John F.. Georse E.. Martha J. S.. Mary E., Charley T.. Elmer W., Harriet R. 
(deceased), Victoria A.. Schuyler C. and William S. In 1853. Mr. Bartlett adopted 
veterinary medicine as a profession, and is now a most skillful practitioner. He also 
holds the office of Justice of the Peace. 

WILLIAM BRIER is a native of Champaign County. Ohio, born April 35, 1820. 
and is one of the thirteen children of Isaac and Mary (West) Brier; the former born 
in Pennsylvania in 1788. the latter in South Carolina in 1794. They were married 
in Champaign County. Ohio, in 1809. and in 1830 moved to Warren County. Ind.. 
and settled where our subject now lives; here. too. they died, he November 37, 18.58. 
she March 15. 1868. He was a soldier of i813. and the first Postmaster of the town- 
ship. Their family were. Philander. Andrew, John. Mary. Hannah. Juliann. Will- 
iam, George, Isaac. James. David. Benjamin and Henry. William Brier learned the 
trade of a carpenter, at which he worked some years; he was also engaged in the 
millwright business. November 17. 1850, be married Amy .J., daughter of Carpen- 
ter and Amy J. Morey, born in this county, August 31. 1835. This union gave issue 
to two children — Francis E. and Sylvia A. Mr. Brier, after marriage, settled on 
some previously purchased land, and in 1858 moved to the old homestead, now his 
home. He has 383 acres of good land, well improved. 

HIRAM BRIGHT was born near Danville, Montour County, Penn., November 
1, 1884, and is one of eleven children of Peter and Maiy Bright, natives of Pennsyl- 
vania, the former a son of David Bright, in Bucks County August 5, 1771, whose 
father was Michael Bright, also born in Pennsylvania in 1733, who married one 
Catharine Huber. and died in 1814. David Bright married one Catharine Hetten- 
stine, by whom he was blessed with ten children— Michael, Sarah, William. Abigail. 
Catharine. Aaron. John, Francis, David and Peter. The father of our subject was 
married, in Bucks Count}- December 23. 1837. to Marj' Evans, and removed in 1833 
to Montour County, Penn.. where he died, and where his widow is yet living. Their 
family was as follows : Abner. David. Rebecca, Hiram, Dennis. Evans. Albert. 
Penina. Philip. Abby and Mar_y. Hiram Bright was married in Montour County. 
Penn., March 10. 18.j7. to Rhoda A., daughter of Robert and Sarah Butler, with an 
issue of five children — Mary E., Frank. Butler, Oakley and Carl. In the spring of 
1858, Mr. Bright removed to this county, where he now owns 788 acres of land. 

HAYNIE BROWN (widow of William F. Brown), was born in Hendricks 
County, Ind., April 36. 1838, and is a daughter of Joshua and Sarah Foster. 
the former born in Anderson Count}-, Tenn., January 9, 1803, the latter in Culpeper 
County. Va.. July 11. 1808. In 1839. they removed to Hendricks County, and in 
1848 to Warren County. Ind.. where Mr. Foster died July 37. 1875. Mrs. Foster 
survives, and resides with the subject of this sketch. Their children are Houston, 
Horace. Wiley. Jefierson, Haynie, John. George. Enoch, Caroline, Joseph and 
Martha. Miss Haynie and Mr. Brown were united in wedlock in this county Octo- 
ber 4, 1849. Mr. Brown was born in Ohio September 30. 1835. His parents were 
Benjamin and .Tulia Brown, both natives of Virginia, the former born January 3, 
1784, the latter December 15. 1791. They removed from Virginia to Ohio, and 



thence to this county, where the}' subsequently died. After his marriag-e, Mr. Brown 
purchased a farm in this county, and in 1854 bought the one on -which ilrs. Brown 
now resides. Mr. Brown died August 4, 1880, leaving eleven children— Emma, 
John, Austin, Sarah, Lam-a, Perlina, William L., Joseph, Mary E,, Arthur and 

JACOB BROWN, a native of this township, was born April 24, 1848, and is the 
son of John W. and Margaret (Pepper) Brown, parents of eleven children— Martha 
J., John P., Mary, Julia A., William H., Jacob, Deborah, James F., Benjamin, 
Margaret and a deceased infant. John W. Brown was born in Ross County. Ohio, 
January 28, 1812, and Margaret Pepper in Frederick County, Md., June 13, 1813; 
they were married in Ross County. Ohio, January 10, 1833, and in 1838 moved to 
this 'township, where John W. died May 20, 1880.' Jacob Brown was married in 
Montgomery County, Ind. , September 9, 187.5, to Rosa J., daughter of Reuben and 
Catherine Byrd; slie was born in Jlontgomer}' County, August 10, 1859, and died 
February 16, 1878. October 21, 1879, he married Katie A. Brown, a native of this 
county, daughter of Abel W. and Rachel Brown, and born October 21, 1859. There 
was one child that died unnamed, l.iorn to Mr. Brown's iirst marriage, and to his 
second there are two — Voorhccs F. and Jennie E. Mr. and Mrs. Brown are mem- 
bers of the Metliodist Episcopal Church, and own a tiuely cultivated farm of forty 

J. J. BUSSELLis a native of Warren County, Ind., boin March 29, 1853. His 
parents were William andManha Bussell; the former born in Virginia November 
13, 1804, the latter in Tennessee, August 30, 1812. These parties were wedded in 
Hendricks County, Ind.. July 7, 188(3, moved to Iowa in 1850, and thence to this 
county in 1852, where Mr. Bussell died. January 23, 1867. and Mrs. Bussell February 
11, 1880, leaving four children — James H.. Sarah A.. Lucinda E. and John J., our 
subject. He was married in Benton County, Ind., December 12. .1877. to Mary J., 
daugliter of James F. and Martha I,. Mills, a native of this count}-, born September 
6, 1856. After the death of his parents, Mr. Bussell purchased the family homestead 
where he now lives, and is the possessor of 160 acres of arable and productive land. 
Mr. and Mrs. Bussell are parents of one child — Lulie L., born Julv 26 1879 

MATIIEW CiVVANAGH is a native of County Wexford. Ireland, and was born 
in 1827. His parents are Patrick and Bridget (Koach^ Cavauagh. likewise natives of 
Ireland, who, about the year 1851, emigrated to America, settled in (Orleans County, 
N. Y., moved to Warren County, lud.T two years later, and in 1865, to Clav County! 
Mo., where they now reside. They are tlie parents of eight children— ;Malhew! 
Michael, Mary, John, James, Philip" Patrick and Edward." Our subject. JIathew 
Cavanagh, emigrated to this country in the spring of 1848, lauding at New York 
City, thence going to Orleans Coiuity, and in 1850 to Williamsport, Ind. He was 
married at La Fayette, Ind.. August 8. 18.58. to JIargaret Gcorly.a native of County 
Mrath, Ireland, a union productive of six children— infant son (diceased). Eilward", 
James (deceased). Thomas. Philip and Elizabeth (dcceasedV After marriage 51?' 
Cavanagh settled upon the land Avhich he has sinci' known as home. 

EMILY D()LB()\V ^wife of Nimrod Doll>ow) is a native of RossCouutv, Ohio 
and was born JIarch 25, 18-13. Her parints, Willis and Jane Graves, were" natives 
of Virginia and Ohio respectively ; the former liaving been born in the year 1808" 

the latter in the year 1815. They were married in Ross County, wliere thev'remained 
until 1851, thence moved to Warren County, Ind.. and in 1866. to Benton County 
Mo, where Mrs. Graves died February IS. 1875. yiv. Graves removed to Iroquo'is 
County. 111., wherehedied June 7, 1879, leaving ei-ht children— Thoma* J Miry 
E., ErvuiT., Fmdy, Joseph, Eliza B.. James A, and Francis. Emily came with 
her parents to tliix county, where slu' married .\ugust 29. i860, one C. W Gray who 
died April 27, 18-6, and was siibsec|uently united to Ninirod Dolbow Her fimiry'eom 
prised live chihlren— William G., Thomas C. John W. Millie J. and Sarah idec>"'isodl 
liOBlSON FLETCHER is a uatiye of Greene County, Ohio, botn March ■^■'' 
1824. and is a, son of Robisou and Catherine Fletcher. Robison Fletcher Sr was 
born near Wheeling. W. Va.. Novemlier 12. 1787, and was a son of William Fletcher" 
n native of England, who emigraled to Virginia liefore the Revolution irv War' 
rriiicived to Fairtield Couiitv, tUiio.ahout 1806, and thence, in 1816 to Greene Coun' 
ly, where he died. He was futher to six ehil.lien - John. Robisiui Jane laeob 
Sarah and James, Holuson. our suhjct's faiher. wa> married, in 1806 in Fai'rtiehi 
County, t)lMo, to Catherine, daughter of Abtaham and Margaret Wootring born 
near Hageistown MdOctober 12, 1788. In 1816, they removed to Greene Coutily 
Ohio, and in IS.52, to IMontgomeiy County. Ind.. where he died. September 13 Ts'kV 
and she September 2S, ls:,^; ih,.y.|,,ri ..eyeii .hildren-Margaret Mary AS'll Vm' 
John, Sarah, Robison and Naomi. Our subject. RoliiM.n Fle'teher, was"marr ed u 
Greene County Ohi... August 11, 18-10, to Catherine, daughter o.' David and (nv 
Little, born 111 INhiskingum County, Oltio, Jyly 17, 1823. hi 1852 he rMuov^d to 


Montgomery County, Ind., Ihcuce in 181!.). to Pine Village, thence to Benton Coun- 
ty, and tlicnco to his present residence. Mr. and Mrs. Fletcher have had ten chil- 
dren— Emeline (deceased), Serilda J., Rufus L., Charles, Amy C, Alfred II., Fl(u-a 
E. (deceased), Norah L., India M. and an infant daughter, deceased. 

L. L. FREEMAX was horn in Greenville County. Va., Mayo, 1807. His father. 
George Freeman, was born in Mecklenburg Couniy.'Va., .January 13, 1784, and was 
a son of James and Sarah Fi-eeman. natives of Virginia, and of English descent. 
After .James Freeman's death, Mrs. Freeman removed to North Carolina, and in 
1823 to Ohio, where she died. They had six children— George. Lemuel, Frances, 
Benjamin. Polly and Elizabeth. George Freeman married a" Miss Eleanor Brum- 
mit, and moved" to North Carolina in 1810, where she died in 1830. In 1833, he 
moved to Ohio, and married Amelia IJorton, who died in 1833; he afterward moved 
to South Carolina, where he married Mary Emerson. His death occurred in War- 
ren County. Ind.. in 184'i; he was the parent of fourteen children — .James IJ* Lemuel 
L., William L., Benjamin B., Sanmel B., .John W.. Sarah M., Peter P.. George W., 
Melissa G. . Perry S., Thomas .J., Minerva G. and Allen C. Our subject, L. L. Free- 
man, was married October 1, 1839, in Ross Coimty, Ohio, to Elizabeth, daugliter of 
Isaac and Rebecca Rains, born in Ross County, December 0. 1810. In the autumn 
of 1835. Mr. Freeman removed to Warren County, Ind. He had born to him an 
infant son (deceased), William L.. Sarah E. (deceased), I^ydia M. (deceased), .John 
W., Rebecca .J. (deceased). Isaac N. (deceased). Abiam .1. (deceased), James P., 
Melissa J- (deceased). Mary E. (deceased) and Thomas J, (deceased). Mr. and Mrs. 
Freeman are members of the Christian Church. 

GEORGE FRY is a native of Baden, Germany, liorn February 3, 1831, and is 
one of the eight children of Nicholas and Christiann Fr_y, likewise natives of Ger- 
man}', where they lived and died. The parents of Nicholas had live sons— Jacol), 
John, Nicholas, Charlie and George. George Fry emigrated to America in Septem- 
ber. 18o3, landed at New York, and in October went to Bucks County. Pcnn., where 
he married, on the 3d of December of that j'ear, Margaret ICuhn. of German na- 
tivity, born April 11, 1830, daughter of William and Anna M. Kuhn. After his 
marriage Mr. F"ry emigrated to Rainsville, Ind., where he worked one year as a. stone- 
mason," and thence removed to Pine Township and engaged in farming; there he has 
since resided. Mr. and Mrs. Fry have been blessed witli ten children— Christian. 
Amanda (deceased), Mary. Rosettie, Annie, (?arrie, Riga, .hihn (deceased), Jacob and 

JAMES GRA.MES, Sr., is a native of Ireland, and was born in the year 1813. 
His parents were James and ^Margaret Grames, who were also natives of Ireland, 
where they lived until their deaths. The former was twice married, and the father 
of eight cuildren— William. Joseph, .John. King, James. Thomas, David and Mar- 
garet', our subject being the youngest born to the first wife. In 1833. our subject 
married, in Ireland, Miss Elizabeth Palmer, and inl8.")l emigrated to Butler County, 
Ohio, and five years later removed to Warren County, Ind., where he purchased 
land, and has si'nce remained. His family was composed of nine children— William 
(deceased). James, Thomas. Isabel (deceased), Eliza .1. (deceased), Margaret, Melissa 
(deceased). John and Miu-ia (deceased). 

JAMES GRAMES, Jr.. was born in County Tyrone, Ireland, November ',), 
1835, and is a son of James and Elizabeth Grames. now of Warren County, Ind. The 
father of James Grames, Sr.. was of Scotch descent, who married a Miss King, in Ire- 
land, and settled in Countv Tyrone; be was tlie father of eight children- William, 
Margaret, Joseph, John, I>avid, Thomas, King and James, father of our suljject. 
who married in Countv Tvrone, 1833, Elizalx-th Palmer. In 1851, they emigrated 
to Butler County, l)hio, and thence to Warren County, Ind., when they 
settled where they" now live. Their family consisted of William. James. Thomas, 
Isabel, Maria, I51iza J., Margery, John and Jlelissa. James, our sul)ject. h;is made 
his home in this countv. where he was married. March 19, 1863, to Mary, daughter 
of John W. and Marga'ret Brown, born November 10, 1813. In 1866, he moved to 
the farm on which he now resides, and wducli he had purchased the autumn previ- 
ous comnrisin"- 380 acres. :\Ir. and ilrs. Grames have had nine chddrcn— Melissa 
A. (deceased), Ada L., John W., Emma E.. Clark J., William R,, James F. (de- 
ceased). Bertha A. and ^Minnie M. ,, , , ^, _,,, 

WILLIAM GR.VY was born in Rockingham County, V a., .September 24, 1803. 
His father, John Grav, was a native of Burke County. N. V., and a son of William 
Gray a native of England, who, about liftcen years before tin.' Revolutionary war, 
emi'i-rated to America and settled in North Carolina. H ■ became a soldier in tliat 
•dorlous war and was killed in the surre'ider of Fiirgu<on, at King's Mountain. 
John Gray after the Revolution, moved to Rockingham County. \a., and married 
Mary Trumbo In 1802, he moved to Clark, and in 1815 to Lawrence County, Ind.. 
where he died in 1861. He was a soldier of the war of 1813, and the father of ten 


children— William, Weslej', Dorothy, Lydia, Jacob, Charles, Ephi-aim, James, 
Elizabeth and Hamilton. William Gray was married. November 15, 1821, in Law- 
rence County, Ind., to Miss Sarah Cobb, born in South Carolina June 9, 1803. In 
18;:i9, Mr. Gray moved to Vermillion County, III. and later to Warren County. Ind., 
where he has since remained. Mr. and Mrs. (4ray are the parents of nine children 
—Seymour, John, Mary (deceased), Ira (deceased), Esther, Elizabeth, Dorothy, 
C'harles W. (deceased) and Thomas (decea.sed). 

JOHN W. GRAY is a native of Clarke Count}', Ohio, born March 31, 1809, and 
one of the ten children of John and Mary Gray. In 1832, in Lawrence County, 
Ind., he was married to IMiss Eveline Garton, who sliortly after died, leaving one 
child— William H. (deceased). In 1830, he moved to Warren County, Ind., and set- 
tled in this towushi)), where he yet lives. His second marriage, in 1837, was to 
Mi,ss Mastha Rhode, daughter of "William and Sarah Rhode, by which union they 
had six children— William IL, John R., Semer B., Sarah J., Mary E. and Joel W.", 
four of whom ar^ living. Mrs. Graj' died January 3, 18.51, and Mr. Gra3-'s third 
marriage, August 10. 1852. was to Sarah J. Rliode. sister of his second wife. She 
was born in this county December 21, 1829. By the last marriage, there was an 
issue of one son, Charlie J. Mr. Gray is one of the pioneers of this county; he and 
wife are members of the JI. E. Church. 

MARIA HUFF (widow of Ricliard Hutfl. is a native of Franklin Coun- 
ty. Vt.. and was born May 11. 1S19. She is one of the sLx children of Isaac and 
Mercy Holden, also natives of Vermont, who settled in Franklin County at an 
early'time, where Mrs. Holden died in 1822. Mr. Holden re-married, removed to 
Indiana, and died in Vigo Countj- in 1845. leaving the following issue: Joshua, 
Sarah, .John, Lovina, Oren and ^laria. Mrs. Maria Huff removed with her father 
to Tippecanoe County, in this State, where she and Richard Huff were united in 
wedlock, August 27, 1840. Jlr. Huff was born in Harford County. Md.. Februarv 
22, 1815. In 1840). they removed to this county, and purchased tlie farm on which 
Mrs. Huff now resides. Jlr. Huff died February 20. 1807. The_v were the parents 
of tive children— Elizabeth, Walter. ]Mattie, Emma and Richard "O. 

MARY JONES (widow of John Jones), is a native of this county, and 
was born June 12, 1830. Her parents were Solomou and Elizabeth Pitser, who 
emigrated to this county in the spring of 1829, where both subseiiuently died. Mrs. 
Mary Jones Avas adopteil by one Isaac AY. Smitli. with whom she lived until her 
marriage with George Simmon, Seiitember 3, 1848. After his marriage. Mr. Sim- 
mon purchased a farm near Rainsville, and in 1854 removed thereto, where he died 
October 33, 1855. Afterward, in 1S57, Mrs. Simmon purchased the farm, making 
her present residence, and moved thereim. Subseiiuently, she was wedded to Mi\ 
John Jones, who died iu 1S71. Mrs. Jones is the mother of eisrht children — Roset- 
tie. Perry and William by ^Mr. Simmon, and Charles. Clara. Thomas. Milton, and 
an inf.ant daughter, which died unnamed, bv 3Ir. Jones. 

GEORGE H. KIGER was born April l(i, 1847. Hi-, parents were Jacob and 
JLiry A. Kiger. who were natives of Virginia and Ohio. res]iectivel_v. Thej- were 
married iu Oliio, and thence removed to Indiana and settled in this'countv, where 
they still remain. Their family was made up of twelve children— Huldah A' Mary 
J., i4eorge H.. John W.. Raymond A.. Charles AV., Harriet C. Henry B..* Francis 
Deborah E., Aaron and ALirlha A. George 11. Kiger was married in Texas County 
Mo., October 18, 1872. to Sarah A. JIarsee. This union was stren'^thened liy four 
children— Robert M., J:icobN., Charles W. anil Josiali J[r. andM"i-s. Ki"er"came 
to this county iu 1881. '"" 

ORLANDO KIGER was boin in Clinton Coiintv. Ohio. July (1 1833 bein'"' a 
son of Samuel and Susan (Nimerick) Kiger. Samuel Kiicr was a native of Vir"-ima' 
removed to Oliio. m:irried, and settled in Clinton Coimtv, where his wife""ilied'|uently lie removed to Parke County. Ind.. where he married a Mrs Wilson 
and remained until his death, in 1842. He was the father of nine children— Tacob 
N.. Elizabeth, Benjamin \V., Catherine, Christin;i X., ]Maria A.. William G Mary 
.1. .and Orlando, whose mother died when lie was four d:ivs old ' He w'as reared' by 
a brother until his fourteenth year, when he began to Icirn the tailorinn- business 
111 1S,)3. he removed lo O.vford. Ind.. where he worked as :i uiilor and married hi 
D..,v,nber. 1857 Miss Elizab.Mh .1. Slunv. He afterward .oriued a ,i;n"ne^hip wilS 
.1. Iv. VVile, 111 the lumber and saw mill business, near Pine Villa-e After one year 
he purchased Mr. Wile's iiUeresl. and continued the same nutilb^l!! when he inir- 
ehased a farm m Uenlon County, and engaged in fanning for 'several years 
w len he again purchased a saw mill iu lliis eounty and managed it until" 1870 
when lu^ purehased and lived on a farm in this township until ^879 when ho re' 
engaged in the lumber Irade until 1883. when he removed to his farm'of 240 acres 
JoiinM " '■'''■ ''■ '""' ""'■'' ^-''"'^'-'-"^ T.aura J., infant (deceased) Ind 


S. N. OSBURN, M. D., was born in Parke County, Ind., October 11, 1836, and 
is the son of Hiram and Mary (Grant) Osburn. natives respectively of Virginia and 
Kentucky, and born July 4, 18U3, and March 31, same year. They married in Ken- 
tucky, and thence moved to Parke County, Ind., where Mrs. Osburn died in 1838. 
Subsequently Hiram Osburn married Mrs. Haunah Thompson and moved to Boone 
County, where he died in 1868, the father of ten children— Margaret, Columbus W., 
Joseph N., Martha A., MaryE., Squire N., Sarah, David N,, Hiram M. and Na- 
poleon B. In the district schools of Boone County, 8. N, Osburn acquired a pre- 
paratory education, and then, from 18.58 to 1860 studied at the Thornfown Academy. 
In 1860, he married Minerva Hinton and'moved to Clinton County. In 1861, he en- 
tered Company G, Eleventh Indiana Volunteer Infantry, as a non-commissioned 
officer; was promoted to a Lieutenancy in Januar}', 1863, and to a Captaincy in Octo- 
ber of the same year. He served until January 20, 1866, in which year his wife died. 
In 1867, he entered the office of Dr. J. W. Strong, of Parkersburg, Ind., and studied 
medicine for two years; in the spring of 1869, he entered the Cincinnati College of 
Medicine, and gi-aduated in December, 187f>. He at once engaged in practice ^n 
Marshfield, this county; was married, November 11, 1872, to Isadore Briggs, and m 
1874 came to Rainsville. wliere he has met with flattering success. He is the father 
of four children — OUie J. and Scott C. by his tirst marriage, and David C. (deceased) 
and Fanny hy his second. 

LEWIS PvHODE was born in Wayne County, Ind., December 10, 1816. His 
grandfather and wife settled in South Carolina previous to the war of the lievola- 
tion, and about 1803 moved to Ohio, thence to this county, and settled in Warren 
Township, where he died in 1844. He was a soldier of the Revolution, and the 
father of six children — William, .Jonathan, Thomas, C-jIeb, Esther and Seymour. 
The father of Lewis, William Rhode, son of John anjTfrar}^ Rhode, was a native 
of South Carolina, married Sarah Lurray, moved to Warren County, Ohio, and, in 
1827, to Warren County, Ind., where he died. November, 1860. His wife survived 
him six years ; they had thirteen children — Mary, William, .John, Thomas, Lewis, 
Martha, Isaac, Joel, Seymour, Caleb, Sarah J., Jacob M. and an infant. Lewis was 
married in this county" December 80, 1841, to Miss Eliza J., daughter of Thomas 
and Sarah Clifton, born in Sussex County, Del., July 26, 1825. Her father was born 
in Delaware March 17, 1793, hpr mother June 25, 1805. They were married in/1834, 
and moved to Indiana, where thej' died — he, August 6, 1874; she, 8eptemb6i^6, 
1880. They had ten children— Eliza J., John, William G., Sarah, Charles W., 
Robert, Mary A., Thomas, Lewis and Caroline. Mr. Rhode has been in Warren 
County since 1827, and is one of the pioneers. He has been Township Clerk, 
.lustice of the Peace and Township Trustee. He is a Mason, also father of three 
sons — ,Iohn W., Thomas W. and Lewis N. 

JOHN W. RHODE is a native of Warren County, Ind., and was born Novem- 
ber 3, 1843. He is the eldest of the three children comprising the family of Lewis 
and Eliza J. Rhode, of this tawnship. He was married in this county, February 
13. 1867. to Miss Fannie, daughter of Clement G. and Nancy (Russel) Jones ; Mrs. 
Rhode is also a native of this county, born April 17, 1849. In 1877. Mr. Rhode 
purchased and .settled on the farm where he now lives. Mr. and Mrs. Rhode are 
the parents of two children— Nancy G. and Eliza C. Mr. Rhode is the possessor of 
six hundred acres of land. He is a mentber of the Masonic organization. 

L. N. ItHODE is a native of this county, and was born September 13, 1851. 
His parents are Lewis and Eliza J. Rhode, of Pine Township, Warren Co., Ind., 
and he is the youngest of their three sons. He remained with his parents untd his 
twenty-second year. December 11, 1873, in Benton County, Ind., he was married 
to Laura, daughter of John and Elizalieth Wattles, of that county, she having been 
born April 7, 1854. After his marriage, Mr. Rhode settled on the farm on which he 
now lives, having possession of 307 acres of excellent land, purchased by his father 
in the dawning days of the State. Mr. and Mrs. Rhode have no children. Mr. 
Rhode is an energetic young man and much respected. 

SEMER RHODE is a native of Wayne County, Ind., liorn April 38, 1835. His 
parents were William and Sarah Rhode, who moved to Warren County in the early 
time, and there resided until their decease. Semer remained at home until he was 
twenty-eight years of age, and was thereafter married to Miss Matilda M. Pcarce, 
after which he settled on a farm in Section 14, this township, which he had pre- 
viously purchased, and, in 1869, moved to his present property and location, com- 
prising 600 acres of very excellent land. Mr. and Mrs. Rhode have had four 
children born to them— Sarah M. (deceased), William A., Emily J. and Martha L. 
Mr. Rhode is a worthy man and an esteemed citizen. 

MARY E. 8IGLER (widow of Daniel W. Siglcr,) was born in Tippeca- 
noe County, Ind., February 4, 1834. Her parents were David and Mary Steeley, 
natives of Pennsylvania and Ohio. David Steeley was a son of Jacob Steeley, a 


native of Pennsylvania, where be married, and in 1808 removed to Ross County 
Ohio and died in 1H27. David Steeley was born near Pittsburgh 1 enn.. May H>, 
1790 About 1S27, he removed to Koss County, Ohio, where he married Mary 
Carothers, born in Kentucl^y May i). 17(16. In is:^3, he removed to Tippecanoe 
County, Ind., tbence to Benton County, and in isry) to this town-^hip^ where he 
died Auo-ust 9 IS.M). His wife died December 1. 18o3, leaving nine children— John, 
LazanisrElizaliclb. James, Em-riiie, Tabitha, Mary E., Isabel and Reuben. Mary 
E was united to Mr. Sigler in this township December 16, 18iy-'. Mr. big er was 
l)orn in Ross County, Ohio, December 35, bS2H, and was a son of George and Eliza- 
beth Si'^ler who in 1839, removed to this county. After marriage. Mr. and Mrs. 
Sigler moved on a farm in Prairie Township; thence, in 1808, to RainsviUe, where 
he'engaged in l)usiness for two vears; then purchased the farm on whicli he died. 
March 31 1882 leaving live children— Olive E . l)orn August 30, 18.3.j; "Walter S.. 
born June 37, IS.'.S; JIary E,, liorn September 18, 1861; Minnie «., born Deccmiber 
23, 1809, died' Septemljer 14, 1870; ami Bertha M., born June 34, 1870. Mr. Sigler 
was a Freemason, Odd Fellow, Knight of Honor, and had been Township Trustee 
several years. He was a man of noble nature, truly benevolent and highly 

WILLIAM SMITH is a native of Benton County. Ind., having been liorn Feb- 
ruary 13, 1839. His parents were William Smith, born in Ohio in 1810. and Han- 
nah Smith, of Benton Counly. At an early period in the history of this section, 
they emigrated to Benton (bounty, where Mrs. Smith died April 1.5, 1878. They had 
nine cliildren— Stephen. Janiis. William, Sarah, Oliver H., Philip il.. Leah. Cath- 
erine, and an infant, unnamed. Our subject was married in this county, J;inuar_y 
31, 1861, to Miss Malinda, daughter of Jacob and :Minerva Ilarbrider, of Benton 
County, Ind. The bride was a native of Hendricks County. Ind. Mr. Smith settled 
in Benton County after his marriage, where he remained seven years, and thence re- 
moved to liis present farm and home. Mr. and Mrs. Smith are the parents of seven 
children— Ella, iMetissa, Perry, Emma, Minerva, Harvey and Julia 11. 

MARY STEEIjEV (widow of John Steele}-), w-as born in Champaign 
County, Oliio, April 19. 1839, and is a daughter of "Basil and Rachel West. Basil 
Wi'st, Sr., removed from Kentucky, was an early settler of Champaign Countv. 
and father of seven children — Stocket, Jolin, Jeremiah. Demariea. !M;iry. Phebe and 
Basil, who was a native of Kentucky, where he was wedded In Lulian Xoe, who 
died in 1835, after wdiich, in 1837, he married Rachel Pond, and in 1831 removed 
to Warren County, Ind., whence, in 1860, they removed to Walla Walla, W. T. ; 
there Mrs. West died in 1864. In 1868. he returned to Warren County. Ind., and 
afterward removed to Auburn, C;d., wliere he died in 1^80. He was father to eleven 
children— Sarah A., Mary, Lucinda, John F.. James II.. Henrietta M., ilatilda M., 
Julia A., Emma J.. Seliiida .M. and Emily E. Mary, our subject, was married to 
Edward T. CUissel, September 28, 18.")!. anil in 185.") removed to Otoe County. Neb., 
where he died April 19, 1858. In June following, she and f;imily reUirned lo War- 
ren County, Ind.. wliere she married John Steeley. January 1. I860. In 1864. they 
purchased the farm on which she 'lives. Jlr." Steeley died February 11. 1883. 
Mrs. Steeley is motlier to seven children, three by Mr. Cassel— EmniaJ., Martha 
L. and Horace G. ; four by Mr. SteeU'y— Richard' II.. William W.. Rachel E. and 
Laura E. 

FKANCIS M. SUTTON was born in Miami County. Ohio. April 5. 1839, and is 
a son of David and Lucinda Sutton. David Sutton, father of our subject, w-as a son 
of Jonas Sutton, a native of Virginia, whose father, Joshua Sutton, settled and died 
in Virginia. Jiuuis Sutlon married, in Augusta Ciumly, Va.. Jliss Sarah Ott, and 
in 1818 removed lo JMiami County, Ohio, thence to Mo'ntgomerv County, Ind., and 
died ill 1854, leaving eight children — John. Eli/a. Margaret. Susan, Georue. William. 
Lucinda and David, The falher of Francis was born in Augusta Coiuity. Va., in 
1811, thence emigrated with bis falher to iMianii Countv, Ohio, married' Lucinda 
Willson, and, in 1S5(I removed to Montgomery County, hid., w-liere he died in 1867, 
his wife fcdiowing him in 1873, leaving nine 'clnldreu— John W.. Leiitia, James F.', 
Francis M,, Thomas W.. David P.. C.iilierine M.. :\l;irtha E. and Sarah A. Our sub- 
ject is a gradiialt' of Wesley Academy. Montgomery Countv. Ind.. and was for many 
years a iiroli'ssiimal teacher. In 18(i9. he began reading law , in WiUiauisport, Ind". 
with James Mct^abe. wdiich he coiUiuiied lluve years, and was admitted lo practice 
after that time. Mr. Sutlon was married, in jMonlgomery Counly. March 36. 1863. 
lo Liz/,i(^l\r, daughter o! .lohn and Elizabelh Sliankiin, born in Montgomery County 
March 30, 1849, They became parimls of two cildrcn— Lillie ^I. and Bessie L. Mr. 
Sutton is County Supeiinlendenl. and resides at Williamsport. 

LKVI \AN Kl".l';i) is .a naUve ol Warren Coiinlv. Ind.. ;ind was born Di\'em- 
ber 18, ISiii), His paiviits were Levi K,. and Amelia 'l! Van Heed, both natives of 
Pennsylvania, wliere tliey were married, alterward removiim to Mississippi whence 



they came to this county, where they died. They were the parents of twelve chil- 
dren—Austin (deceased), Mary E., Milton (deceased), Byron, Sarah C, Helena 
Minerva, John, Newton (deceased), two infants (deceased and unnamed) and Levi' 
the subject of this sketch. During his boyhood, he attended the district schools' 
and, after the decease of his parents, the high schools of La Fayette, the Stockweli 
Schools, and, finally, to Bloomington, 111., where his education was completed. He 
is now owner of 340 acres of land, and is unmarried. 

VILITTA WAKEMAN (widow of William F. Wakeman), is a native of 
Putnam County, IS". Y., and was born November 15, 1813. Her parents were John 
and Martha Stow, who, in 1817, removed to Clinton County, Ohio, and afterward to 
Delaware County, Ind., where they lived until called away by death, leaving a 
family of five children— Hiram, Sarah B., Benonia, Jane and Vilitta. Miss Vilitta 
Stow was united in wedlock to William F. Wakeman, December 10, 1837, in Clin- 
ton County, Ohio. The parents of Mr. Wakeman were Gideon and Deborah Wake- 
man; he was born in New York, August 6, 181U, and was one of their eight children, 
—William F., J. A., Jane, C. B., Sarah, Mary, Harriet and Harmond. In 1888, he 
removed to Warren County, Ind., where, lie died March 23, 1869, leaving the fol- 
lowing family— Marv E., Francis JI., Charles E., Harriet A., Hannah R. and 
William E. 


JOSHUA ANDEliSON was born August 16tb, 1813, in Bucks County, Penn., 
and is the eldest of eight children born to William and Keziah (Smith) Anderson. 
The family moved to Warren County, Ohio, in 1818. Joshua had only the ordinary 
country schooling, and worked for his father until nearly twenty years of age. He 
worked out awhile and then learned the cooper's trade, which he followed fourteen 
years. In 1833, he married Miss Harriet Crosley, by whom he had twelve children, 
four of whom are now living — Mary Jane High, James, Keziah Gilger, and Caroline 
Palmer. He lost his first wife in 1863, and in 1867 was united to Mrs. Eunice Pros- 
ser. One child has blessed this union, Elmer E. In 1847, he discontinued his trade, 
and rented a farm. He moved to Warren County, Ind., in 1853, and the following 
spring settled in Prairie Township on his present farm. He first bought 136 acres, 
and has added until he now owns 315 acres, 160 being prairie and the remainder 
woodland. During the war, he acted as enrolling officer, reporting at La Fayette. 
His son James ser%'ed three years in the Eighty-sixth Indiana Volunteers. He was 
at Stone River all through the Atlanta campaign, and at Nashville. Mr. Ander- 
son was Township Trustee for several years, being the first one elected. He also 
acted as Land Appraiser for Prairie and Pine Townships for three terms. He has 
been a member of the F. & A. M. for twenty years, and joined the Odd Fellows in 
1848, attending regularly until about five )'ears ago. He has been liberal and active 
in promoting benevolent enterprises. 

WILLIAM T. EVANS was born January 1, 1843, in Ross Count.y, Ohio, and 
is a son of 0. P. C. and Eliza J. Evans. In 1849, they settled inTippecanoe Count}',; 
Ind, William received a good education, having attended the high school for sev- 
eral years, besides two years at Asbuiy University. He remained on the farm un-| 
til thirty-one years old, overseeing Imsiness iu the absence of liis father, who waa 
often away, engaged in the cattle trade. January 4th, 1873, he was married to Miss 
Mary Ann Meharfy, daughter of Hugh and Margaret M. Meharry. One child, Arthur 
Hanson, has blessed this union. Some time after his marriage, he settled on his 
present farm of 330 acres, which is in excellent condition, the grounds about the 
house showing that he is a man of taste as well as l)usiness. He devoted some 
attention to raising fine hogs. In addition to his home farm, he owns 924 acres, 
making 1344 acres in all, over 1300 being under cultivation. A part of it is rented, 
the remainder under his own charge. His wife was an excellent woman, much es- 
teemed by her neighbors, but for several years she was in feeble health and died in 
1880. Mr. Evans is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and takes an ac- 
tive part in Sabbath school and other church work. 

N. M. GEHRIS was born in Montgomery County, Penn., iu 1832, and is a son 
of Daniel and Julia Gehris, who were of Russian and English descent respectively. 
N. M. Gehris, when three years old, removed with his parents to Berks County, 
Penn. He became a blacksmith, and in 1850 came to Warren County, Ind., in com- 
pany with John V. High, and one other man. He opened a shop on Pine Creek, 
where he remained fifteen months, then went to Rainsville, and stayed there about 
.fifteen months. He then moved on the prairie, half a mile west of his present home 


in Prairie Township. He TN'orked at his trade, and also cultivated ^ small farm for 
seven years. He then bought 160 acres of land, being part of the 330 acres which 
he now owns. A part of the time he rented and cultivated several hundred acre 
in connection with his own farm; but of late years has attended principally to his 
own land. He has raised and traded stock extensively^ Mr. Ge^hris was married m 
1853, to Miss Anna Rockenfield, by whom he had six children-Sarah tllen, Henri- 
etta, Rosanna, Susan, Nathan R. and Elisha, four of whom are now hying. Mrs. 
Gehris died in March, 1873, and in 1874 he married Miss Lvdia E. Hu/^t, by whom 
he had one child-Rebecca May. In 1876, his second wife died, and March 29, 18.9, 
he married bis present wife, who was a Miss .Johnson. By this marriage, there has 
been one child-Charles .Johnson. For thirty years, Mr. Gebris has been a Justice 
of the Peace, and has always been active in all church and school movements. He 
is a Democrat, but reserves a discretion in voting. t ^ -o u no 

ARTHUR C GOOIjWINE was born in Warren County. Ind.. February 3d, 
1839 and is a son of Harrison and Isabel Goodwine. "When four years old, he went 
to live with his grandfather. He herded cattle for five summers, the first year with 
his father, the second with his grandfather, and the remaining three by himself. 
His grandfather died when Artliur was thirteen years old. He returned to his 
father, and remained there until seventeen. He then came upon the place where 
he now lives, in Prairie Township. He put up a small and herded and traded 
cattle for six years, excepting the year 1861, during which he kept a store in Jordan 
Township. March 4, 18.58, he married Elizabeth Briggs. by whom he had three 
cliildren— Capitola. Flora and Laura. His first wife died in 1873. and June 16, 1879. 
he married Elizabeth Lerch. by whom he has two children. After quitting the cat- 
tle business, he invested his means in a drv goods, grocery and variety store in West 
Lebanon, and in four years he lost $1.5.000. He came back to his present place; 
farmed some time, and then went to Benton County, and engaged in herding and 
farming for two years. With his father he again entered mercantile pursuits, in 
Ambia, for four years, but without success. In 1880. he returned to his old home. 
and says he is trying to get a little ahead by the old method of stock farming. He 
is a member of the United Brethren Church, and a Republican. 

.JAMES HATTON was born in Butler County, Ohio, in 1822. and is a son of 
James and Rebecca Hatton. When James was two years old, his parents moved to 
Parke County, Ind.. and in 1826 to Fountain County" His father entered land, part 
prairie, and part timber, and on this land James was reared, and participated in the 
hardships of pioneer life. He relates that while following his father in a hunt for a 
strayed horse, he came suddenly upon a grey wolf, and not desiring that sort of 
company, he made a "right about face." and started on a "double titiick" toward 
home. He attended the" old log schoolhouse of those days, and once narrowly es- 
caped a whipping, having found a whisky bottle belonging to his teacher. He 
helped to supply the family with meat, killing deer, turkey and other game. He 
worked for his fatlier until twenty-one years old. and mostly on the home farm un- 
til he was thirty. In 1S.52, he went to "California, and engaged in mining, but was 
not very successful. In 1856, he married Miss Isabel Steely, liy whom he has six 
children — Louisa F., James AV., Elmer R.. Jlclissa B., Bert E. aiid Harvey R. Mr. 
Hatton's present farm in Prairie Township consists of 120 acres, which, by hard 
work, he has got into good cultivation. He has good outbuildings. He is in com- 
fortalile circumstances, and has accumulated most of his property since the war. 
ThdUgh not a regular member, lie contributes liliernlly to the supjiort of the church. 
He was Township Trustee nliout seven years, and has been for man)- years engaged 
in settling estates and collecting notes. Politicallv. Mr, Hatton is a Republican. 

ISAAC I>. HIGH was liorn in Berks County. Penn., Mari-h 9, 1845. and is a 
son of Jolm V. R. and Sarah A. (Hotlensteiu'i High. The family came to Warren 
County, Ind., in 1852, where his father had entered land some years before. They 
came from PiUsburgh to Williiimsport by steamlioat. Isaac received a limited edli- 
cation, and workeil I'm- his fatlier until seveiUecn years old. He also worked at 
brick-making, and as a cigar-maker. In May, 1862. lie enlisted in the Fifly-tifth In- 
diana VolniUeei-s. lor three months' service." ^lost of the time, he was on" detached 
duty, but was in llie battles of RogersviUe, and Richmond, Ky. His father died in 
1861, and on Isaac's relurn home he found matters in such a condition that. being the 
eldesi child, he thought it liest to remain on the farm, and lielp his mother" In 
1876. he visited the Centennial. In lsi80, he was married to "Miss Margaret M. Hind- 
man, who has borne liini two cliildren. one now living — John lliiidinan. Ue is a 
memlier of the G. A. R., and, in iiolitics, belongs to the National parly. His farm 
of KiO acres is in good e(uulition. He also owns iwentv acres of tiniber on Pine 
Creek, lie feeds his grain to his stock. 

,IGHN B. LACEY was biu-n Jlay 1, 1833, in Stark County. Ohio, and is a son 
of Thomas and Nancy McGaughy Laeey. He obtained his education at the com- 


mon schools, and worked on the farm for his father until he was of age In 1841 
the family came to Steuben County, Ind., and, in 1855, to Warren County and 
worked by the month. March 16, 1856, he married Miss Martha J. Nixon, and'their 
union was blessed with ten children— Sarah E. (deceased), Thomas M., James V 
Nancy Jane, Lewis K, Mary M., Bertha R., John C, Nathan M. and Edith b' 
After his marriage, he rented land until 1861, when he went back to Steuben County 
and bought twenty acres. In October, 1862, he enlisted in the Twenty-ninth Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry, and served two years and eight months. He was on post duty 
at Chattanooga until May 1, 1865, when the regiment went to Dalton, Ga He was 
promoted to First Sergeant. He left the regiment on account of disability, and was 
discharged at Indianapolis .July 20, 1865. He went back to his farm in Steuben 
County, which had been rented out during his absence. He bought twenty acres 
adjoining his first purchase, and remained there until 1872, wheii he sold out and 
removed to Warren County. He bought eightv acres in Prairie Township, which 
he sold in 1878, and went West, but not being pleased with the prospect, he returned 
to Warren County and bought 100 acres— his present home. His farm is 
all under cultivation, is well fenced, and has a good orchard. He is a member of 
the Grand Aj-my of the Republic, and in politics a Greenbacker, though not a strict 
party man. He was Constable in Prairie Township for three years. Mr. Lacey is 
a great reader of books and papers, and is active in all public improvements. 

MONTGOMERY H. MYERS was born in Hamilton County, Ohio, January 10, 
1837, and is a son of William A. and Ann Myers. William Myers was engaged in 
the manufacture of buttons, and during the last year; of their stay in Ohio, Mont- 

f ornery assisted him. When our subject was in his tenth year, the family moved to 
la Fayette, Ind., where his father embarked in boat building. He attended school 
during his first year in La Fayette, and the following year worked in a paper mill. 
In 1849, they settled on a farm in Pine Township, Warren County. In Mont- 
gomery's twentieth year his father died, leaving him in care of the family. In 
1859, he married Miss Ellen McDade, and eleven children have blessed their union ; 
Eva Alice, George S., Flora B., Salinda A., Mary O., William M.. Martha A., Perry 
H., Howard A., Emma E. and Walter B. For one year after marriiige, he lived 
south of Oxford, Benton County, then for four years lived on the McConnel farm 
in the same county. In 1863, his young brother having enlisted, he went back to 
the old home farm, where his mother and sister were living alone, and remained 
there four years- He then came to his present home in Prairie Township, where he 
had previously bought 160 acres of land. About ninety acres were fit for cultiva- 
tion, the remainder being slough. He has ditched the wetland, and the whole farm 
is now in good condition. In 1876, Mr. Myers lost his wife, and his daughters have 
since kept house for him. He was elected Justice of the Peace in 1878, and re- 
elected in 1882. He is a member of the Christian Church, and active in all good 

SAMUEL SMITH was born in Clinton County, Ohio, in April, 1846, and is a 
son of Henry and Sarah Smith. When Samuel was live years old, his father moved 
to Warren County, Ind., and settled at Walnut Grove, in what is now Prairie 
Township. Samuel worked on the farm and attended the public schools. After 
teaching a term or so, he, in 1869, went to Oberlin, Ohio, and spent nine months at 
the college. With a few exceptions, he has taught school every winter since. For 
some years he served as Deputy Clerk of Warren County. From 1878 to 1882, he 
was County Surveyor. At present Mr. Smith devotes himself to farming in sum- 
mer, and teaching in winter. His farm of 120 acrts is part of a large tract of land 
entered by his grandfather, Thomas Whinery. It is under good cultivation, and 
has a stable, but no other buildings. Mr. Smith is a Republican. He studies as 
much as a man engaged in hard pliysical work can do, and manages to keep abreast 
of the times. He still enjoys single life, never having found a partner to share his 
joys and sorrows. 




"Perchance the liviug still may look 
Into the pages of this book, 
And see the days of long ago 
Floating and fleeting to and fro, 
As in the well-remembered brook 
They saw the inverted landscape gleam, 
And their own faces like a dream 
Look upon them frorii below." — Longfellow. 



ri)ENTON COUNTY consists of a broad expanse of gent!}- uudulatiiig 
J— ^ prairie, unbroken, except by a few groves, the largest of which are but a 
few miles in extent. It is situated in the eastern part of what is commonly 
denominated the Grand Prairie, which extends far to the westward, and 
embraces a large portion of tiie States of Indiana and Illinois. Many parts 
were originally ver)- wet, but a system of drainage has been adopted, which 
will ultimately result in bringing nearly all the surface into cultivation. 
Pine Creek is the only stream vvortliy of mention. It runs southerly, and 
empties its waters into the Wabash River. The northern portion of the 
county is watered b}' tributaries of the Iroij[uois River. The. county is ex- 
cellently adapted to grazing, and some of the finest droves of cattle produced 
in the West are annually shipped from tliis county to the Eastern markets. 
About the year 1875, or perhaps a little earlier, tile-draining was begun in 
the county, and it was found to enhance the productiveness of the soil to 
such an extent as to more than meet the expactations of the most sanguine 
advocates of this system of drainage. Portions of the county, and especially 
the southwestern portion, are still quite wet. There probably is not, how- 
ever, an acre of ground in the county that is so wet as to be unfit for culti- 
vation after it shall liave been drained as well as circumstances will admit 
of. Of the groves that have been alluded to, the principal ones are White 



Oak, Parish, Hickory, Sumner's (formerlj- Sugar), Denton's and McConnell's. 
Mt. Gilboa and Mt. Nebo are probably the highest points of land in the 
county, the former, which is situated in the township of the same name, be- 
ing about eighty feet higher than the surrounding prairie. A splendid view 
of the surrounding country, for a distance of fifteen miles, can be had from 
its summit. 


Throughout the greater portion of the county, the soil is a rich black 
loam ; although there are portions of the county in which the soil ie a light 
clay, well adapted to the raising of wheat. The best wheat land to be found 
in the county is in the vicinity of Oxford, this being the only portion of the 
county in which wheat is cultivated to any considerable extent. For corn 
and stock raising, there is not, probably, a better county in the State than 


As previously observed, the surface of the county is very large!}' com- 
posed of prairie. There are. however, a few groves skirting the streams, 
the largest of which probably is White Oak (xrove, which is situated prin- 
cipally in Oak (Irove Township, and in which, as may readily be inferred 
from the name, white oak timber largely predominates over other kinds. 
In other groves, other kinds of timber predominate, as may bo readily in- 
ferred from the names (Hickory Grove and Sugar Grove, for instance) ap- 
plied to them. 


The first settlements within the limits of the present couuty of Beuton were 
made several years before the county was created. Tliomas Timmons, who, 
with liis family, settled on Big Pine Creek, in the year ISol, on or near the 
farm now owned by his son Benjamin A. Timmons, is eommonl\- supposed 
to be the first white settler within the present limits of Benton Oountv. 
There are. however, good reasons for doubting this. Thomas Lewis settled 
in or near White Oak Grove, on or near the farm now owned by R. .M. 
Atkinson, in the fall of 1832. He purchased the farm on whicli he settled 
of John Fields ; and Isaac W. Lewis, a son of Tliomas Lewis aforesaid, who. 
is still resi<ling at or near Oxford, says that there were trees on the farm on 
which his lather settled, which had evidently lieen deadened five or six years 
before his father bought it. This he says was evident from the fact that the 
bark had fallen off, and the trunks of the trees had become verv much 
blanched by exposure to the weather. About the same time that Thomas 
l;ewis settled in the county, the I'ollowing-uamod persons came: Tliomas 
Nolin, iMatlhew Terwilliger, Levi Thornton, Henry Jennings, Philip Williams 
and others, and settled in the timber along Big Pine Creek. Also, there 
were two or three families, among whom were James O. Denton and William 
Denton, settled at Denton's Grove about 18:?2, although the exact date can- 
not be ascertained. From this time until ISa.'i. a few families settled in the 
same locality, but t.lie increase was very slow. In 18a5, Basil Justus with 


his family, moved to White Oak Grove, and erected a log-cabin on or near 
what is now known as the Justus farm, at that time one of the most 
advanced posts in the county. On this farm Mr. Justus or some of his 
family have ever since resided until within the last few j-ears. It is now 
occupied bj' Joseph Atkuison. At the time of his first settlement there, 
there were only two or three families in the grove. During the fall of the 
same year, John W. Robertson and his famih' moved to Parish G-rove, his 
sons, Henry and Samuel, having come the previous spring and raised a crop. 
There were living in Parish Grove at that time, Enoch Evans, John Foster 
and William Douglas, who had settled there a short time before. Robert 
Alexander came to the grove a short time thereafter, and lived for many 
years on the farm now owned by Parnham Boswell. At about the same time, 
there were living at Sugar Grove, Hamaniah Huett and familj", and a family 
by the name of Peck. About the same time, there were a few families set- 
tled on the banks of Mud Pine Creek, in the southern portion of the county, 
among which were David Lane, Thomas Martin, Perigan Garland, William 
Smith and James Smith and families, with perhaps a few others. 

In the spring of 183J:, Judge David McCoauell and his family moved to 
White Oak Grove, and erected a small log house on the very spot where he 
DOW resides, and has resided on the farm he first settled on from that date 
down to the present time. There were at that time five or six families on 
the east side of Big Pine Creek, and about four families in the south part 
of White Oak Grove. Those on the east side of Big Pine were Philip Will- 
iams, Thomas Nolin, Aaron Pinch, James Holmes, James Thornton, John 
Emerson. Those in the south part of White Oak Grove were William Lewis, 
Basil Justus and Thomas Lewis. Philip Williams was then living on what 
is known as the old Williams farm. Milton Jennings lived on the farm now 
owned by George H. Jennings, and Thomas Nolin was living on the farm on 
which his son, George W. Nolin, now resides. About the same time, there 
were a few families settled in what is now known as McConuell's Grove, 
about four miles southwest of White Oak Grove, consisting of Samuel Mc- 
Connell and brother, and one or two others. In 1840, the first house in 
Benton County, on the road from La Payette to Oxford, was the house of 
Peter Jennings, where P. P. Griffin now lives ; thence four miles west to 
houses of Justus and McConnell, in White Oak Grove ; thence west, no 
house for ten miles, until you reached Parish Grove; then none for 
eight miles further to Sugar Grove ; and then sixteen miles to Bun- 
kum, 111. ; and not one house north of White Oak Grove to the Iroquois 
River, about twenty-five miles, this entire grand and now beautiful prairie 
being wholly wild and uninhabited. For although a few families began to 
now move into the county, they still kept in the timber portion, or close 
thereto, as the grand prairie was still considered a barren, bleak and dreary 
waste, and was known and spoken of as " The Lost Land," its principal pro- 
ductions being prairie wolves, sand-hill cranes and green-head flies. It has 
been farmed since, however, and its virgin soil has been yielding most valu- 


able produce. Up to this time, and for a few years thereafter, the nearest 
market for Benton Count}' was the village of Chicago, and the Benton 
County farmers would once a year load up their grain and produce in a lum- 
ber wagon, and, putting in two weeks' provisions, with au ox-team would 
start to market to sell their surplus produce, and lay in their necessar}' gro- 
ceries for the coming veari /ind, after swimming rivers, wading sloughs and 
sleeping on the cold ground every night, would finally succeed in making 
the entire round trip inside of fifteen da3's. About the year 1845, a few 
settlers began to move into different portions of the count}-, and gradually 
to encroach on the confines of the hitherto unsettled prairie. On Mud Pine, 
about first were Isaiah H. Perigo and Joshua Howell, who settled on the 
prairie just north of what was then known as the Smith settlement, followed 
. soon after by William Smalley.the McTlvains, .Jacob Cassell, David Ogburn, 
'' Jesse Lutz, Joseph Pierce, John G-age, John Hopper. John C. Anderson, 
the McDaniells, William Hubbard, the Vanovers and others. James S. 
Crawford settled near Hickory Grove, in what is now Hickory Grove Town- 
ship, in 1846, and was pi;obably the first settler in that township. He was 
followed soon afterward by Harvey H. Crawford. John French and Enos 
Rush. About the "same time the following-named persons settled in and 
near White Oak Grove : William Oiler, James 3IcKinsey, L. B. Wattles, 
Ezekiel Davis, Francis Bo}nton, the Littlers, Isaac Runner, the Wakemans, 
a man named Bureh, Robert and Hartley T. Howard, Dr. Theophilus Stem- 
bel, Thomas Atkinson, William Cochran and others. On Big Pine Creek, 
George H. Finch, James Thomas, Isaiah H. Young. William Young, James 
Emerson and many others commenced breaking prairie for their future 
homes, all, however, up to this time clinging as closely to timber and groves 
as possible. In 1849, Parnham Boswell came to Parish Grove, buyinii the 
farm of Robert Alexander, while Ed Sumner, a little more bold, pushed 
across the prairie eight miles further, to Sugar <lrove. settling on lands pre- 
viously bought. x\.t Xorth Hickory Grove. Samuel Finney had a little log 
cabin, and lierded his cattle close aronnd him. Xear Mount Gilboa, John 
Southard, Jacob Lucas, a man named Jones and others, located at an earlv 
date, probably some time in the forties. Among the first who located far 
out on the prairie, and far away from timber, about this time, were William 
Wisher, on the (arm on which he now resides ; Daniel Birdsall close by, on 
what is known as the Anstill farm ; and a small colony of EnoUsh people 
wlio had just come to this country, o{- which .Mr. F. l>.(.h-eenwood was the 
van-courier, lie having pre-empteci some land, a part of which is known as 
the Carlisle farm, on which he erected a lougli hut on the banks of Mud 
Pine Creek, without d,iors or window.., s,Mne time l>efo,v he was joined by 
his own funily, or any other member ol' llie lu a short time, he was 
joined by John Lalhrop, Matthew Armstrong, Joseph Bromley John Camp- 
Ion, James Jurrett, William and George noun, who settled on the 
land pre-em|,ted by F. 1'. (ovcnwood, and made some improvements. AAer 
a few years of hard toil, great inc.Mivenieuee, many hardships and privn- 


tions, and being unable to protect themselves from the bleak prairie winds, 
the colonj' was abandoned, all except Mr. Greenwood leaving the county. 
Mr. Greenwood moved some four miles further south, nearer the timber, and 
settled on the farm on which he now resides, and is the onl}- one of the col- ' 
ony now living in the county. Thomas Gornall and James Haworth, both 
Englishmen, but not belonging to the colony, came into the prairie about the 
same time, both of whom now own beautiful farms. From this time for- 
ward, families began moving into different portions of the county, as a 
market had opened up at La Faj'ette, which at that time was considered 
quite handy, as the round trip could be made during one-half of the year in 
two full days, allowing no time to stop for meals. 

Joseph Dehart settled in Pine Township in 1SJ:9, and there' were at that 
time the following persons in that township; John Sheetz, Henry Youtz, 
James Emerson, Robert Flawkins, Benjamin Hawkins (builder of the first 
house ever built in the township), Joshua Timmons, Amos White, Thomas 
Parker, the Widow Terwilliger and probably others. The time of their set- 
tling in that part of the county is not known any more deSnitelj' than that 
it was before 1849. Among the early settler.9 in the vicinity of Oxford were 
James N. Holton, Isaac Templeton, John Burns, John Campbell and many 
others. On Mud Pine. John Roberts, J. D. Roberts, H. W. Wilkinson, Will- 
iam Wilkinson, Ford, Stanley, Jarvis and others. On the prairie between 
the two places, John E. Morgan, J. F. Mills, Charles Aaron, John Wattles, 
J. N. Kiger and others. On Big Pine and eastern part of the county, Evan 
Stephenson, J. W. Swan, Benjamin Hawkins, William Hawkins, W. J. Tem- 
pleton, Thomas Maddux, the Deliarts, Haighs. Browns and others. 

There began to be some excitement about this time over the prospect of 
a railroad being built along the northern boundary line of the county, and 
in anticipation thereof, several settlers came into the northern portion of 
the county and commenced to improve farms, among whom were John 
Fleming, Sr., and family, A. D. Packard, E. C. Gould, Anthony Dehner and 
many others. After the completion of the railroad, the northern portion of 
the county improved rapidly, and settled up much faster than any other por- 
tion of the county, soon rivaling some of the early settled portions, and 
leaving the central portion still behind in improvements. The population of 
the county at this time was about 2,450. The following, found among the 
files of the Auditor's otlice, probably sh^ws who were liable to work the 
road in Pine Township in 1842: 

'■ July 2, 1842. List of persons who have performed labor on the public 
roads in Pine Township, District No. 1, for the 1842, with tiie number of 
days each has' performed : James Thomas, eleven ; James Emerson, eleven ; 
Thoma>j Spriggs, eleven ; Jolin Anderson. — ; William R. Jonson, eleven ; 
Chaiiei Tim. nous, eleven; Rj.ij.unin Timmons, eleven; Thomas Gritfln, 
eleven ; James Griffin, eleven ; James Parker, eleven ; Hensou Owens, 
eleven ; Robert Hawkins, eleven : -Vllen Gilvan, eleven ; Albert Gilvan, 
eleven ; Amos White, eleven ; John White, eleven ; Jackson Gilvan, eleven ; 


Joseph Heftner, eleven ; Elisha Freel, eleven ; John Sheetz, eleven ; Jllijah 
Denton, eleven ; James Denton, eleven ; Elias Smith, eleven." 

The foregoing document is not signed at all, nor even marked " filed." 
As no similar papers appear among the files, it is not probable that this one 
was filed in compliance with any statutory requirement. It was probably 
filed by some Road Supervisor, or Township Trustee, who conceived it to be 
his duty to file such a list somewhere. Whatever the fact maj' be, how- 
ever, as to whether the filing was required by law, or was a work of super- 
erogation, it probably is genuine, nevertheless, and is quite an interesting pa- 
per, as it not only shows who were residing in Pine Township at that time, 
but it shows the further interesting fact that thej' could be and were re- 
quired to work as many as eleven days on the roads in those days. What 
would we, of the present day, who grumble at working two days, say to this ? 
Each of the three townships, Pine, Oak Grove and Parish G-rove, constituted 
a single road district at that time, there being but three districts in the 


During the first ten years after the count3- was created, from 1840 to 1850, 
there were fifty-four couples married in thts count}', as follows : Amos 
White, Sr., and Mary Earheart. August 2, 1840 ; Jonathan Baugh 
and Ruth Ann Nolan, October 1, 1840 ; Marmaduke Jennings and 
Elizabeth Robertson, October 1, 1840 ; Samuel Robertson and Sabina 
Alexander, February 25, 1841 ; Charles Robertson and Eliza Ann Mitchell, 
February 25, 1841 ; John Hilton and Margaret Garland, June 20, 1841 ; 
James E. Robertson and Jane Alexander, February 1, 1842 ; Benjamin 
Franlin Coffenberry and Bsthsheba Oiler, January 31, 1S42 ; Thomas Lewis 
and Elizabeth McConnell, March 21, 1S42 ; William R. Johnson and Marga- 
ret Pinch, June 2, 1842 ; James T. Parker and Raehael N. Justus, August 
25, 1842 ; Eli Mendenhall and Sarah Williams, October S, 1842 : Archibald 
Morrison and Lawson Groom, March 21, 1843 ; Henry Van Horn and 
Louisa Rose, December 14, 1843 ; John Myers and Sarah Noles, September 
5, 1844 ; John Whittaker and Sarah Smith, September 15, 1S44 ; Joseph 
Thompson and Elizabeth McConnell, February 26. 1845 ; Abraham Metsker 
and Elizabeth Odell, August 27. 184.') ; James Heury TerwiUiger and Mary 
Griffin, September 19, 1845 ; John Kelly and Sarah Ann Wood. September 
29,1845, William Wray and Saiali Jane Carson, — , 1845 ; Cyrus Stanley 
and Amanda Beard. Feln-uary 5, 184(3 ; Thomas Geofrev and Lucinda 
McCnrtain, April 2, ISUi , William B. xMcConnell and Frances Jane Howard, 
April 7, 1810 ; Joliu .MoOide and Esther Martin, April 16, 1846 ; Thomas 
Carter and Martha Jolly, Juno 27, 1846 ; Elijah Bunnell and Martha Rob- 
ertson, August 27^ 1816 ; Addison Williams and Catharine Martin, Septem- 
ber 10, 184(i ; Samuel Mcllvain and Margaret Lane MeCoiuiell. Novem- 
ber 5, 1846 ; James Wylio and Mary Uaxis, Mav 27, 1847 ; John A. Finuey 
and Amanda D. I;an.., July 1, 1817 ; George Sharabaugh and Louisa Shoe- 
maker, January 6,1848; Ciuirles Wattles and Leah Littler, February 6 

($rcc^ '--^^^ o-*^^^ 



1848 ; John Brown and Sarah Wilson, March 16, 1848 ; Zebulon M. Wray 
and Mary Ann Earhart, March 26, 1848 ; Rinaldo Sutton and Vivena Cray- 
ton, February 10, 1848 ; James A. McConnell and Sarah McIIvaui, March 
2, 1848 ; John Gray and Hannah Lewis, Apri 20, 1848 ; Hugh McConnell 
and Margaret M. Johnston, April 20, 1848 ; John L, McConnell and Eliza- 
beth B. Johnston, August 3, 1848 ; William Wilkinson and Nancy D. John- 
ston, August 10, 1848 ; John M. Cochran and Mary Magdalen Johnston, 
September 24, 1848; Moses Wilson and Armintha Martin, August 17, 1848 ; 
Isaac Templeton and Maria Jennings, January 2, 1849 ; George W. Free- 
man and Abigail Mcllvain, February 22, 1819 ; Thomas Smith and Marga- 
ret Martin, March 8, 1849 ; Henry C. Morgan and Mary Elizabeth Liptrap, 
April 5, 1849 ; William Courtney and Xancy Ann Robertson, October 3, 
1849; Enoch Fenton and Julia Ann Crawford, October 10.1849; John 
Hawkins and Margaret Rebecca Sheetz, November 1, 1849 ; Elijah Denton 
and Mary Ann Miller, December 6, 1849 ; Elbert A. Scovill and Mary Ann 
Thomas, May 12, 1850 ; Isaac W. Lewis and Lucy McConnell, May 30 
1850 ; Joseph M. Ferguson and Mary Jane McConnell, June 2, 1850. 

It will readily be seen, by an inspection of the foregoing, that the 3'ear 
1848 witnessed the culmination of the matrimonial fever for the period 
of time mentioned, the number of ■' victims " during that memorable 
year reaching the then unprecedented number of twelve couples, or twenty- 
four persons. As the year 1848 was a leap-year, many might hastily 
conclude that in this fact lay the explanation of this unusual activity- 
in the matrimonial market. Such will readily discover, however, by ap- 
plying the infallible mathematical test, that the year 1844 was also a leap- 
year, and as there were but two matrimonial knots tied in the county 
during that year (as low a number as was reached in any year durin» 
the period), the}- will discover that their theory is wholly untenable. No 
solution of the matter will be here attempted, but the subject will be 
given over to those who have time and inclination for such pastime. It 
will further be seen that of those fifty-four marriages, three occurred in 1840 
(afractional year), three in 1841. six in 1842, two iu 1843, two in 1844, five 
in 1845, eight in 1846, two in 1847, twelve in 1848, eight in 1849 and 
three in 1 850, which latter was also fractional, there being but sufficient 
of it embraced to make out the period of ten years from August 2, 1840. 
As tending to show the preferences which people have for one month over 
another, or for certain months over certain others, for the consummation of 
this great event, which is the bloom or blight of the happiness of all who enter 
the state matrimonial, it may be interesting to note that three of those matri- 
monial splices were made in the month of January, eight in February, six in 
March, six in April, three in May, five in June, one in July, seven in August 
six in September, five in October, two in November and two in December. It, 
will thus be seen that of all the twelve mouths in the yearj February, though 
the shortest of them all, is the most popular month for organizing new fam- 
ilies, and that July, though as long as the longest, is the most unpopalar 




one for that purpose. The reason why this is so, if it really be neces- 
sary that any should be given, probably consists in the fact that whilst peo- 
ple have less time in February than in July ffrom two to three days less) 
they have more leisure. There may be other reasons that contribute more 
or less to the unpopularity of July as a month for marrying, but this is 
probably the principal one. 



William Brown June 19, 1833. 

Bassett Timmons October 23, 1832. 

Thomas Timmons October 23, 1832. 

Matthew Terwilliger November 23, 1832. 

Parker Dresser September 9, 1852. 

David McConnell February 20, 1834. 

Basil Justus February 26, 1834. 

Lewis Williams December 31, 1832. 

Henry Jenninejs 'October 23, 1832 

Philip Williams , March 7, 183.5. 

Thomas Johnston June 26, 1846. 

Thomas Johnston April 29, 1846. 

Amos White October 12, 1835. 

Robert M. Atkinson February 16, 1848. 

Thomas Atkinson March 11, 1851. 

Henry Robertson November 8, 1852. 

John F. Boswell June 8,1849, 

James T. Parker IMarch 2. 1844. 

Parnham Boswell November 8, 18.50. 

Isaac Templeton January 25, 1851. 

Thomas Hemphill. .^ 'JanuarV2, 1833. 

William E. Surface June 16, 1849 . 

John 8tephenson"r. JIareh 11, 1852. 

Charles T. Harris November 3, 1846. 

Edward C. Snmner November- 13, 1849. 

Alexander K. Nutt June 29. 1849. 

Robert Alexander June 24. 1836. 

John A. Lewis April 11. 1849. 






















































































































The foregoing land purchases were not from the United States Govern- 
ment direct, but of lands donated by the General Government to the State, 
and commonly known as canal land and swamp land. The early entries of 
Government lands cannot be here given, for the reason that the tract book 
showing those entries could not be louud in the office in which it properly 
belongs, owing to some confusion having arisen with the records and files at 
the time when they were removed from the old county scat at Oxford to the 
new county seat at Fowler. 


The time of the creation of Ihc tlircc town8hips of Oak Grove, I'arish 
(h'ovc and Pine, together with their boundaries, has been given, Tiic places 
of holding clccliiius in the several townships were changed from time to 
time, by order of the Board of Commissioners. At their may session, in 
1841, it was "ordered that the place of holiling elections in and for Parish 
(irove Township is henceforth to be holdcn at the house of Joseph Smith iu 


said township." At the September terra of Commissioners' Court, 134-1, it 
was "ordered that the place of holding elections in Pine Township be re- 
moved from the house of Amos White to the house of Joseph HetTner. in 
said township," At the December term, 1844. the place of holding elections 
in Parish Grove Township was removed from the honse of John Rose to the 
house of Thomas INIartin. At the June term. 1S47. the place of holding 
elections in Pine Township was -removed to the schoolhonse in said town- 
ship near William Pi. Johnson's residence.'' At the February term, 1S50 
it was "ordered that the place of holding elections in Parish Grove Town- 
ship be removed from Thomas Martin's to the schoolhonse in District Xo. 
2, Congressional Township 24. Range S. 

At the March term of Commissioners' Court, 1855, Washington Town- 
ship was created, bonnded as follows : Commencing at the southeast corner 
of Section 16, in Township 25, of Range 7 ; thence west to the southwest 
corner of Section 15. Township 25, of Range 8; thence north to the north- 
west corner of Section 3, in Township 26. of Range 8; thence east to the 
northwest corner of Section 3. in Township 26. of Range 7 ; and thence south 
to the place of beginning. 
,__-• Prairie Township was created in March, 1855. and was bonnded as fol- 
ows : Commencing at the southeast corner of Section 16. in Township 25, 
of Range 8. and running thence west to the line dividing the States of Indi- 
ana and Illinois ; thence north to the northwest corner of Section 2, in Town- 
ship 26, of Range 10 ; thence east to the northeast corner of Section 4, in 
Township 26, of Range 8 ; and thence south to the place of beginning. 
The Board of Commissioners, at their December session, 1855, ordered that 
the order creating Washington and Prairie Townships be annulled, for the 
reason that there were not sufficient inhabitants in the territory embraced 
by them. At their ^larch term, 1858, the Board of County Commissioners 
created West Pine Township, ont of a part of Parish Grove Township, with 
boundaries as follows; Commencing at the northeast corner of Section 16. 
in Township 24. of Range 8. and running thence south to the south line of 
the county ; thence west to the southwest corner of the county ; thence 
north to the northwest corner of Section 14, in Township 24, of Range 10 ; 
and thence east to the place of beginning. In September, 1858, the line 
dividing West Pine and Parish Grove Townships was changed as follows : 
Commencing at the southwest corner of Section 11, in Township 24, of 
Range 9, and rnnniuo; tlience north to the northwest corner of Section 14, 
in Township 25, of Range 9 ; thence west to the State line ; and thence 
south to the southwest corner of Section 14, in Township 24, of Range 10. 
The Board of Commissioners, at their June session. 1860. upon petition 
of A. D. Packard, Isaac Hall. E. C. Sumner. Benjamin Rodlcy. Theodore 
Swinton, Aaron Burchell, Abram IT. Durkee. Joseph Blessing. G. W. Hug- 
o-ard, Patrick Erven. WilUam Grave,-, John T. Iloiigh. Thomas (.Tilbert, John 
Irwin and I. N. Clark, ■' Ordered that the north part of Parish Grove Town- 
ship be struck otf. and bounded as follows : Commencing at the northwest 

224 rrrsTORv of benton county. 

corner of Section 2, in Townsliip 26, Range 10, and running tlience south to 
tlie soutliwest corner of Section 35, in Township 26, of Range 10; thence 
east to tliesoutlieast corner of Section o. in Township 26, of Range 8 ; thence 
north on line wliich former!}- divided Oali Grove and Parish Grove Town- 
sljips, to the northeast corner of Section 4. in Township 26, Range 8 ; and 
thence west on the line of Benton and Jasper, to the place of beginning, to 
bo linown as Yorli Township. At tlie September term of Commissioners' 
Court, tlie boundary between West Pine and Parish Grove Townships was 
again changed, this time as follows : Commencing at the northwest corner of 
Section 11, in Township 25. ofRangeKi; and running thence east to the 
northwest corner of Section 8. in Township 25. of Range 9 ; thence south to 
the northwest corner of Section 5, in Township 24, of Range 9 ; thence east 
to the line formerly dividing West Pine and Parish Grove Townships ; and 
thence with the old line to the place of beginning. In 3Iarch. 1861, it was 
''Ordered by the Board of Commissioners of Benton County, State of In- 
diana, that a new township lie cut off the east part of Oak Grove Township, 
commencing at the southeast corner of Section 3.3, and running thence north 
on the line between Benton and Tippecanoe Counties, to the northeast cor- 
ner of Section 4 ; thence on the township line between Townships 24 and 25 
west, to the northwest corner of Section 3. in Township 24. of Rant^e 7 ; 
tlience south to the southwest corner of Section 34. in Township 24, of 
Range 7 ; and thence east to the place of beginning, to be known as Bolivar 
Township." At the same session. Prairie Township was created, with boun"- 
daries as follows : Commencing at the southeast corner of Section 33, in 
Township 25, of Range 7. and running thence north to the line between 
Jasper and Benton Counties ; thence west on the line between Jasper and Ben- 
ton Counties to the northeast corner of Section 3, in Township 26. ofRaugeS • 
thence south to the line between Townships 2-1 and 25. at the southwest corner 
of Section 34, in Township 25. of Range 8 : ami thence east to the place of 
beginning." At the same term, it was - (h-dered that the boundary lines of 
Oak Grove be described as follows : Commencinn' at the southeast corner of 
Section 33, in Township 24, of Kange 7, and running thence north to the 
line dividing Townships 24 and 25 ; thence west to the northwest corner of 
Section 3, in Township 24, of Range 8 ; thence south to the county line, and 
thence east to the [itace of beginning." Also at the same time it was - Ordered 
by the board that the boundary of Pine Township remain the same, except 
the south line, which is on the Congressional township line between Town- 
ships 24 and 25." At the March term oi' Commissioners' Court. Finch's 
S.'hoolhouse was designated as the place of holding elections in Bolivar 
Township, and Wisher's Schoolhouse as the place of holding elections in Prai- 
rie Township. At the June term of Commissioners' Court, 1864, the follow- 
ing proceedings were had : " Now comes John W. Nutt and others, petitioning 
for a divish.n ,.f Prairie Township as follows : ' To the Honorable Board of 
Commissioners of the County of IJenton, and State of Indiana ■ We the un- 
dersigned, citizens of l>rairie Township, in said eonntv, respeetfnllv'petition 


your Honorable body to divide said township east and west into two equal 
parts; the north part to be called Union.' Petition granted." At the March 
term, 1865, West Pine and Parish Grove Townships were consolidated under 
the name of Parish Grove. 

In DecemTSer, 1866, upon petition of John Garretson, Isaac Allman 
Joseph Osborne, J. E. Sheetz, William B. Timmons, J. 8. 8hipman, G. P. 
Shipman, Alpheus Allman, Henry Hufhne, AVilliam T. Bowyer, Elias Shep- 
ard, Jerry Hufflne, H. H. Owens, Peter C. Noble, Benjamin Ellcr, J. Lam- 
born, Thomas Tracy, D. C. Bowjer, S. B. Johnson, Rinaldo Sutton, Jam'es 
Witham, Jacob Engler, Joseph K. Kinch, Jonas Henen, J. H. Tallman, 
Holt Dawson, William Marlow,. M. L. Cheidle, James K. Tur\-ey, John 0. 
Heaton and Patrick Carroll, Gilboa Township was struck off from tLie 
north part of Pine Township, as follows : Commencing at the northeast cor- 
ner of Benton County, and running thence west to the northwest corner of 
Section 3, in Township 26, of Range 7 ; thence south to the southwest cor- 
ner of Section 34, in Township 26, of Range 7 ; thence east to the line 
dividing White and Benton Counties, and thence north to the place of begin- 
ning. At the December term, 1868, the following changes were made in 
township boundaries ; York Township was divided, Richland being set off 
and bounded as follows : Commencing at the northeast corner of Section 4, 
Township 26, of Range 8, and running thence west to the northwest corner 
of Section 3, in Township 26, of Range 9 ; thence south to the line dividing 
Townships 25 and 26 ; thence east to the southeast corner of Section 33, in 
Township 26 of Range 8 ; thence north to the place of beginning, comprising 
three miles of Range 8, and three miles of Range 9. The remaining portion 
retains the name of York, and is bounded as follows ; Commencing at the 
northeast corner of Section 4, in Township 26, of Range 9, and running 
thence west to the State line ; thence south to the line dividing Townships 
25 and 26 ; thence east to the southeast corner of Section 33, in Township 
26, of Range 9, and thence north to the place of beginning, comprising three 
miles of Range 9, and two miles of Range 10, all in Township 26. The 
places of voting were for York Township, Fleming Schoolhouse, and for 
Richland Dehner's Schoolhouse. Parish Grove was divided, leaving tlie 
boundaries of Parish Grove as follows : Prom the northeast corner of Section 
4, in Township 25, Range 8 ; thence west to State line ; thence south to the 
line dividing Townships 24 and 25 ; thence east to the southeast corner of 
Section 33, in Township 25 of Range 8 ; thence north to the place of begin- 
ning. The remainder to be called Grant, bounded as follows : From the 
northeast corner of Section 4, in Township 24 of Range 8 ; thence west to 
State line ; thence south to south line of county ; thence east to the south- 
east corner of Section 33, and thence north to the place of beginning. At, 
a special session in June, 1872, the boundaries of Prairie Township were 
changed, as follows : Commencing at the northwest corner of Prairie Town- 
ship as it is now located ; thence west three miles to the line dividing 
Ranges 8 and 9 ; thence south four rniles ; thence east one mile ; thence south 


two miles to the line dividing Townships 24 and 25 ; thence east two miles 
to the southwest corner of said Prairie Township as it was before this addi- 
tion. And it is further ordered that this addition, with the present Prairie 
Township, shall be known as Prairie Township. At the September term, 
1875, the boundary of Prairie Township was changed as follows: Com- 
mencing at the northwest corner of Section 30, in Township 25, of Range 8, 
and running thence south to tlie southwest corner of Section 31, m Town, 
ship 25, of ?i,ange 8, and thence east to the southwest corner of Section 32, 
same township and range, the territory annexed being Sections 30 and 31, 
in Township 25 of Range 8. At the March term, 1876, Grant Township was 
divided as follows : Commencing at the northwest corner of Section 3, in 
Township 24, of Range 9, and running thence south to the line dividing 
Benion and Warren Counties ; thence west to the southwest corner of 
original Grant Township ; tlience north, on the State line, to the northwest 
corner of the original Grant Tow-nship, and thence east to the place of 
beginning. The territory thus struck otf from Grant Township was named 
Hickory Grove Townsiiip, of which the hoard, at the same term, appointed 
John Callanan, Trustee, and John W. Cole. Justice of the Peace. At the 
September term, 1870, the east half of Section 21, Township 24, Range 7, 
was taken from C»ak Grove and attaclied to Bolivar Township. 


Benton County was created by virtue of an Act of the Legislature, ap- 
proved February 18. 1810. The act being brief and of special importance, 
is here given in full and I'cads as follows : 
l)<- r Kiiacted bi/ tJir General Axscmbli/ of tlie .S'^^^• nj' liiJiniia: 

.'■Ikotion 1. That hereafter all that part of Jasper County, south of the 
r.'. ■ between Townships 20 and 27 north, shall be and constitute an independ- 
li county, and shall be known and designated as the county of Benton. 

Sec. 2. The Board of Commissioners of said county, shall meet at the 
liouse of Basil Justus, and shall, if necessary, hold two extra sessions for 
the purpose of transacting county business. 

Sec. 3. The othcers of said county shall be governed by the provisions 
of an act entitled " An act providing for the formation of new counties," 
approved Ketn'uary 17, 1838, and by the provisions of an act entitled " An 
act to regulate the mode of doing county business in the several counties 
of the State," approved February 17, 1838, as far as the same is practicable. 

Sec. 4. Threedifths of the tlu-ee per cent fund heretofore appropriated to 
the county of Jasper, namely, the sum ol' S2,400, is hereby approprwted to 
the county ol' lienton, and the Commissioner of the three per cent fund of 
Jasiier County is hereby directed to pay over to the Commissioner of said 
fund of Benton Counly, wlien the said tVtmmissioner shall be duly qualified, 
tlie sum of $l,(!05.^i2, if lie have so much on iumd, and he is hereby directed 
to retain that amount, or as much thereof as he may have on haiid at the 
passage of tliis act, witii a view to the delivery of the same to the Comiuis- 
si<mer of said fund in Benton County ; and any deficiency which may exist, 
owing to tlie said fund having been expended, shall be made up out of the 
first moneys accruing by the three per cent fund to the county of Jasper. 
Prin-iiJiil that, the Commissioner of the said fund of the county of Jasper 


shall deduct from the amount which he Is to pay over to the Commissioner 
of Benton Count}-, the amount of said fund which may have been expended 
within the limits of Bentou Count}-. 

Sec. 5. The agent of the three per cent fund of the State is hereby di- 
rected and required to pay over to the Commissioner of said fund of Bentou 
County three-fifths of all moneys which may be in or shall hereafter be re- 
ceived into his hands, which would otherwise go to satisfy the aforesaid ap- 
propriation of 84,000 to Jasper County. 

Sec. 6. The county of Bauton is hereby attached to the first Judical 
Circuit, and the Circuit Court of said county shall meet at the house of 
Basil Justus in said countv. 

Sec. 7. The Circuit Court of said county shall meet on the first Wednes- 
day succeeding the term of holding the Circuit Court of Jasper County ; 
and the sessions of the court in Benton County are hereby limited to three 

Sec. 8. That said county shall be attached to the Senatorial District 
composed of the coanties of La Porte, Porter, Newton, White and Pulaski. 

Sec. 9. This act to be in force from and after its passage. 

Approved February 18, 1840. 

It thus appears that at the time of the creation of Benton Count}' the 
territory out of which it was created cotistituted a portion of Jasper 
County. Different portions of it, however, belonged at various times to 
other counties, as did even Jasper County itself As early as January 30, 
1830, the Legislature enacted that as much of Tippecanoe County as lay 
directly north of Warren County and south of the line dividing Townships 
24 and 25 north, should be attached to Warren Count}' for civil and judicial 

By an act of the Legislature, approved February 1, 1834, the county of 
White was ordered organized. Section 7 of that act reading as follows: 
■■That all the territjiy lying west of the county of White to the State line 
be and the same is hereby attached to the county of White, for civil and 
judicial purposes." It will be seen from this provision that all of Benton 
County lying north of the line dividing Townships 24 and 25 north was at- 
tached to White County. 

By a special act of the Legislature, approved January 31, 1835, all of 
Benton County west of the line dividing Ranges 7 and 8 west was attached 
to Warren County, except that portion of Benton County south of the 
line dividing Townships 24 and 25 north, which had been previously at- 

The first term of Commissioners' Court was held at the house of Basil 
Justus in White Oak Grove, just south of where the town of Oxford now 
stands, the Commissioners being Thomas Lewis, Amos White and John 
Robertson, all of whom are now deceased. Amos White was President of 
the board. At this session, the county was divided into three townships, as 
follows: ''AH that part of Benton County lying west of the center of 
Range 8 shall constitute one township, which shall be known as Pariah 
Gr.)\e Township; all that part of said Benton County lying east of the said 
center of Range 8, and north of tlie north line of Section 12, in Township 


24 north, shall constitute one township, which shall be known as Pine Town- 
ship; and all that part of said Benton County that lies east of said center 
of Range 8, and south of the north line of Section 12, in Township 24 north, 
shall constitute one township, which shall be known as Oak Grove Township." 
Elections in the several townships were ordered, the time being August 8, 
1840, and the several places being as follows: In Parish Grove Township, at 
the house of Eobert Alexander; in Pine Township, at the house of Amos 
White, and in Oak Grove Township, at the house of Basil Justus. The 
following were appointed Inspectors of Elections in the several townships: 
Parish Grove, Samuel Robertson; Pine. John Wallace, and Oak Grove, 
Thomas Lewis. Henrj- Roliertson was appointed Assessor for the county 
for the jear 1840. At the September term of Commissioners Court, 1840, 
Milton Jennings was appointed Treasurer; David McConnell, Seminarj- 
Trustee; Henry Robertson Commissioner of the Three-Per Cent Fund, and 
Ezekiel H. Davis. Collector of State and County Revenue; and at the Jan- 
uary term, 1841, Henry Robertson was appointed Assessor of Benton County 


The first election ever held within the limits of the present county of 
Benton was held at the house of William Mallatt, on the 13th day of June, 
1835, at which time the territor}- which now constitutes the southern tier of 
townships in Benton County was attached to Warren Count}', and consti- 
tuted what was denominated Madison Township. At that election the fol- 
lowing men polled their votes : Joseph Dunn, Samuel Owens. George Sly, 
Benjamin Lewis, Richard Berrj', Sr., James W. Lacy, John Fields, Josiah 
Dunn, Hiram Mallatt, William Mallatt, Enoch Ganas, John Lyons, John 
Foster, Samuel Lewis, William Douglas, Jonathan Lewis, Joseph B. Dunn, 
Richard Berry, Jr., and Eobert Mallatt. For Justice of the Peace, John 
Lyons received eighteen votes, and John Foster eighteen votes ; for Con- 
stable, Eobert Mallatt received nineteen votes, and John Crisser nineteen 
votes. The board at this election was constituted as follows : Inspector, 
Richard Ben-y, Jr. ; Judges. George Sly and Benjamin Lewis ; Clerk, Jona- 
than Lewis. 

On the first Monday in August, 1835, five years before the county of 
Benton was organized, at an election held at the house of William Mallatt, 
in Madison Township, Warren County (which embraced the southern tier of 
townships in Benton County), the following men voted ; John Fields, Ben- 
jamin Lewis, Eobert Mallatt, Charles T. Harris, William Mallatt, Richard 
Beiry, Sr., Herbert Owens, John Lyons, John Montgomery, Richard Berry, 
Jr , and William Billings. For Representative in Congress, James Gre<TorY 
received twenty votes, and Edward A. Hannagan nine votes ; for Repre- 
sentative in the State Jyegislature, James H. Buell received nine votes, and 
Jesse Tomlinson one vote ; for Sheritf, William Robb received five vot«s, 
and John Seaman five votes ; for County Commissioner, James Goodwine 
received eleven votes ; and for School Commissioner, James J. McAlilly 


received ten votes. The members of the board of this election wore ; Her- 
bert Owens and Charles T. Harris, Clerljs ; Richard Berry and Benjamin 
Lewis, Judges ; and Richard Berry, Jr., Inspector. 

In November, 1836, whilst the southern tier of townships in Benton 
County, yet Itnown as Madison Township. Warren County, the following 
votes were polled at an election held at the house of Bassett Timmons : 
Matthias Redding, Benjamin Lewis, Joseph Redding, Charles Anderson, 
Andrew Fields, Isaac Blue, Hiram Mallatt, James W. Lacey, Bassett Tim- 
mons, William Mallatt, Thomas Timmons, James Cuppy, John Lyons, 
Charles T. Harris, Robert Mallatt, and Richard Berry, Sr. The Board 
consisted of Charles T. Harris and Lyons, Clerks ; James Cuppy and Robert 
Mallatt, Judges ; and James W. Langwish, Inspector. The Whig electors 
received four votes, and the Democratic electors twelve votes. 

The first election held in Benton County, after its creation by the act 
of the Legislature approved February 18, 1840, as before stated, was held 
at the house of Basil Justus, in Oak (irove Townsiiip, on the 2d day of 
November, 1840, and the voters thereat were L. W. Wattles, Robert Pollock, 
Perigan Garland, Jesse T. Garland, Samuel McConnell, Thomas McConnell, 
William McConnell, Lorenzo D. Hewitt, David McConnell, John H. Robert- 
son, Amos White, Jr., Basil Justus, John Byard, Hannaniah Hewitt, 
Thomas Lewis, Milton Jennings, Solomon Burch, Hugh McConnell, Isaiah 
Perigo, Jacob Baugh, Lewis B. Williams, William B. Foster and Jonathan 

The next election lield in the county was holden at the same place as 
the preceding one, and the date was the first Monday in April, 1841, for the 
purpose of electing one Justice of the Peace, one Constable, two Overseers 
of the Poor, two Fence Viewers, and one Supervisor. At this election the 
following persons cast their ballots : Thomas McConnell, William F. Wake- 
man, Lewis B. Williams, Ezekiel H. Davis, Basil Justus, Thomas Lewis, 
Stephen Buckley, Samuel P. Davis, William H. Williams, John Wattles, and 
James Q. McKinlej*. For Justice of the Peace, Stephen Bucklej' received 
eight votes, and James Q. McKinley two votes ; for Constable, William B. 
Foster received ten votes ; for Overseer of the Poor, Jacob Baugh received 
eleven votes, James Q. McKinley nine votes, and John Wattles one vote ; 
for Inspector of Elections, Samuel P. Davis received nine votes; for Pence 
Viewer, William F. Wakemau received eleven votes, and Solomon Burch 
eleven votes ; add for Supervisor, Lewis B. Williams received ten votes. 
The Election Board consisted of Thomas Lewis, Inspector ; William F. 
Wakeman and Lewis B. Williams, Judges ; Basil Justus and Ezekiel H. 
Davis, Clerks. 


The first term of any court held within the limits of the present county 
of Benton was a term of the Commissioners' Court which was held at Parish 
Grove, in the spring of the year 1838, whilst Benton County yet constituted a 
part of Jasper County, the Cornmissioners being Amos White, Joseph Smith 


and Frederick Conoyer. In the fall of the same year, the first term of the 
Circuit Court was held at the same place, the otiScers of said court being 
Hon. Isaac Naylor, Judge ; George Spitler. Clerk ; Henry Robertson, Sheriff; 
and Joseph A. Wright, of Indiana, then 

"A youth to fortune and to fame unknown." 

but who subsequently filled ttie high and reiponsible office of Governor 
of the State of Indiana, and United States Minister at the Court of Ber- 
lin, was Prosecuting Attorne}'. The first term of the Circuit Court of Ben- 
Ion Count}' was held at the house of Basil Justus. November 4. 1840, the 
olBcers of the court being Isaac A. Naylor, President Judge ; David Mc- 
Connell and Matthew Terwilliger, Associate Judges ; Basil Justus, Clerk ; 
Henry Robertson, Sheriff, and the Prosecuting .Ittoruey was Joseph E. JIc- 
Donald, then a rising young attorne\% who has since occupied the ex- 
alted position of United States Senator, and is prominently spoken of as a 
candidate for President of the Uniteil States. The attorneys sworn and ad- 
mitted at said first term were Daniel Mace, John Fettit. William M. Jen- 
ners, Robert A. Chandler, Benjamin F. Gregory. Zebulon Baird and Joseph 
Tatman, none of whom resided in Benton County. The following persons 
constituted the first grand jury : Aaron Wood, Lewis Reynolds, Elias Smith, 
Benjamin A. Timmons, John Wallace, John Lane, William P. Carson, Will- 
iam Smith, Jr., Saiiuiel Robertson, John Frost, William Foster, William F. 

Wakeman, Thomas McConnell. Robert Pollock and Louis B.Williams John 

Wallace, foreman ; and the first -'petted jury" was composed of the follow- 
ing-named persons : William McConnell. Solomon Bureh. Perigan Garland, 
Hann.aniah Hewitt, William Smith, Sr.. James Thomas, -Vmos White. Sr., 
James 0. Denton, William Denton, John Sheetz, Eli Woods and Samuel 
McConnell. There being uo suitable room to which the jury might retire 
for the purpose of deliberating upon a verdict when cases were submitted to 
them for their final consideration, they were placed in charge of a bailiff 
who had instructions so retire with them to a certain large stump in the vi- 
cinity of the house in which court was being held, with the usual interdiction of 
all communication, etc., etc., except etc., etc.; and from this circumstance, this 
first jury was ever after known as " the stump jury." The first term of the Ben- 
ton County Prol)ate Court was held at the house of Basil Justus, commencino- 
on the second iMonday in Noxember, 1S40, the first Probate Judge beia^ 
Samuel McConnell. The names of those who served as petit jurors at the 
first term of the Benton Circuit Court have Vieeu given. The full list of petit 
jurors selected iiy the Board of Commissioners, at their September session 
184(1, contains several names that do not appear in the list of those who 
served. It is as follows : William McC.mnell, Jacob Bangh, Solomon Burch, 
William (Jarland, IVrigau Garland, Uaunaniah Hewitt, Hugh McCoimell, Will- 
iam Smith, Sr., Thomas Martin. Silas Henderson, Joshua Howell, Robert Al- 
exander, Henry Robertson, James Thomas, Amos White, Sr.. J auies C Denton W. Waltles, John Sheet/., David Miller, William Denton, John Whitev- 


Eli Wood, Samuel McCounell and Philip Jackson. The first terms of all the 
Courts (Commissioners', Probate and Circuit), were held at the house of Basil 
Justus, as were all subsequent terms up to the year 1843, when the place of 
convening the different courts was changed to the house of James T. Parker, 
at which place the Commissioners' Court convened for the first time at their 
April session, 18-43 ; the Circuit Court, April 12. 1843, aud the Probate, 
Court, on the second Monday in May, 1843. Thereafter the terms of the 
ditferent courts continued to be held at the house of James T. Parker up to 
1845. After which time they were held at the court house at Oxford, it 
having been completed in the spring of that year. 


On the third Monday in June, 1843, William Sill, Samuel Milroy, G-eorge 
Wolfer and William Coon, who had been named in an act of the Legislature 
as a committee to locate the county seat of Benton Count}-, met and '■ lo- 
cated the seat of justice on the south half of the southeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 18, in Township 34 north, of Range 7 west, donated by Henrj' W. Ells- 
worth, agent for Henry L. Ellsworth aud David Watkiuson, for the use and 
benefit of Benton County, for the seat of Justice of said count}' ; also the 
east half of the southeast quarter of Section 20, in same township and 
range aforesaid. A bond for the conveyance of the above described real 
estate, also a note for the paymeat of $300 to be applied to the erection of a 
court house are herewith submitted." At the next ensuing session of the 
Board of Commissioners, an order for the survey of the county seat was 
made, which was accordingly done b}' Henry Robertson, surve3'or, assisted 
by James Q. McKinley, E. H. Davis and James T. Parker. The following 
description of the survey of the town of Oxford, the county seat of Benton ^ 
County: "Beginningat the southwest corner of Block No. 8, on the section line 
four chains and forty-five and one-half links west of the center line of the do- 
nation ; thence extending north, at a variation of the magnectic needle of five 
degrees to the northwest corner of Block No. 3, thence east at right angles 
to the northeast corner of Block No. 1, thence south to the southeast corner 
of Block No. 6. on the section line, thence based on the section line, west to 
the place of beginning, comprising an area of fourteen and eighty-eight 
hundredths acres more or less. The lots all to be sixty feet, by one hun- 
dred and twenty feet, alleys twelve feet wide, and the streets sixty feet 
wide. Streets and alleys all cross each other at right angles. The public 
square is one hundred and twenty feet, by two hundred and fifty-two feet." 
And it was " ordered that the above description of said town be confirmed 
by the Board of Commissioners of Benton County." 

The Board of Commissioners, at the September term of Commissioners' 
Court, in the year 1843, '-ordered that the county agent proceed to let the 
building of a court house in the town of Milroy to the lowest bidder, which 
is to be as follows, to wit : The house is to be a frame, twenty feet in 
width, and thirty feet in length, two stories high ; the lower story to be 


eight and one-half feet high, and the upper story to be seven and one-half 
feet high. A room is to be partitioned off in one end of the building suitable 
for a clerk's office, ten feet wide, also a stairway to pass up, and a partition 
to be put in the center, across the house, in the upper story. The letting to 
take place between now and the 15th of October next, and to be completed 
by the first of June, 1844" It appears from the foregoing extract trom 
the Commissioners' order book that the town was at first called Milroy. It 
was so named in honor of Samuel Milroy. one of the Commissioners who lo- 
cated the county seat, but it being subsequentlj- ascertained that there was 
already a town of that name in the State, the Board of Commissioners at 
their October session, in the year 1843, "ordered that the seat of justice in 
Benton County be called Oxford." The entry in the order book shows, 
however, that in entering this order, the name had first been written " Hart- 
ford," and that at a subsequent time, and with ink of a different color from 
that with which the entry was first made, the name " Hartford " had been 
marked out, and the name Oxford inserted. How long afterward this was 
done, cannot, of course, be ascertained, yet that it was not done at the time 
of making the entry is pretty clearly proven by the fact of the erasure and 
interlineation having been made with ink of a different color from that with 
which the body of the entry was made. 


At the December session of the Board of Commissioners. 1843. it was 
" ordered that the court house of Benton County be erected on Lot No. 7, in 
Block No. 2, in the plat of the county seat of said county," which was where 
the Buckeye Block now stands. The building of the court house could not 
have been pushed forward very energetically, for the records show that the 
terms of the various courts continued to be held at the house of James T 
Parker up to 1845 ; the first term of the Probate Court having bijen held in 
the court house in August, 1845, and the first term of the Circu't Court in 
September, 1846. The court house was the first house built in the town of 
Oxford, Francis Boynton being the architect and builder ; Dr. Thompson , 
late of Rainsville, plasterer ; and Isaac Lewis, of Oxford, hod-carrier. At 
the March session of the Board of Commissioners, it was " ordered that the 
contract be let for the completion of the court house as follows, to wit : l^ath 
and plaster sides and ends of upper story ; also, three stone chimneys in 
rooms below ; also, one stone chimney in center of house above, and to case 
the windows on the inside in the upper story" It is ditficult to conceive 
any good reason why the work should have lagged thus, inasmuch as all the 
the public businens, in the interim, was of necessity transacted at a private 
house, greatly to the inconvenience, no doubt, of both the public and the 
family of Mr. Parker, at whose house the public business was transacted. 
Sub8C()uently the court house was removed to the public square, afterward 
to the ground now occupied by Zeis' grocery store, and then to its present 
resting place, where it is now occupied by James Connellv, as a saloon. lu 


the lower room — the court room — the ceiling is about seven feet high. The 
second story is divided into two apartments. Small as this structure was 
it was ample in those days, and resounded to the eloquence of Senators, 
Henry S. Lane, Joseph E. McDonald, Joseph A. Wright and D. W. Voor- 
hees, Gen. Lew Wallace, Godlove S. Orth, Judges Porter, Pettit, Gregor}' 
and Naylor, who have since written their names upon the scroll of fame. 
Though the old court house is now used for a purpose quite different from 
that for which it was originalh' designed — it being now the scene of the 
origin of numerous difficulties between man and his fellow-man, such as it 
was originally designed should be settled here — yet, it still has its bar, as of 
old ; albeit, in speaking of its present bar, it must be borne in mind that the 
word "bar" is not a collective noun. It is said that at the time of raising 
the frame of the court house, there were not men enough in Benton County 
within esLsy distance, and it was necessarj- to call upon some of the Warren 
County friends for assistance ; and, the jackoaks are said to have been so 
thick in the new county seat then that Judges, officers, lawyers and clients 
had to follow cow-paths to find the new court house. Hartley T. Howard, 
with his family, occupied the court house up to the latter part of the year 
1849. The Board of Commissioners, at their August session, in the year 
1849, made the following order in relation to Howard's occupancj- of the 
court house : '■ Ordered that an order be made that Hartley T. Howard shall 
remove his family out of the court house in Oxford, the county seat of Ben- 
ton County, in three months, if John Ferguson, the builder of H. L. Ells- 
worth's house in said town, keeps his usual health, and if there should be 
any providential interference as above stated, H. T. Howard shall pay a 
reasonable compensation for said house until a room in said Ellsworth's 
house is furnished." The latter clause of the order seems to imply that 
Mr. Howard had been occupying the building free of rent. With Mr. How- 
ard and his family, lived Aaron Wood, who was Mr. Howard's brother-in- 
law. They occupied the upper rooms of the court house, and were, for a 
long time, the only occupants of the town. During this period, a slight dis- 
agreement arose between them concerning some trivial matter, and Aaron 
Wood waggishly declared that there were the meanest people in this town 
he ever saw. 


During the first decade of years after the organization of Benton County, 
there was no jail, or place for the confinement of malefactors, within the 
limits of the county. This may have been due, in some measure, to the 
honesty and to the law-abiding and peace-loving disposition of the good 
people of Benton County ; but, in truth and in fact, it was chiefly due to the 
fact that there was a good jail at La Fayette, in which Benton could incar- 
cerate her criminals, on conditions that were deemed so reasonable that it 
was not considered worth while to incur the expense of building a jail, whilst 
the county was yet so sparsely settled, and her people (as is usually the case 
in newly settled districts) so poor. There was a contract let, some time 


during the year 1848, for the building of a jail ; but, for some reason, at the 
February term, 1849, it was declared void, and an order made that the contract 
be re-let, which was accordingly done ; the contract being let to Basil Justus, 
and the consideration therefor being the conveyance to Justus of a portion 
of the land donated by Henry L. Ellsworth and David Watkinson, to the coun- 
ty. It seems that when the Commissioners did make up their minds to build, 
they got in a great hurry all at once, and would brook no delay ; for we fiud 
that at their February session, 1849, they made an order " that Ellsworth 
and Scott, attorneys, be authorized to institute suits against Basil Justus 
and James T. Parker, to recover lands deeded to Basil Justus as a consid- 
eration for building county jail, saitl jail not- having been built." And suits 
must have been begun, for we find that at the Juue tei-m of Commissioners' 
Court, 1850, it was ordered that the suits be discontinued, and that the jail 
be accepted. Hence, it may be inferred that the first jail built in Benton 
County was completed about May, 1850. It was built of heav\' hewed 
logs, and stood on a lot only a few feet west of where the Odd Fellows' 
building now stands. It is said that there never was a prisoner, save one 
(a man), confined in it, and he but a short time. He was charged with 
horse-stealing ; and, in the hope of efi'ecting his escape, fired the building, 
which was entirely burned down, and the prisoner's life saved with great diffi- 
culty. The jail is said to have been built with a double wall of hewed logs, 
with straw between ; the entrance being by means of a trap door on the top. 
The prisoner thought to burn a hole through the logs, and then make his 
escape through the hole ; but, the straw taking fire, the roof was very quickly 
in flames, and it was only through the heroic cflTorts of Mark Briar and 
Ed. Blanchfleld that the door was finally reached, and the half-roasted 
prisoner saved from cremation. 


The first court house built in the county was in use but a verv few vears 
before it was found to be inadequate to the purpose lor which it was designed 
and, accordingly, in the spring of 1S54, the Commissioners of the county 
entered into a contract with George Brown, of La Fayette, for the erection of 
a new one, to be completed on or before December 1, 1S55. for which the 
said George Brown was to receive the sum of $10,850, of which S'2,000 was 
to be paid in hand, $4,425 on or before March 1, 1855. and the balance on 
or before March 1, 1856. As the funds necessary for the prosecution of this 
work were not already in the treasury of the co\inty, an order was made 
at the June term <if. Commissioners' Court for the issuance of bonds in the 
sum of $8,000, only a pm'tion of which, however, $4,875, was issued. At a 
si)ecial si'ssion of tlie lioard in July, 1855, the following order was made: 
" Whereas, at the ,lune term of 1855, an order was made to issue bonds to 
the amount of $8,000, for defraying the expense of building- a court house ; 
and wher(-as, in pursuance of said order, bonds were issued to the amount of 
$4,875, payable in two, three and four years, and delivered to the Treasurer 


for negotiation ; and wliereas, said Treasurer found the negotiation of said 
bonds to be wholly impracticable, aud thereupon returns said bonds to the 
Auditor, and wishes a credit therefor upon his books, which was accordingly 
done ; therefore, it is ordered that orders be issued to the amount of $6,000, 
payable in two years from the date thereof, the same to be issued in amount 
of $1,000 each, aud the Treasurer is ordered to negotiate said bonds if he 
can, and report at next regular session." The boads were issued, as provided 
for in the foregoing order, but, owing to some defect, were not negotiated, 
but others were issued in their stead, as is shown by the following order made 
by the Commissioners at a special session, August 13, 1855 : '' Whereas, by 
a recent decision of the United States Circuit Court, Benton County has 
failed to collect certain taxes heretofore assessed, in consequence of which 
the Commissioners are unable to meet their liabilities in building the court 
house ; and whereas, a debt has been incurred iu anticipation of said taxes 
in building said court house, and unless said debt is liquidated, the building of 
said court house will have to be abandoned, to the great detriment and disad- 
vantage of said county ; and whereas, the revenues of Benton County do not, 
by reasonable taxation, afford funds sufficient for the extinction of said debt, 
and the completion of said court house, therefore, it is ordered by the Com- 
missioners now here, that the Auditor shall issue a bond for $6,000, payable 
in two years from this date, and that he deliver the same to the Treasurer 
for negotiation, as the law requires. And whereas, bonds have heretofore 
been issued by the order of this board ; and whereas, said bonds were im- 
properly and informally issued, and have not been negotiated, it is ordered 
that the Auditor recall all such bonds from the hands of the Treasurer that 
he may have, and that he cancel and destroy the same, as well as any on 
hand, not delivered to the Treasurer, before issuing the bond above men- 
tioned. And now comes the Auditor, and in the presence of the board, all 
of said bonds are fully canceled and destroyed, and one bond is issued for 
$6,000, signed by us, and dated this 13th day of August, 1855, payable in 
two years after date. It was found to be necessary, iu order to avoid op- 
pressing the taxpayers (as must have been the case had the whole tax for 
the building of the court house been levied in one or two years), to fund this 
debt several times before it was finally paid ; there being an order made at 
the special session begun August 8, 1857, for the issuance of a bond for 
$6,000, due in one .year, to raise funds with which to redeem the bond 
issued at the June term, 1855, and again, at the June session, 1858, there 
was an order made that bonds be issued to the amount $3,238.63, for the 
redemption of bonds previously issued. This appears to have been the last 
time that any portion of this debt was funded. The second court house, 
which was a brick structure 50x80 feet, was begun in 1855, and completed 
the following year. The first, or lower story was divided into eight otflces, 
and the second, or upper story, contained the court room and two jury rooms. 
Above all was a well-proportioned cupola, the top of which was seventy feet 
from the foundation. 



At tiie June term of Commissioners' Court 1859, Jasper N. McConnell 
filed his bond for the erection of a new jail at the count}- seat, and the same 
was approved b}- the board. The building was to be completed b\' Septem- 
ber 1, 1860, and the contract price was SI, 925, which was to be paid in pay- 
ments as follows: SGOO June 1, I860, S600 July 1, 1860, and the balance Sep- 
tember 1, 1860. The Commissioners, at their June session, 18G0, contracted 
with Williamson & Hough, of Indianapolis, for putting iron cells in the jail, 
at a cost of $2,250, of which .S250 was to be paid in two months after date, 
$250 in four months, and the balance in twelve months. The Commissioners' 
records do not show whether this improvement was ever made or not; but it 
probably was not, for we find that the Commissioners, at their special June 
session, 1872, contracted with Hough & Co.. of Indianapolis for "improve- 
ments on jail in Oxford." which consisted in lining one room with quarter- 
inch plate-iron, and furnishing four window gratings, for which the Com- 
missioners agreed to p.'iy the sum of SI. 600, the sum of 8800 to be paid 
when work was completed, and S800 in ninety days after the completion of 
the work. A little computation will show that, if all the improvements con- 
tracted for were made, the cost of the impro\ements exactly doubled the or- 
iginal cost of the building, making the aggregate cost of building and im- 
provements $5,775. At the September term of Commissioners' Court, it 
was ordered that a warrant be drawn on tlie Treasurer for 81,600, in favor 
of Hough & Co,, to pay for improvements made by lliem on the county jail. 
This building, which is still standing, and is now used by the town of Ox- 
ford as a calaboose, is composed of brick, and, so far as external appear- 
ance is concerned, does not much surpass many of the country schoolhouses 
in some of the older and more wealthy counties, and one would hardly sup- 
pose that the cost of it was very nearly $6,000. 


In October, 1869, the Board of County Commissioners purchased of 
John E. Fenton and Martha L Fenton, his wife, the southeast quarter of 
Section 19, the east half of Section 'M and the northeast quarter of Section 
.^1, all m Township 25 n,.rU,, of Kange 7 west, for a countv farm and at 
the same tune gave ihr grantors a mortgage on the same to secure the pav- 
ment of four i)romiss.u-y notes given for the unpaid purchase monev a-o-.-e- 
gating the sum of 815,750, as follows : One for $5,000, due March 1 iItQ- 
one for $H.750, due Mar.^h 1, 1,^71 ; one for $:!,750, due March 1 187-' and 
«.,e r,n- $;!,25t., due March I. 187:1. At a special session of M>e Board of 
Comm>ss,oners, held on the 2:!d of December, 1872, ■• for the purpose of mak- 
mg sale of the nodJu.ast quarter of Section 81 and the southeast quarter of 
Section l;, m Township 25 north, of Range 7 west,; and for the purpose of 
executing the luvessary papers for such transfer " the following entrv is 
made ,n the Commissioners' ordor book: " Comes now Zunri Atkinson'aud 
presents to the court a, proposition to purchase said laud at the sum of $35 


\fi'\ ' • 





per acre, $2,240 cash and balance in four annual payments of $2,240 
each, without interest." The record then made shows farther that 
Mr. Atkinson's proposition was accepted and that a deed was then exe- 
cuted. This must have been an error, however, for we see that the board, 
at a special session in October, 1876, ordered that the Sheriff make a deed 
to Zimri Atkinson for the same real estate. At the January session, 1875, 
the Board of Commissioners sold to Cephas Atkinson, for $4,800, the north- 
east quarter of Section 30, in Township 25 north, of Range 7 west, leaving 
the county still the owner of the southeast quarter of Section 30. The 
county leased the farm, from time to time, to various parties, at so much per 
annum for the use of the farm, the county paying the lessee a certain stip- 
ulated sum per capita for furnishing the paupers of the county with lodging, 
food and apparel. Latterly, however, the Commissioners have adopted the 
better plan of employing some competent and trusty person to superintend 
the farm, paying him a liberal salary, and the county receives the proceeds 
or avails. This method is found to work better, for the reason that in this 
way the farm is kept in better condition, as it is not to the interest of those 
who work it to make the most of it during the brief time that they have pos- 
session of it, without regard to the impoverishment of the soil. 

The Commissioners' record does not show that any improvements had 
been made on the county farm prior to 1874. The Board of Commissioners, 
at their June session in that year, entered into a contract with Alonzo D. 
Sleeper, for the furnishing and setting out of fruit and ornamental trees on 
the poor farm, for which the Commissioners agreed to pay the sum of $773. 
At a special term of Commissioners' Court, a contract was entered into with 
Messrs. Beardsley & Shapley, of Benton Count}-, for the erection of a house 
on the county farm, for the sum of $2,757.77, which house was to be com- 
pleted by September 3, 1879. The structure is of brick, and is a credit to 
the county. At the October term, 1870, the board contracted with Henry 
C. Patton for the building of a barn on the county farm, at a cost of S445, 
to be completed on or before December 1, 1879. The county farm is sit- 
uated about four miles north of Oxford, and is one of the most handsome 
sites in the county. 


As will readily be seen by consulting a map of the county, Oxford, the 
original seat of justice in Benton County, is situated far to the south of the 
center of the county, its site being about two miles from the south line, and 
about four miles east of a line drawn from north to south through the center 
of the county. It was very indiscreet, evidently, in the Commissioners who 
located the county seat, to locate it so far from the center of the county. 
It was located there, no doubt, for the reason that almost the entire popula- 
tion of the county at that time resided in the south and east portions of the 
county. It would seem, however, that a little foresight on the part of the 
Locating Commissioners must have shown to them that in the course of a 
few years the then unsettled portions of the county would become settled 


up, and that there would then be great dissatisfaction on the part of those 
who resided remote from the count3' seat. It is probably a fact that Oxford 
is built upon the best town site that could have been found in Benton 
County ; yet it certainly must have occurred to the Commissioners who lo- 
cated the county seat there, that the time must inevitably come when the 
county seat, if located at Oxford, would be as far removed from the center 
of the population of the county as from the geographical center. To sup- 
pose that they did not foresee this would be anything but complimentary 
to the intelligence of those men. The site selected for the county seat was, 
manifestly, far more convenient for those who were at that time residing in 
the county than it would have been had it been located at the geographical 
center of the county ; and, as a majority of men do not look beyond their 
own personal interest in such matters, it is very probable that a strong pres- 
sure was brought to bear upon those men to induce them to locate it where 
the}' did ; and, as the}' did not live in or have an}' interest in the county, 
they did not choose to bring down upon themselves the execrations of the 
citizens of the county by resisting that pressure. However it may have 
come about, the county seat was located where the town of Oxford was sub- 
sequently built ; and, in view of the damaging effect that its removal has 
had upon the then thriving and pleasantly situated town of Oxford, and of 
the animosities thereby engendered among the inhabitants of different por- 
tions of the county, it would seem, to a wholly disinterested person, to be a 
matter of regret that the county seat was not permitted to remain where 
first located, notwithstanding that the act of locating it there may have 
been an impolitic one. The agitation of the question of the removal of the 
county seat from Oxford was begun in the year 1873. It is quite probable 
that the question would not have come up so soon had it not been for the 
fact that the Commissioners of the county were then contemplating the 
erection of a new court house and jail at Oxford, and those who were in 
favor of the removal saw that if it was not made before this was done, it 
must be postponed for several years, if in fact, it should ever be made at 
all. Although the court house and jail had been built but about seventeen 
and thirteen years respectively, and ought yet to have been in good condi- 
tion, they had, in fact, reached that state of dilapidation that they were 
deemed unsafe, and the Board of Commissioners accordinglv instructed the 
Auditor of the county to employ a competent architect to make an exam- 
ination of them, witli a view to having them repaired, tx. P. Randall, of 
Chicago, was the architect employed, whose report was as follows : 
To TUE County Commissioners of Benton Cofnty, Ind. : 

Oenlkiiien—Af^TvetMy to your request, as communicated through the County 
Auditor, I luive this day m.ide a critical e.xamination of your court house and 
jail buildings at this place (Oxford) and find as follows, to wit: Tliat tliJ court 
house was originally built on a very poor and insutVieient foundation, the walls 
being of bowlders, or cobble stone, poorly laid, and apparentlv without much 
mortar to cement lliem together; that the frost has from year to j-ear disinte- 
grated the foundation wall until at the present time it seems to be hardly in .^ 


condition to carry the walls resting upon them. For this cause the walls of 
the superstructure are giving away from time to time, as the walls beneath are 
breaking away by the causes enumerated; and it is at present evidently border- 
ing upon a condition that might be considered dangerous; and still it may not 
fall down for years. Yet, in its present condition it would not be a matter of 
surprise if it should give way at any time. The vaults are in no respect tire proof, 
nor were they ever so; and, should a fire occur, or the walls of the building give 
way, the vaults would be found to be a total wreck, probably involving a loss of all 
their contents. I came here with the understanding that you desired me to indicate 
how this building could be repaired and put into a safe condition. I frankly confess 
my inability to do this, and for the reason that there is nothing to build upon, as 
the building is a complete wreck from foundation to cupola; and, I think that any 
money expended in repairing it, beyond that of some slight or temporary repairs, 
would be a waste of money. If the superstructure was good, you might replace the 
foundation by a better one; or, if the foundations were good, you might mend the 
superstructure so that it would answer for a time; but, it is all breaking and broken 
to pieces, and not worth the making any repairs that would involve much expense. 
Of the jail, I shall have to make a report similar to that of the court house. The 
walls of the building are on a foundation of no particular use, and afford hardly any 
obstructions to the egress of a prisoner if he preferred to go out through the'wall, 
rather than by some other means of exit. The iron work of the walls, grates, lin- 
ings of corridors, ceilings, floors, etc., is all a great deal too light, having in general 
not more than one-fourth of the iron in the several parts which is requisite to safety; 
and it so light, and so badly put together that I should consider a prisoner as being 
very indolent who could not go out of it in any direction in half an hour if he had 
any motive for desiring freedom, or wanted to change his boarding place. There is 
the same difficulty in repairing or reconstructing this as the court house building — 
there is nothing there to build to. Every piece and part of the building is insuffi- 
cient, and unfit for the place; and if left in it, would spoil the whole. I therefore 
can see no way out of the difficulty, only to build a new and suitable jail in accord- 
ance with modern ideas and necessities. The present one is surely of no account as 
a place for the safe-keeping of rogues, as you have seen practically demonstrated 
quite recently. It is my advice, therefore, that you make no further use of this 
building for jail purposes. All of which is respectfully submitted. 

G. P. Randall, AreJdtect. 

Chicago, March 20, 1873. 

It would seem from the foregoing report that the court house and jail, 
and especially the former, must have been in a verj' bad plight, indeed ; 
and, as a further evidence of that fact, the board, after meeting at the court 
house, at their June session, 1873, deeming it unsafe, immediately adjourned 
to the Town .Hall, where the remainder of the session was held. Also, the 
Judge of the Circuit Court refused to hold the April term of court in the 
court house, on account of the unsafe condition of the house. There being 
such a manifest necessitj- for a new court house, the Board of Commission- 
ers, at the June term of Commissioners Court, declared it to be their impera- 
tive duty to proceed without delay to have new county buildings erected, 
and the Auditor was ordered to procure plans and specifications for a court 
house and county offices, combined, to cost not less than $55,000. At the 
same term the Sheriff was ordered to sell the material of the old court house. 
At a special session of the board, held in Jul}, 1873, the board adopted 
drafts, plans and specifications, furnished by G. P. Kandall & Co., of Chicago 


■ for a court house, and ordered that the Auditor give notice that he will re- 
ceive sealed proposals for the erection of a court house in the town of Ox- 
ford, in accordance with such plans and specifications, and that G. P. Randall 
be employed to superintend the building of said court house. Also, at this 
session, it was ord(ired that the order made at the June session, directing 
the Sheriff to sell the material of the old court house be rescinded ; and 
that the Sheriff take down the old house in a careful manner, and pile up 
the material on the public square, and that he advertise the sale of material 
at public sale, one-third of the price to be paid in cash, one-third in six 
months, and the balance in one 3'ear from the date of the sale. A second 
special session of the board was held in the month of July, 1873, at which 
the order made at the first special session in the same month, directing the 
Auditor to give notice of the letting of the contract for the erection of a 
court house was slightly modified ; the modification consisting principalh- 
in this, that the Auditor is ordered to give notice that the Commissioners will 
receive proposals instead of the Auditor, and the size of the building, and 
the materials to be used are specified, and it is provided that the contractor 
shall give bond for the performance of the work in accordance with the 
specifications. At the regular session in September, 1873, Moses Fowler 
and Adams Earl, and their wives, produced and delivered to the board a 
deed for two lots of land, the one containing two and one-fourth acres 
and upward, and the other more than one-fourth of an acre, upon which to 
erect a court house and jail, together with an abstract of title thereto. At 
this term a petition for the relocation of the county seat, which petition, the 
record shows, was accompanied with S250, of which SlOit was for the pur- 
pose of employing an architect, and the balance to defray the expenses of 
assessing the value of the property of the county at Oxford, the then seat 
of justice of the county. On September 11, 1373. during a term of Com- 
missioners' Court, there being but two of the Commissioners present, namely. 
Henry Robertson and Robert M. Atkinson, and the question of the reloca- 
tion of the county seat being then pending in said conrt, Robert M. At- 
kinson, one of the Commissioners, resigned, and Henry Robertson, the only 
other member of the board present, and William Snyder, the Auditor of the 
county, appointed William Marvin a Commissioner to fill the vacancy. 
At the same time, the petitioners objected to the consideration of the ques- 
tion of the relocation of the county seat by the board as then constituted, 
" upon tlie ground that William Marvin was not appointeil a Commissioner 
according to law, and had no authority to sit as a Commissioner of said 

Upon their objection being overruled, the petitioners dismissed their pro- 
ceedings, and asked leave to withdraw their petition and other papers from 
the files. Leave was granted to withdraw the deed and the money which 
they had deposited ; but the privilege was denied as to all the other plead- 
ings in the case. Thereupon an order is made by the hoard recitino- that 
"Whereas, on the 5th day of September, 1873, His Houor, E. P. Hammond 


Judge of the Benton Circuit Court, l\y virtue of a petition filed in his court 
b}- Leroy Templeton. granted an injunction restraining this board from let- 
ting a contract for the building of a new court house in the town of Oxford, 
the count}' seat of Benton County ; and, whereas, afterward the said Judge 
did, at the instance of said Templeton, continue said injunction until such time 
as a certain petition for the relocation of the count}' seat then pending before 
this board should be heard and determined ; and, whereas, said pending pe- 
tition has been this day dismissed by the said petitioners, and is not now 
pending before this board, or any other court of competent jurisdiction, but 
is fully determined ; and, whereas, said injunction has been dissolved by the 
dismissal of said petition, and by the terms of the order of injunction ; it is 
therefore considered to be the duty of this board to proceed to let the con- 
tract for the erection of a new court house in the town of Oxford." The 
board then proceeded to open the bids that had been received prior to the 
institution of the injunction proceedings, and to award the contract to Isaac 
W. Lewis and John F. McConnell, for the sum of S55,U00 ; and the said 
Lewis and McConnell thereupon filed their bond in the penal sum of 
$100,000, which was accepted and approved by the Board. At a special 
session in September, 1873, it was " Ordered by the board that, whereas, an 
injunction suit is now pending before His Honor, E. P. Hammond, Judge of 
the Benton Circuit Court, to enjoin this board from proceeding to build a 
court house, the Auditor is authorized to employ counsel to appear and an- 
swer for and defend the interests of the county in that behalf" From this 
it appears that a new injunction had been granted, restraining the board 
from proceeding with the erection of a court house under the contract 
entered into with Lewis and McConnell at the regular session in the same 
month. Why the petitioners should dismiss their proceeding in the Commis- 
sioners' Court, thereby dissolving the injunction which they had obtained 
in the Circuit Court, and leaving the Board of Commissioners at liberty to 
proceed to let the contract for the building of a court house at Oxford, 
which thev did without loss of time, thereby placing those who desired a re- 
moval of the county seat from Oxford, under the necessity of beginning de 
novo in both the Circuit and Commissioners' Courts ; and why the Board of 
Commissioners, who were evidently in favor of retaining the county seat at 
Oxford, should let the contract in such haste, when they must have known 
that those who favored the change, being represented by as good legal talent 
as could be procured in the State, as they were, could not permit their ob- 
ject to be thus frustrated, are questions which will naturally present them- 
selves. Was this a bit of yjjiesse on the part of the legal luminaries who 
were of counsel for the respective parties, with the object of gaining some 
advantage over their opponents '>. Or was it the object to thus prolong the 
case, and make it appear a very tedious and toilsome one, requiring a vast 
amount of legal acumen and no end of labor, so that attorney's fees might 
be increased ad JiLitum, without creating in the minds of their clients any 
dissatisfaction on account thereof, thus proving the truth of those lines in 
Hudibras : 


"Lawyers, lest the bear defendant, 
And plaintiff dog, should make an end on't, 
Do stave and tail with writs of error, 
!;-, Reverse of judgment and demurrer, 

• ■ To let them breathe awhile, and then 
Cry whoop, and set them on agen '!" 
At the December term of Commissioners' Court ia 1873, an election 
having been held in the county since the dismissal of the petition for the 
relocation of the county seat, and the Board of Commissioners, as now 
constituted, being favorable to the change, a new petition, having 1,221 sign- 
ers, was filed. The petition was accompanied with S250 in money, with 
which to employ an architect, and to pay the expense of having the property 
of the county at Oxford appraised ; together with a deed for two lots, on 
which to build a court house and jail, the same as had accompanied the 
former petition. Joseph Perkins, John F. Boswell, and Kobert M. Atkin- 
son constituted the board of Commissioners at that time. On Tuesdaj-, the 
second day of the term, Commissioner Atkinson being absent, the question 
of the removal of the county seat from Oxford to Fowler was passed upon 
hy the Board, and the prayer of the petitioners granted. An order was 
made for the removal of the count}' seat to Fowler, and the Auditor was 
ordered to employ G. P. Randall & Co., of Chicago, to prepare and present 
plans, specifications, and estimates for new eountj- buildings. The records 
show that Commissioner Atkinson was present next (Wednesdaj-) morning. 
At the March term, 1874, the report of James B. Foley, Mahlon D. Mauson 
and John Brownfleld, Commissioners appointed \i\ the Governor for the 
purpose of appraising the public property at Oxford, was filed, showing the 
value thereof to be 86,750. It appears of record, in the record of the pro- 
ceedings of this term (March, 1874), that a certificate of deposit was issued 
by the National State Bank of La Fayette, for $40,000, to the credit of Thomas 
Johnston, Edward C. Sumner, and William J. Templeton, to be by them 
held in trust for the purpose of building a court house at Fowler, the trustees 
named signing a contract to pay the money over upon the order of the Board 
of Commissioners. This sum was contributed by Moses Fowler and Adams 
Earl, the largest land owners, by far, in the county (neither of whom resided 
in the county, liowever), each contributing a sum proportional to the amount 
of land that he owned in the county, the value of which T\ould be enhanced 
by the location of the county seat at Fowler. No other question that was 
ever before the people of Benton County so convulsed society to its very 
center as this question of the relocation of the county seat. Of a truth, 
the antipathies then engendered have not yet altogether died out ; and there 
arc many in Oxford who stoutly declare, and with seeming sincerity, that 
ere many years, the county scat will again be established at Oxford. As 
before observed, it was certainly not the part of wisdom to establish the 
county scat at Oxford in the first instance, on account of its being so far 
removed from the geographical center of the county ; yet, it bavins^ been 
once located there, the act of removing it was certainly of doubtful propri- 


et}', to say the least. The fact of its not being conveniently accessible to those 
residing in the northern and western parts of the county, does not constitute 
a very potent argument in favor of the removal of the countj' seat from Ox- 
ford ; for those citizens who resided in those portions of the county bought 
their land, and located there with a full knowledge of the existent state of 
things, so far as the location of the county seat was concerned, and they 
ought not to be heard afterward to complain. On the other hand, those who 
invested their capital in and about Oxford, did so knowing that it was then 
the county seat, and in the reasonable belief, no doubt, that it would remain 
so ; and no doubt they paid more for their property than they would had 
they had any apprehension that the county seat would be removed. Since 
the change has been made, however, and since there have been such magnifi- 
cent county buildings erected at Fowler, costing, in the aggregate, over 
$85,000, and especially since it would be impossible to again change the 
location of the county seat without occasioning the most intensely bitter 
feelings between the citizens of the different portions of the county, it is 
certainly the duty of all good citizens, who have the well-being of their 
county at heart, to discountenance any further agitation of that vexed ques- 
tion and to treat it as forever settled. It is probably true that the town of 
Oxford sustained a temporary check to her progress in wealth and popula- 
tion by the removal of the county seat to Fowler ; yet, if such was the case, 
that check was but temporary, as she seems to be at present entering upon 
an era of greater prosperity than she has ever heretofore known. It would 
appear, from the fact that Fowler, which has had an existence of but about 
eleven years, has already outstripped Oxford, which has had an existence of 
about forty years, that the removal of the county seat, at §ome future time, 
on account of its being so far from tlie geographical center of the county, 
must have been anticipated ; and, that the fact of the removal being antici- 
pated was what so retarded the growth of Oxford would seem to be a rea- 
sonable presumption. As has been stated, the action brought to enjoin the 
Board of Commissioners from proceeding to build a court house at Oxford, 
was instituted in the Circuit Court of Benton County ; but the cause was 
afterward transferred to Warren Cqunty, by change of venue, as appears from 
the following entry in the record of the proceedings of the Board of Com- 
missioners at their March session, 1874 ; Whereas, the Warren Circuit Court 
has, at the suit of Leroy Templeton, granted an injunction against the perform- 
ance of an alleged contract between the Board of Commissioners of the 
county of Benton and Isaac W. Lewis and John F. McConnell, for the build- 
ing of a court house at the town of Oxford, Benton County, Ind., and in 
the opinion of this board the public interest of the county requires that said 
injunction should be continued, it is ordered that the board will no further 
•resist the proceeding for injunction. An order having been made for the 
removal of the county seat, the next thing in order was to proceed to build a 


The contract was let :j Levi L. Lc;'*"'!) in June, 1874, for the building of 


a court house at Fowler, the new county seat, in accordance with plans, 
specifications and estimates furnished by G. P. Randall & Co., architects of 
Chicago, for the sum of $54,884. By the terms of the contract, monthly 
estimates were to be made by the architect of work done and materials fur- 
nished, and eighty per cent of the estimate was to be then paid, the other 
twenty per cent to be paid when the building should be completed. Six 
months after the order was made by which Fowler became the county seat, 
that is, at the second session of the Board thereafter, which occurred in 
June, 1874, the following order was made by the Board : "Whereas, Moses 
Fowler has made a conditional donation of §40,000 to aid in the erection of 
a court house, provided that such county seat is permanently located at 
Fowler within one year from August 2, 1873 ; and whereas, there is no court 
house in the county of Benton, and no ofBces for the use of the Clerk, Re. 
corder or Treasurer, and the county records are in insecure places ; and 
whereas, a two-story brick slate-roofed building, with commodious fire-proof 
brick vault, situated on the corner of Fifth and Washington streets, in Fowler, 
is tendered to the Commissioners for the use of the county, free of charge, 
until the court house is completed, it is ordered that the books, papers, and 
fuiaiture of the offices he removed from Oxford to said building in Fowler 
on or before July IQ, 1874, and that all courts shall be held, and all busi- 
ness transacted at said town of Fowler, on and after said date. This action 
on the part of the Commissioners called forth a remonstrance from Alonzo 
Cowgill, Cyrus Foltz and others, which the Commissioners overruled, and 
the remonstrators thereupon appealed to the Circuit Court, and filed an ap- 
peal bond. On account of the remonstrance, or for some other reason, the 
Commissioners did not carry out their purpose of removing the files, records 
and other appurtenances of the diflTereut offices to the building in Fowler, 
as the order quoted above indicates that they contemplated doing ; but at a 
special session begun on the 30th dav of December, 1874, the record of the 
proceedings at that session shows that a report of G, P. Randall, architect, 
was filed, showing the whole cost of the court house to have been $57,192.- 
3G, and tliat the Board of Commissioners accepted the house as being sub- 
stantially in compliance with tlie terms of the contract, and made an order 
directing " the removal of all books, papers and furniture of the several 
county offices, from Oxford to said new court house at Fowler, in said 
county, forthwith." At the same session, the board entered into a contract 
with William S. Wooton for furniture for the court house, at the price of 
$l,(i95. G. P. Randall was allowed the sum of $3,032.91, for his services as 
architect at the same term. The grounds of the public square, about the 
court house, were graded in tl>e fall of 1874, at a cost of $2,032.50. The 
court house at Fowler, taking into account the grading of the public grounds, 
cost $02,257.77, as follows ; contract price, $54,884 ; extra work, $2,308.36 ; 
paid to G. P. Randall for services as architect, $3,032,91 ; grading of 
grounds, $2,032.50. There probably is not a county in the State, with no 
greater popuhition than Benton, that ha.s as good public buildings, includ- 


ing court house, jail and infirmar_y. The court house is situated well to the 
east side of the town of Fowler, it being about half a mile from the central 
portion of the town ; and, exactlj- in the geographical center of the county, 
it is said. Of course, it maj' be an inch or two this way or that, but then it 
is near enough for all practical purposes. A few years after the removal of 
the county seat from Oxford to Fowler, a paper was found among the pub- 
lic documents that had been removed from the old to the new county seat, 
in which the writer, whose name this paper does not disclose, thus apostro- 
phizes the old court house : 


" 'Death loves a shining mark,' and ere many days our court house had 
fallen. Where once it towered in majestic beauty, naught but ruins lie ; the 
breezes float over it, gently sighing, ' It might have been.' As I step along 
over the pavements that once composed that noble structure, every step 
beats its funeral march. Dear old court house, had we let thee stand as 
thou mightst have stood, a fit emblem of our architectural powers, Moses 
would not have drawn from his huge bosom $40,000, and crushed out 
our budding prospects and taken our capitol from our midst. Never 
again will a court house grace the square, but the weeping willow alone will 
mark thy grave. The gloomy owl will flit about in mournful silence, finding 
no cupola upon which to rest his weary flight, no high-toned bell to greet 
his ear, and in harmony with his might3' hoot send forth its clarion notes 
upon the sighing wind. Ere long, whilst the county seat is flourishing in 
the centre, we can onlj- walk our lonely streets, and in the words of Selkirk 

exclaim : ^ 

" 'Oh! Solitude, where are the charms 
That sages have seen in thy face ? 
Better dwell in the midst of alarms 
Than reign in this horrible place.' " 

When I remember the games of ball against its friendly wall, which now, 
alas ! are o'er forever, heart sighs with heart, and dark melancholy reigns. 
Could we restore thee back again, as ye stood not long ago, gladlj' would 
we sacriflce labor and wealth. The world may say it was not much, but 
the associations that were formed within its walls are dear to us. Youth 
and beauty soon pass away, and we, too, will soon follow in the 
footsteps of the departed. But we had hoped to leave the court house as a 
monument to future generations. But its memory alone remains to tell, 
and that, T hope, may live forever. When I ponder o'er what might have 
been ours, I cannot refrain from quoting that old familiar hymn ; 

" ' Could I but climb where Moses stood, . ' ■ . 

And view the landscape o'er, 
"We'd let our court house ever stand, 
Till tim'eT) ""''■■ ^^ ^'^ more.' " 




The contract for the building of the Benton Countj- Jail at Fowler was 
let to Meteer & Scovill, of Kankakee, 111., for the sum of $25,000, at 
a special term of Commissioners' Court in February, 1876. Notwithstand- 
ing the county had not, at that time, any jail in which to confine its crim- 
inals, this act of the Board of Commissioners was quite severely censured 
by many, and a remonstrance was presented, signed by ninety-seven of the 
one hundred and sixteen voters in York Township. The jail was built, 
however, and with so little deviation from the terms of the contract that 
the extra work amounted to but $175. This was a magnificent building, 
substantially built, and as commodious as any exigency is likely to render 
necessary in Benton County for manj- j-ears hence. This building was 
composed almost exclusivelj- of incombustible materials, and was probably 
considered practicallj' fire-proof, as well as proof against all eflForts on the 
part of those incarcerated within its walls to reclaim their much-coveted 
libert}'. But, notwithstanding the extraordinary precaution taken iu its 
construction to insure its durability, as well as to render it efficient to a 
— degree for the purpose for which it was desigaed, in the month of February', 
1880, it took fire, and was damaged to such an extent that it cost the sum 
of $7,791.50 to " rebuild and reconstruct " it. The contract was let to Henry 
C. Pelton and Leroy Templeton, at a special session iu Julv, 1880, " to fur- 
nish all neoessaiy labor and material to rebuild and reconstruct the county 
. jail and Sheriff's residence " within four months from the date of the con- 
. tract. The greater portion of the material of the old building — the most 
expensive portion at least — was used in the construction of the new. The 
present jail is a very fine structure, and has the appearance (viewed exter- 
n^lly) of being a very secure place wherein to confine malefactors. 


15Y E. A. MOSSM.\N. 


TTTHEN the great rebellion of 1861 was precipitated upon the country, 
V V deluging the laud with blood, and robbing thousands of households 
of their loved ones, Benton County was not found wanting in those who 
were willing to pour out their life-lUood, if need be, a free-will ofl'ering upon 
the altar of their country. 

Benton's First Company. — Among the first to march into Camp Tippe- 
canoe, at La Fayette, was a company of men from Benton County, composed 
of ninety-eight enlisted men and three commissioned officers. The names 
of the commissioned officers, all of whom were from Oxford, were William 
J. Templeton, Captain; John Burns, F^ .>'■ -i^ieuu-iant ■ James Youn>v Sec- 

1 ^- ~^i 


ond Lieutenant ; and the names of the enlisted men were : First Sergeant, 
James F. Parker ; Sergeants, Robert J..Templeton, John Thompson, James 
Mitchell and Commodore P. Huff; Corporals, Daniel D. Redmond, George 
T. Clark, Alvin Maxsou, Mark Walker, William Snj'der, Abram S. G-askill, 
Oliver P. Murphj- and George Furgeson ; musicians, John Jay Wright and 
William H. Claspill ; Wagoner, Ira Brown ; Privates, Washington L. Adams, 
Frederick M. Adams, Hiram Adams, Watson Allison, John Barnes, Calvin 
Barkhurst, Absalom Beaver, Benjamin F. Booth, Sanford Boweu, Edwin F. 
Bolmer. Thomas H. Burns, Columbus M. Bushong, Benedict Climeaged, 
Lucian Clark, Russel Cole, John B. Creviston, William H. Curl, xlbram 
Davenport, John Dopson, George W. Dusenberry, William H. Duncan, Wal- 
lace E. Edwards, John Ekey, John Enlow, Adam Everheart, Michael Flani- 
gan, Conrad Ghering, Frederick Ghering, Allen C. Gobble, Thomas Graham, 
William Graham, Benjamin Hawk, Sherman Haskill, William Hanley, 
George Hedges, Riley Hickman, William H. Hauck, Edward Houghton, 
Leroy Hove^-, Henry Holmes, Aaron R. Hudson, Charles D. Irwin, John 
Jett, Hugh Johnson, John Kennedy, John Kelley, Levi Kemp, John Kinney, 
John Krummel, Edward Lovejoy, Martin Loyd, Ephraim Ludlum, Oliver N. 
Maxson, William McFarland, Barney Miller, William S. Moore, Walter S. 
Osborne, John Pankey, Zachariah Perdy, Oliver H. Perry, Edward Popple- 
stone, David L. Ream, John F. Richard, William L. Ross, Charles F. Russle, 
John Saunders, Frank Sewell, John Shafer, Henry L. Smith, James D. Smith, 
John J. W. Smith, George W. Snodgrass, Benjamin F. Stabler, John A. Sul- 
livan, Isaac Thorp, John S. Tracy, Joseph P. Turner, Abram Wainscott, 
Isaac X. Williams and John B. Williams. This company was attached to 
the Fifteenth Regiment, which was originally organized as one of the six reg- 
iments of State troops, at La Fayette, in May, 1861, and was re-organized 
and mustered into the United States service for three years, at the same 
place, on the l-lth of June, 1861, with George D. Wagner as Colonel. This 
company was designated as Company D, in the regiment to which it was 
attached. The regiment, soon after its organization was completed, went 
from La Fayette to Indianapolis, where it remained until July 1, 1861, 
when it started for West Virginia, stopping at Cincinnati until July 4. 
The regiment was transported by railroad to Clarksburg, whence it marched 
to Rich Mountain, arriving on the 11th of July, during the progress of the 
battle. Nest day, the regiment joined in the pursuit of the enemy, and 
assisted in capturing many prisoners. Afterward, the regiment moved to 
Elkwater Valley, and remained stationed there until November 19, when 
it left Huttonville for Louisville, at which place it arrived the latter part of 
the same month, and reported to Gen. Buell. While at Elkwater Valley, the 
regiment took an active part in the operations of Gen. Reynolds, among 
which were the repulse of Gen. Lee, and the battle of Greenbrier. The 
regiment reached Shiloh while the battle was in progress, and rendered very 
efficient aid in the nick of time 'to save the Union army from utter defeat. 
During the siege of Corinth, the regiment was constantly in the van ; and, 


after the evacuation of that position by the enemy, it returned with Buell's 
army to Louisville, Ky., arriving there about the 25th of September. It 
left Louisville in time to take part in the closing scenes of the battle of 
PerryviUe. The Fifteenth joined in the pursuit of Bragg toward Cumber- 
land Gap, and the duties were very arduous, forced marches and skirmishes 
being the daily routine for some time. The regiment marched to Nashville 
in November, 1862, in connection with other troops, at which place the army 
of the Cumberland was re-organized, with Gen. Rosecrans chief in command. 
On the 29th of November, Col. Wagner was appointed a Brigadier General, 
and Lieut. Col. Gustavus A. Wand was commissioned to succeed him as 
Colonel. The regiment bore a conspicuous part in the battle of Stone River 
on December 31, 1862, and January 1 and 2, 1863, losing 197 officers 
and men killed and wounded, out of 440 engaged. The loss of the com- 
pany in this action was : Killed, Capt. Robert J. Templeton, Sergt. Commo- 
dore P. Huff, privates Columbus M. Bushong and Isaac N. Williams ; mor- 
tally wounded, private Benedict Climeaged. The regiment remained at 
Murfreesboro after the battle of the Stone River, until June 24, and took 
part in the various expeditions sent oat from that place. Upon leaving 
Murfreesboro, it marched to Tullahoma, where, as part of Crittenden's corps, 
it aided in turning the rebel position on the left, compelling the evacuation 
of Tullahoma. The regiment then rested in camp at Pelham, Teun., until 
August 17, when the advance upon Chattanooga was begun ; which place 
Gen. Wagner's brigade (of which the Fifteenth constituted a portion) was 
the first to enter. The regiment remained on post duty at Chattanooga 
from September 9 until shortly before the battle of Missionary Ridge, in 
which the regiment sustained a ver^' heavy loss. The loss of the regimen 
was 202 out of 334 engaged, whilst the loss of the company in this action 
was two (Benjamin Hawk and Frank Sewell) killed, and several wounded, 
among whom were William Graham and Sergt. George Hedges. On the day 
succeeding the battle of Mission Ridge, the regiment marched to the relief 
of Gen, Burnside at Knoxville. This march of over 100 miles was made 
in six days, a great many of the men being without shoes, and all on very 
short rations the while. The regiment remained in the vicinity of Knox- 
ville, on ver^v severe duty, destitute of tents or baggage, and on very short 
rations, until February, 1864, when it was ordered to Chattanooga to do gar- 
rison dutj-. A portion of the regiment liaving re-enlisted on the 15th of 
February-, 1804, the non-veterans remained at Cluxttanooga, under Gen. Stead- 
man, until June 16, 1S(!4, when in obedience to orders from Gen. Thomas it 
left for Indianapolis to be mustered out of the service, its time having ex- 
pired on the 14th of June, The veterans and recruits were transferred to 
tlie Seventeenth Indiana Volunteers in the month of June, 1S64, and served 
with that organization until the 8th of August, 1864, when thev were linallv 

A brief history of the regiment, as shown by Adjt. Gen, W. H. H. 
Terrell's report, is here given, for the reason that the compauv's historv is 


inseparable from that of the regiment, and in giving the history of the lat- 
ter, the leading points in the history of the former, which is all that is prac- 
ticable or desirable to give, are given. It will be of interest, no doubt, to 
many into whose hands this book may come, to know when and how each 
member of this company ceased to be connected therewith. For the benefit 
of such, the following statement of facts drawn chiefly from Adjt. Gen. 
Terrell's report, is given : 

John Burns, the first First Lieutenant in the company, resigned in Julj-, 
1861, and John Pearce, of Attica, Second Lieutenant in Company A, was 
commissioned First Lieutenant in Companj- D, to fill the vacancy. In No- 
vember, 1861, TVilliam J. Templeton, the first Captain, resigned to accept a 
commission as Major in the Sixtieth Regiment ; and about the same time, 
First Lieut. John Pearce also resigned, whereupon First Sergt. James 
F. Parker was promoted Captain, and Sergt. Robert J. Templeton was 
advanced to the position of First Lieutenant, both being promoted over 
Second Lieut. James Young. Lieut. Young resigned Maj- 4, 1862, and 
Sergt. John Thompson was promoted to fill the vacancy. June 3, 1862, 
Capt. Parker resigned, and First Lieut. Robert J. Templeton was pro- 
moted to fill the vacanc}', whilst Second Lieut. John Thompson was 
advanced to the position of First Lieutenant, and Corporal Daniel D. 
Redmond was promoted Second Lieutenant. November 22, 1862, First 
Lieut. John Thompson resigned,' and Second Lieut. Daniel D. Red- 
mond was promoted to fill the vacancy, whilst Corporal Mark Walker 
was made Second Lieutenant. Capt. Robert J. Templeton was killed at the 
battle of Stone River, December 31, l8'^27~and Tirst Lieut. Daniel D. 
Redmond was advanced to the position of Captain ; Second Lieut. 
Mark Walker, to the position of First Lieutenant, and Corporal Alvin Mas- 
son to that of Second Lieutenant, all of whom were mustered out at the ex- 
piration of their term of service, June 26, 1861. Sergt. James 
Mitchell was discharged July 2, 1862 ; cause, disability ; Sergt. Commo- 
dore P. Huff was killed at Stone River, December 31, 1862 ; Corporal 
George T^Clark was discharged to accept commission in the Ninety-first 
Regiment, in 1862 ; Corporal William Snyder was appointed Sergeant, and 
discharged in May, 136-t, on account of wounds ; Corporal Oliver P. Mur- 
phy was discharged August 25, 1861, cause, disability ; Musician John 
Jay Wright was discharged on account of disability, July 9, 1862 ; Wagoner 
Ira Brown, was discharged October 14, 1S61, for disability ; Washington L. 
Adams, missing at Nashville, December 12, 1862 ; Frederick M. Adams was 
appointed Corporal, and subsequently transferred to the Veteran Reserve 
Corps, on account of wounds received at Stone River ; Hiram Adams was 
appointed Principal Musician ; Watson Allison died at Camp Wickliffe, Ky., 
January 25, 1862 ; John Barnes died at Camp Dennison, Ohio, February 
18, 1863, of wounds received at Stone River; Thomas H. Burns was dis- 
charged for disability, August 21, 1861 ; Columbus M. Bushong was killed 
at Stone River, December 31, 1862 ; Benedict Climeaged died January 18, 



1863, of wounds received at Stone River; Lucian Clark, a veteran, was 
transferred to the Seventeenth Regiment, May 13, 1864; Rassel Cole was 
discharged October 7, 1861, on account of disability ; John B. Crevi.ston 
was transferred to the Fourth United States Artillery, February 3. 1863 ; 
William H. Curl, discharged November 7, 1861, for disability ; Abram 
Davenport, discharged April 21, 1863, wounds received at Stoue River ^ 
John Dopson discharged July 22, 1862, disability ; William H. Duncan, trans- 
ferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, November 15, 1863 ; Wallace E. Edwards, 
transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps November 15, 1864 ; wounds received 
at Stone River; John Ekey, missing at Vervilla, Tenn., August 21, 1862; 
John Enlow, discharged September 10, 1861, disability ; Adam Everheart 
died at Bardstown, Ky., October 7, 1862 ; Frederick Gehring, transferred 
to Veteran Reserve Corps, September 30, 1864, wounds received at Stone 
River ; Thomas Graham, missing before Chattanooga, August 29, 1863 ; Ben- 
jamin Hawk, killed at Mission Ridge, November 25, 1863 ; Sherman Haskill, 
discharged August 14, 1861, disability ; Riley Hickman, died February 3, 
1864 ; William H. Hauck, veteran, transferred to the Seventeenth Regiment ; 
Henry Holmes, missing before Chattanooga, August 29, 1863 ; John Jett, 
discharged August 28, 1861 ; Hugh Johnson, appointed Corporal, and 
transferred to the Fourth United States Artillery, February 3, 1863 : John 
Kennedy, discharged March 30, 1863, wounds received at Stoue River ; 
John Kelley, missing at Louisville, Ky., October 1, 1862, while under sen- 
tence of general court martial ; Levi Kemp, missing at Vervilla, Tenn., 
August 21, 1862 ; John Kinney, apprehended and transferred to the Seven- 
teenth Regiment ; John Krimmel, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, No- 
vember 1, 1863; Martin Loyd, discharged May 24, 1862, disability ; 
Ephraim Ludlum, missing at Nashville, December 12, 1863 ; Barney Jliller, 
transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, July 1, 1863 ; William W. More, died 
May 21, 1862, at Corinth, Miss.; Walter S. Osborne, missing at Louisville, 
Ky., October 1, 1862 ; John Paukey, discharged October 7, 1861, disability ; 
Zachariah Perdy, missing at Louisville, Ky., October 1, 1862 ; Oliver H. 
Perrj-, died May 27, 1862 ; David L. Ream, died at Chattanooga, November 
28, 1863, of wounds; John F. Richards, leg amputated May 24, 1S62, and 
discharged ; William L. Ross, discharged November 18, 1861, disabilitj' ; 
Charles F. Russle, transferred to the Mississippi Marine Brigade, February 
19, 1863 ; John Saunders, ilischarged November 27, 1862, disability ; Frank 
Sewell, killed at Mission Ridge, November 25, 1863 ; John Shafer, deserted, 
afterward joined the Twenty-fourth Ohio Regimeut, and died at Cheat 
Mountain ; John W. Smith, deserted December 10, 1861, and afterward 
jiiined the Nineteenth United Slates Infantry ; George W. Snodgrass, ap- 
pointed Corporal, and afterward transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps, 
January 15, 1864 ; Benjamin F. Stabler, discharged November 19, 1861 
disability ; Jolui A. Sullivan missing at Louisville, Ky., October 1, 1862 ■ 
Isaac Thorp, discharged December 16, 1862, disability ; Joseph P. Turner, 
discharged February 2, 1863, disability ; Isaac N. Williams, appointed Cor- 


poral, and afterward killed at battle of Stoue River ; John B. Williams, dis- 
charged Maj' 24, 1862, disability ; Augustus Adolphus, Samuel Blue, Har- 
vey H. Pugti and Guilford D. Snodgrass, all recruits, transferred to the 
Seventeenth Regiment, May 31, 1864. 

The following were mustered out at Indianapolis, at the expiration of 
their term of service, June 25, 1864 ; Abram S. G-askill, George Ferguson 
(appointed Sergeant), Calvin Barkhurst, Absalom Beaver, Benjamin T. Booth, 
Edwin F. Bolmer, John H. Burns, George W. Dusenberry, Michael Flaniganr 
Conrad Gehring, (appointed First Sergeant), McAUen C. Gobble, William 
Graham (wounded at Mission Ridge), William Hanley (wounded at Stone 
River), George Hedges (appointed Sergeant, wounded at Stone River, and 
also at Mission Ridge), Edgar Houghton, Leroy Hovey, Aaron R. Hudson,. 
Charles D. Irwin, Edward Lovejoy, Oliver N. Maxson, Edward Popplestone, 
Henry L. Smith, James D. Smith (appointed Corporal), Thomas F. Stock- 
ton, John S. Tracy, (appointed Sergeant). The Adjutant General's report 
from which the foregoing facts were obtained, does not show when or how 
the following members of the company severed their connection therewith : 
William H. Claspill, Sanford Bowen, Abram Wainscott and Hiram Adams. 
To sum up : Number mustered out at expiration of term of service, thirty- 
four ; discharged before expiration of term of service on account of dis- 
ability, eighteen ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps and other organi- 
nations, seventeen ; deserted, ten ; discharged on account of wounds, five y 
killed, six ; died of disease, five ; died of wounds, three ; promoted und 
resigned, two ; discharged to accept commission in another regiment, one ; 
veterans, two. This company is justly entitled to a fair share of the glory 
won by the renowned old Fifteenth Regiment. No higher encomium could 
be bestowed upon them. 

Benton's Second Company. — The next company that marched to the front 
from Benton County was officered as follows : Joseph F. Taylor, Captain ; 
Job H. Yan Natta, First Lieutenant, and Stephen Sappington, Second Lieu- 
tenant. The enlisted men of this company were First Sergeant, James 
Dougherty, died March 7th, 1862 ; Sergeants, James Laroe, promoted Sec- 
ond Lieutenant ; Warren Sheets, promoted First Lieutenant ; Levi Haw- 
kins, promoted Second Lieutenant ; Alonzo Cowgill, appointed First Ser- 
geant, and mustered out September 19, 1864 ; Corporals, Hallet Swift, trans- 
ferred to Vereran Reserve Corps, February 15, 1864 ; Ross McGee, ap- 
pointed Sergeant, and mustered out September 19, 1864 ; Wilber F. Ste- 
phenson, appointed Sergeant, and mustered out September 19, 1864 ; James 
Killen, discharged for promotion, February 22, 1863 ; James Godman, i-^' 
killed at Chickamauga, September 20, 1863 ; David MillhoUanct; appointed 
Sergeant and mustered out September 19, 1864 ; James B. Shaw, mustered 
out September 20, 1864 ; Anthony C. Thompson, detached as Sergeant 
Thirteenth Battery, mustered out September 19, 1864 ; Musicians, Salathiel 
Cowgill, discharged October 15, 1862, disability ; Perry L. Jennings, vet- 
eran, transferred to Fifty-eighth Regiment, and mustered out May 25, 1865 ; 


Wagoner, William A. Wells, mustered out September 19, 1864 ; Privates, 
Joseph M. Adwell, mustered out September 19, 1864 ; Garret Auth, mus- 
tered out September 19, 1864 ; John Auth, died October 14, 1861 ; Samuel 
Ballentyne, died February 20, 1863 ; George W. Bannin, mustered out Sep- 
tember 19, 1864; John W. Barnard, veteran, transferred to the Fifty-eighth 
Regiment ; Ira D. Barnard, mustered out September 19, 1864 ; Charles Ba- 
ker, discharged June 8, 1863, to enlist in the Marine service ; Thomas F. S. 
Bennett, died at Campbellsville, Ky., January 30, 1862, disease ; John M. 
Bockover, mustered out September 19, 1864; Daniel C. Boyer, mustered 
out September 19. 1864 ; Alexander Campbell, discharged October 14, 1862, 
disability ; James M. Coffman, mustered out September 19, 1864; John N. 
Coffman, mustered out September 19,1864; Thomas M. Cook, died Feb- 
ruary 12, 1862 ; Calvin Creek, mustered out September 19, 1864 ; Moses 
Cnppy, died January 23, 1862 ; John G. Davis, transferred to Veteran Re- 
serve Corps, December 15, 1863 ; Charles M. Dawson, mustered out Sep- 
tember 19, 1864 ; John F. Dolan, died November 10. 1863, of wounds re- 
ceived at Chickamauga ; Ancil B. Downing, mustered out September 19, 
1864; Wingate T. Downing, mustered out September 19, 1863 ; Joseph H. 
Evans, mustered out September 19,1864; Jonathan Evans, mustered out 
September 19, 1864 ; Nelson D, Felters, mustered out September 19, 1864; 
William Fisher, mustered out September 19, 1S64 ; Henry Foster, mustered 
out September 19, 1864 ; Daniel R. Gaines, veteran, appointed Corporal, 
transferred to Fifty-eighth Regiment ; John M. Gear, veteran, transferred to 
Fifty-eighth Regiment ; John A. Grant, mustered out September 19, 1864 ; 
George M. Haigh, appointed Sergeant, mustered out September 19, 1864 ; 
John M. Harbison, killed at Chickamauga, September 19, 1S63 ; James 
kins, mustered out September 19, 1864 ; Joseph Hinate, mustered out Sep- 
tember 19, 1864 ; William B. Holton, killed at Chickamauga, September 20, 
1803 ; Samuel Horner, transferred to A^eteran Reserve Corps, April 10, 1863; 
Michael Jakes, discharged February 27, 1863, disability ; Nelson M. Jakes, 
discharged September IS, 1862, disability ; Elnathan C. Jennings, mustered 
out September 19, 1864; John F. Killen, discharged October 29, 1862, 
cause disability ;Elisha Little, appointed Corporal, mustered out September 
19, 1864; Luther Loomis, veteran, appointed Corporal, transferred to the 
Fifty-eighth Regiment ; Elisha M. Mattox, appointed Corporal, mustered 
out September 19,1864; Patrick M. Head, mustered out September 19, 
1864 ; Samuel Mcllvaiu, appointed Corporal, died of injuries received at 
Shell Mound, September 8, 1863 ; Robert G. McQueen, appointed Cor- 
poral, mustered out September 19, 1864 ; Anthony C. Miller, mustered out 
Septcnnber 19, 1864 ; George Miller, veteran, transferred to Fifty -eighth 
Regiment; Henry C. IMoore, discharged December 23, 1S62, disabiHtv 
Benjamin R. Mollitt, discharged June 18, 1862, disaliility ; Samuel E Nuss' 
mustered out Septemlier 19, 1864 ; George W. Nuss, mustered out September 
19, 1861 ; William M. Owens, discharged October 14, 1862, disability • Nathan 
J. Page, mustered out September 10, 1864 ; George M. Puoh, appointed Cor- 


poral, missing at Cbickamauga, supposed to have died of wounds ; John 
Riley, died of wounds received at Kenesaw, June 21, 1864 ; Charles Reed 
discharged at Louisville, date unknown ; William 0. Robinson and Henry 
Rogers, veteran, transferred to Fifty-eighth Regiment ; James Ross, Joseph 
Rittenour, James Sauster, Jacob Shambaugh, Samuel Simmons, mustered 
out September 19, 1864 ; James M. Snyder, discharged January 31, 1863, to 
€nter marine service ; Ebeneeer E. Sparrow, appointed Corporal, died Octo- 
ber 22, 1862 ; Joel Staufield and John W. Switzer, mustered out September 
19, 1864 ; John W. Timmons, died March 1, 1862 ; Thomas J. Thompson 
discharged Februarj- 12, 1863, disabilitj- ; James K. Turvey and David Vor- 
hees, mustered out September 19, 1864 ; John Whitmore, died March 5, 
1862 ; Renjamin P. White, died October 14, 1862 ; James Whited, died 
May 8, 1862; Philip Woodhams and Henrj* Woodhams, mustered out Sep- 
tember 19, 1864; W^illiam Finlej', transferred to Fiftj'-eighth Regiment ; 
Alexander Williams, killed at Chickamauga, September 19th, 1863 ; Peter 
M. Wilds and George Willis, mustered out September 19, 1864. 

The following recruits were received bj' this company : Charles Rowl- 
ing, veteran, transferred to Fiftj'-eighth Regiment ; Robert N. Brink, trans- 
ferred to Fifty-eighth Regiment, mustered out August 7, 1864 ; William H. 
Rrown, missing October 15, 1862, at Danville, Ky.; Isaac N. Chenoweth, 
George J. Dexter, Thomas M. Davis, John Foster and Josiah Foster, trans- 
ferred to Fifty-eighth Regiment ; Jonas Herron, killed at Chickamauga 
September 19, 1863 ; Robert W. Hampton, died April 9,1864; Charles J. 
Johnston, William Loufton, Henry H. B. Moore and Perry Moore, trans- 
ferred to Fifty -eighth Regiment ; Elihu Mason, discharged February 22, 
1864, for promotion ; Meredith B. Mason, transferred to Fifty -eighth Regi- 
ment ; Ferguson McLain, died May 30, 1864 ; Amos W. Nash, died at New- 
burg, Ind., May 29, 1862, of disease ; Albert H. Nagle, transferred to Fifty- 
eighth Regiment ; John P. Nagle, died May 13, 1864 ; William H. Pratt 
died March 13, 1864 ; Edward Riley, died November 24, 1863 ; Francis M, 
Robinson, transferred to Fifty-eighth Regiment ; Alfred Sheets, discharged 
February 19, 1864, disability ; Charles W. Stackhouse transferred to Fifty- 
eighth Regiment ; Albert Stair, appointed Corporal, transferred to Fifty- 
eighth Regiment ; Frederick Sheets, George W. Shigley, Frederick Wood- 
hams, John Welch and John Weber, transferred to Fifty-eighth Regiment. 

This company rendezvoused at Indianapolis, and was mustered into the 
service September 18, 1861, as Company D of the Tenth Regiment, of which 
Mahlon D. Manson was Colonel. On the 22d of September, it left Indian- 
apolis for Kentucky, and after remaining a few days at Louisville, was moved 
to Bardstown, where it went into camp. Here it remained for about a month 
when it was marched to New Haven and Lebanon, in which vicinity it re- 
mained until the advance to meet Zollikofer's forces in January, 1862. On 
the 19th of January, it participated in the battle of Mill Springs, or Logan's 
Fields, and there achieved an enviable reputation for gallantry, the regiment 
at one time saving the day by its firm resistance of a desperate charge of 



Zollikofer's forces. After the battle, it remained in that vicinity until the 
march of Buell's army to the Tennessee River in March, in which it took 
part. The regiment reached the field of Shiloh after the battle and remained 
there until the siege of Corinth was commenced. It then marclied with the 
army and participated in the investment of that place, and the marches which 
followed the evacuation. Returning to Nashville, it joined in the pursuit of 
Bragg through Kentucky, engaging in the battle of Champion Hills, at 
Perryville. It was then stationed in the district of country south of the 
Cumberland River, and east of Nashville ; and afterward joined in the 
march of the Army of the Cumberland across the Cumberland Mountains 
to Chattanooga, and participated in the battle of Chiokamauga, on the 19th 
and 20th of September. 1863, in which engagement its commanding officer, 
Col. \Yilliam B. Carroll, was filled. On the 14th of January, 1864, a portion 
of the regiment re-enlisted at Chattanooga. Tenn., and in the spring follow- 
ing, participated in Sherman's march upon Atlanta, taking part in the manj' 
engagements of that campaign. On the 8th of September, 1864, the veter- 
ans and recruits were, by order of Gen. Thomas, transferred to the Fifty- 
eighth Regiment, and on the 19th of September, 1864, the non-veterans were 
mustered out of the service. The transferred men served with the Fifty-eighth 
Regiment in Sherman's march through Georgia to Savannah, and through 
South Carolina and North Carolina, and finally were muetered out with that 
organization at Louisville, Ky., on the 25th day of July. 1S65. Joseph F. 
Taylor, the company's first Captain, was discharged December 31, 1861. 
About the same time (the exact date is not known). Second Lieut. Ste- 
phen Sappington resigned, leaving the position of Captain and Second Lieu- 
tenant vacant. First Lieut. Job H. VanNatta was promoted Captain, 
Sergt. 'VVarren Sheets was advanced to the position of First Lieutenant, 
and Sergt. James Laroe to that of Second Lieutenant. November IS, 
1862, Capt. "\'anNatta was commissioned Major, and First Lieut. Sheets was 
made Captain, whilst Second Lieut. Laroe became First Lieutenant, and Sergt. 
Levi Hawkins, Second Lieutenant. First Lieut. Laroe resiiined Decem- 
ber 24, 1863, and Second Lieut. Levi Hawkins was promoted to fill the 
vacancy, leaving a vacancy in the office of Second Lieutenant, which does 
not seem to have been filled. 3Iaj. VanNatta was commissioned Lieutenant 
Colonel September 21, 1863, but was not mustered as such. Ho was mus- 
tered out as >Lijor at the expiration of his term of service. Seiitember 20, 

Bt'iiloii'i: Third Cmupdiiii. — The next company from Benton County was re- 
cruitcil in the sin-ing of 1862, being mustered about March 20. The commis- 
sioned ollicers of this company were: Jolui Burns, Captain; Samuel L. Young, 
First Lieutenant; and John A. Savage, Second Lieutenant. The enlisted men 
were: li'irst Sergeant, John JM. Crossou, promoted First Lieutenant ; Sergeants, 
Hiram Y. Wilkinson, promoted second l;ieutenant ; 'William F. Baker, trans- 
ferred to Eleventh United States Infantry November 18, 1862 ; James J 
Keys, discharged November 30, 1862, disability; David AV. Miller, mustered 


out March 21, 1865 ; Corporals, Hugh H. Keys, died at St. Louis, April 4, 
1863, wounds; Thomas Kenned}-, discharged December 1, 1862, disability'; 
Elijah McVej', promoted Second Lieutenant ; William Smith, died in Lou- 
isiana, June 1, 1863 ; William M, McConnell, discharged Xovember 23, 
1863; Edward D. Pugh, discharged Januarj- 24, 186.5; George D. Yar- 
borough, discharged Jauuarj' 24, 1865 ; Walter F. Sei-geant, mustered out 
March 21, 1865 ; Musician. Hiram Benedict, mustered out March 21, 1865 ; 
Frank Wager, missing August 20, 1862 ; Privates. William B. Adams, 
discharged August 11, 1863 ; Abraham Aldridge, missing Xoveralier 14, 
1862 ; John Ale. discharged August 4, 1862, disabilit}- ; Joseph H. Alex- 
ander, discharged August 15, 1863, disability ; Da\'id xVshler, discharged 
August 4, 1862, disal)ilitj ; Israel Balch, discharged : John A. Barns, dis- 
charged, disability ; Lee Beans, transferred to Eleventh United States In- 
fantry November 23, 18(52 ; Charles Bechtold, died February 5, 1863, of 
wounds received at Arkansas Post ; Frederick Bechtold. mustered out March 
21,1865; John E. Bliss, discharged September 14, 1862, disability ; Cor- 
nelius Boice, transferred to Eleventh United States Infantry November 22, 
1862; Joseph Borders, killed at Jackson, Miss, July in, 1862; Charles 
Buwecker, transferred to Eleventh United States Infmtry Xovember 29, 
1862; Amos Campbell, killed at xVrkansas Post January 11. 1863; Philis 
Canette, mustered out March 21, 1865 ; Matthew W, Clark, discharged 
November 22, 1862, disability ; Charles B. Conklin, discharged November 
29, 1862, minor; Washington Crabb, discharged August 8, 1863. disability ; 
William L. Dewj-ear, missing June 4, 1862 ; Mortimore Ford, missing June 
1, 1862; Jacob Gibbons, discharged October 2, 1863, disability; 
Gillespie, mustered out March 21, 1865 ; Hiram J. Gilbert, missing Novem- 
ber 22, 1862 ; Daniel S. Harris, discharged August 22, 1862, disability ; 
Samuel C. Harris, Henry C. Harris and Myer Harris, mustered out March 
21, 1865 ; Thomas E. Hamilton, discharged June 10, 1862, disability ; 
Joseph Hale, mustered out March 21, 1865 ; Josepli Hatclier, died at Leb- 
anon, Ky., August 14, 1862 ; Charles JI. Hatcher, mustered out ;\Iarch 21, 
1865 ; Samuel Henry, transferred to Pieserve Corps 3Iarch 15 
1864 ; George W. Helfield, missing May 8, 1862 ; William I. Hixson, mus- 
tered out March 21, 1865 ; Isaac Hoagland, died at Mempliis April 4, 1863, 
wounds; Andrew P. Johnson, mustered out March 21, 1863, as Sergeant; 
Albert Leneke, transferred to Eleventh United States Infantry November 
25, 1862 ; George Liptrap, mustered out March 21, 1865 ; Jackson McDaniel, 
died at St. Louis, May 12, 1863 ; Thomas B. McClelland, discharged Janu- 
ary 24, 1865; Thomas McGregor, mustered out March 21, 1865, as First 
Sergeant ; John L, Mehaffy, discharged December 8. 1863, disability ; Henry 
Mayer, mastered oat March 21, 1865 ; William J. Newman, missing Novem- 
ber 1, 1862; John Prosser, missing June 17,1862; Abel Pugh, missing 
June 1, 1862 ; William H. Kickstraw, mastered out March 21, 1865 ; John 
Selby, died at Carrollton, La., December 8, 1863 ; Frank Sliell, missing May 
12,1862; Francis H. Shrade, mastered out March 21. 1865; ^Villiam F. 


Smith, discharged September 28, 1864, clisability ; Reuben D. Steeley, died 
at Thibodeaux, October 11, 1864 ; James C. Tea, Milton B. Thompson and 
Abram L. Thompson, mustered out March 21, 1865 ; William Vanover, dis- 
charged November 20, 1862, disability ; Frederick D. Walker, mustered out 
March 21, 1865 ; Peter Ward, missing November 22, 1862 ; James E, War- 
ren and Sylvester Warren, missing November 9, 1862 ; Joel C. Wilmoth, 
transferred to Signal Corps, September 5, 1863 ; William C. Wilkinson, mus- 
tered out March 21, 1865 ; Robert V. Williams, discharged December 19, 
1863, disability ; James W. Williamson, discharged July 15, 1864, disability ; 
James G. W. Woods, missing November 15, 1862 ; Recruits, George Bless- 
ing, George Boynton and James W. Cook, transferred to Twenty-sixth 
Regiment February 24, 1865 ; iMorris C, Freeman, discharged August 6, 
1863, disability; John McCaslin, missing December 26, 1864 ; Robert Stan- 
ley and James Starr, transferred to Twenty-sixth Regiment February 24 
1865 ; Wade W. Williams, transferred to First United States Cavalry Novem- 
ber 20, 1862 ; Robert A. Young and John A. Young, transferred to Twenty- 
sixth Regiment February 24, 1865. Capt. Burns resigned November 30, 
1862, and Lieut. Savage resigned on the same da}-, thus creating vacancies 
in the olliees of Ca])tain and Second Lieutenant. First Lieut. Samuel L. 
Young was promoted to Captain ; First Sergt. John M. Crosson, to First 
Lieutenant, and Sergt. Hiram V. Wilkinson, to Second Lieutenant. Febru- 
ary 9, 1863, Capt. Young resigned, and John M. Crosson was advanced to 
the position of Captain ; Hiram V. Wilkinson to that of First Lieutenant, 
and Corporal Elijah McVey to that of Second Lieutenant. There were no 
further changes in the commissioned officers of the company up to the time 
when the entire regiment was mustered out. 

This company was assigned to the Sixtieth Regiment (Richard Owen, 
Colonel), in which it was designated as Company D. " A partial organization 
of this regiment was effected at E\-ausville, in November, 1S61, and during 
the progress of enlisting the regiment was ordered to Camp ^Morton, Indi- 
anapolis, on the 22d of February, 1862, to guard rebel prisoners. While 
there the organization was perfected, the last companies being mustered in 
in the month of INLirch. On the 20th of June, it left Indianapolis for Louis- 
ville, Ky., whence it proceeded to Lebanon. After remaining there for a 
time, it moved to Muufordville, where, on the 14th of September, the advance 
of Bragg's army surromuled the place and its works, and compelled the 
garrison to surrender after a gallant resistance. Among the captured were 
a nuuibor of Indiana regiments, and seven companies of the Sixtieth, under 
command of Col. Owen. The other companies were, at the time of the capt- 
ure, guarding a railroad bridge over IvoUing Fork, near Lebanon Junction, 
under command of Maj. Cox, and were not captured. The captured corapauies 
were paroled, and iiroceeded to Indianapolis, where they went into parole 
camps, and were there joined by the other portion of the regiment. Upon 
being exchanged in November, the regiment proceeded to Memphis, joining 
the Army of the Mississippi, and participating in the movements of that 


arm}- during the winter of 1862. On the 10th of Januarj-, 1863, it took 
part in the battle of Arkansas Post, losing a number in killed and wounded. 
In the campaign against Vicksburg, it moved with the First Brigade (Bur- 
bridge's), Tenth Division, Thirteenth Army Corps, from Milliken's Bend, on 
the 14th of April, making rapid and fatiguing marches through swamps, 
bavous and streams, under scorching; suns, drenchina; rains, and encraging in 
five desperate and hard-fought battles. At Port Gibson, on the 1st of May, 
it was among the first to enter the town ; at Champion Hills, on the 16th of 
May, it was in the advance, and at Black River, on the 17th of Maj', it 
behaved with gallantry. In the siege of Vicksburg, it took an active part, 
remaining in the trenches until the surrender on the 4th of July. After the 
capitulation, the Sixtieth marched with its brigade to Jackson, participating 
in the skirmishes on the route and the siege of Jackson, losing several in 
killed and wounded. Returning to Vicksburg, it remained there until 
August, when it was transported to New Orleans, where it was assigned to 
Banks' army. From New Orleans, it moved to Berwick City, and thence 
up the Teche, engaging in the battle of Grand Coteau Plains on the 3d of 
November, losing a few in killed- and wounded. Returning to the vicinity 
of New Iberia, it remained there a short time, and then proceeded to Algiers, 
near New Orleans, where it embarked on steamship for Texas. Landing in 
that State, it was stationed at Pass Cavallo for a brief period, and then 
returned to New Orleans, where it joined Banks' unfortunate expedition up 
Red River. This expedition was organized early in March, and proceeded 
with but little opposition to Alexandria, reaching there on the 19th of 
March. At Sabine Cross Roads, on the 8th of April, the Sixtieth lost 
heavily in killed, wounded and prisoners. 

" After this campaign, the regiment went to Indiana on veteran furlough, 
the regiment having re-enlisted. Its re-muster was not, however, approved 
by the War Department, the regiment not having, in its opinion, served a 
suflflcient length of time to entitle it to be mustered as a veteran organiza- 
tion. Returning to the field, it was stationed at Thibodeaux, La., where it 
remained until the fall of 1864. On the 3d of November, it was engaged in 
the battle of Carrion Crow Bayou, losing largely in killed, wounded and 
prisoners. After this the regiment was stationed at Algiers, near New 
Orleans, remaining there until February 24, 1865, when the remaining 
recruits were transferred to the Twenty-sixth Indiana, and the balance of 
the regiment proceeded to Indianapolis, where it was mustered out on the 
21st of March, 1865." 

Other of Benton's Volunteers. — It might be possible to give the names of 
all those who went out from Benton County to do battle against their 
country's foes, but, as the task of ascertaining them would be a very oner- 
ous one, owing to the fact of there having been a great many companies 
that had been principally made up elsewhere, in each of which there were a 
few — from one to twenty — Benton County men, the information is not 
deemed of sufficient importance to justify the attempt. Some of those 


c.jiiipanies are Company C, of the Ninety-ninth Regiment, in which there 
were twenty man from Benton County; Company E, of the Fortieth 
Eegiment, in which there were six ; Company H, of the One Hnnclred 
and Fifty-fifth Regiment, in which there were fifteen; Company A, of the 
One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Regiment, in which there were thirty-nine ; 
Companv K, of tlie One Hundred and Forty-seventh Regiment, in which 
there were thirty ; and Company K of the One Hundred and Fifty-fifth, 
in which tliero were twelve ; Company C, of the Ninety-ninth Regiment 
was raised principally in Porter County. The members of that company 
from Benton County were David R. Lucas, First Lieutenant, promoted 
Chaplain September 27, 1862 ; Charles M. Scott, promoted from Sergeant to 
Captain, February 8, 1864; Miles A. Barber, mustered out June 5, 1865, as 
Sergeant; James Beazell. died at Louisville, Ky., November 10. 1862; 
Henry J. Busliong, discharged; Charles Catey, James Campbell and James 
D. Campbell, mustered out June 5, 1865 ; Ether A. Cook, died at Keokuk, 
Iowa, January 15, 1863; Henry (lermau. mustered out June 5. 1865 ; Rea- 
son Johnson, died at Camp Fowler, Tenn., February 26, 1863 ; Milton Keys, 
mustered out June 5, 1865; William. D. Kolb, mustered out June 5, 1865 ; 
Rol)ert B. Lank, discharged March 6. 1863 ; George W. Parker, transferred 
to V. R. C, October 26, 1863; William Savage, promoted First Lieutenant 
February 1, 1865; James Vanovcr, supposed lost on Sultana, April 27, 
1865, Joseph Williams and William H. Young, mustered out June 5, 1865. 

In Company E of the Fortieth Regimeut were Richard Kolb, pro- 
moted First Lieutenant, April 17, 1863, and resigned December 13, 1864 ; 
Jasper Kolb, promoted First Lieutenant 3Iareh 20. 1865, and mustered out 
with the regiment; Frederick Cain, discharged; Brooks C. Dunwiddie, 
veteran, mustered out December 21, 1864, as Sergeant ; Joseph Green- 
wood, veteran, mustered out December 21, 1865, as Sergeant ; Smith W. 
Perigo, veteran, mustered out December 21, 1865, as Sergeant. 

Those in Company H of tlie One Hundrcil and Fifty-fifth Regiment 
were John H. Barber, mustered out May 15, 18t!5; Robert Brinkley. Will- 
iam W. Clark, Charles W. Clifton, David S, Clifton, Jetferson Donahue, 
Henry Eller, Aaron Jones, Benjamin ^Miller, Beujamiu C. Miller, Franklin 
Obermyer, George Rover, Natlian Tliompson and Arza B. Truitt, all mus- 
tered out August 4, 1865 ; and James F, Waterman, missing April 27, 
1865; and those in Company K of the same regiment were James Bell, 
pr(jmoted Second ]jieutenaiit April IT, 1865, mustered out with regiment ; 
All'red Cover, mustei'ed ont August 4, 1865 ; .loseph A. Chandler, promoted 
Assistant Surgeon ; William I.. Fuglen, mustered out August 4, 1365, as 
First S(Mgea\it ; John W. l^ites, ^ViUiam W, l''itra\v, William Jenkins, Jere- 
miah Manihan, Leroy A. Swill, John Slonebcrger, George J. Thompsou and 
Sannul E, Walton, all mustered out .Vngust 4, 1865. 

In (.\inii)any K of tlie One Hundred and Forty-seventh, tliere wore 
Capt. Tlioinas Kennedy, mustered out with the regiment ; Serjeants James 
J. Keys, William M. .McConnell, (ieorge W. Crosson and Heurv yi. Smith ■ 


Corporals William H. "\^anover, Alonzo Sleeper, John Elaiore, John F. 
Stokes and Joseph Emer}' ; and Privates Jacob Albangh, Robert Balantine, 
Edward Bromlej, ^lark J. Briar, James Blanchtill, Jerr}- Doj-le, John Gilles- 
pie, William Greenwood, Daniel W. Henderson, Alexander Hukill, James H. 
McDaniel, Andrew J. McConuell, William E. Orr, George Perigo, James 
Ritner, Lewis Rolaue, David Sn\-der, Jonathan Vanhorn, Isaac S. Wade and 
Isaac Ward, all of whom were mustered out August 4, 1-865, except Alonzo 
Sleeper, who was mustered out June 2, 1865, and David Sn3-der who died 
at Indianapolis, March 14, 1865. 

Companj' A of the One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Regiment had in 
it the following : First Lieutenant, William S. Freeman, promoted Captain 
December 1, 1864, and mustered out as such with the regiment ; First Ser- 
geant, Lewis A. Campbell, promoted Second Lieutenant January 10, 1865, 
and mustered out as such with the regiment ; Sergt. George D. Boyd, 
discharged February 2, 1866 ; Corporals Jacob Shirm, mustered out Octo- 
ber 5, 1865 ; Jeremiah Anstill, discharged Julj' 10, 1865, and John B. Crane 
mustered out April 10, 1866, as First Sergeant ; Privates, James Beal, 
Joseph Carter, Rinaldo Childs, James K. Coleman, Charles B. Conklin, P. 
A. Carnahan, mustered out April 10, 1866, as Quartermaster' Sergeant ; 
Strawder DeHart, William H. Dugan, John M. Ford, Allen Ford, William C. 
Garland, Owen Ganothy, Eugene B. Glasgow, James M. Hobson, William 
H. Hopkins, John Huffman, William Handy, George Kee, died at Atlanta, 
Ga., October 9, 1S64 ; Stephen S. Kitchen, discharged May 21, 1865 ; William 
Louderback, John McBride, William McConnell, William Michaels, Isaiah 
R. Morris, transferred to V. R. C, April 1, 1865 ; John W. Odle, discharged 
January 5. 1866 ; Charles R. Tate, John Templin, Robert Wright, died at 
Galesville. Ala., October 20, 1864 ; Henry Wight, Paul Windier, William 
Phillips, discharged July 10, 1865; Milton Young and James C. Young, dis- 
charged July 10, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Regiment was a three-years, 
regiment, and was mustered in between October 1, 1863, and January 31, 
1864, the greater part of the men being mustered December 15, 1864. They 
were mustered out at various times, but the majority of them were mustered 
out April 10, 1864, none of them serving the full term of their enlistment. 
The Ninety-ninth was also a three-years regiment, and a large majority of 
the men were mustered into the service August 15, 1862. They were all, 
with a very few exceptions, mustered out June 5, 1865, the time served 
being a little short of three years. 

The One Hundred and Forty-seventh, the One Hundred and Forty- 
eighth, and the One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Regiments, were in the service 
but a very short time, and during that time saw but little, if an}', of the 
hardships and dangers of .active military duty. Neither of those three 
regiments had a man killed or mortally wounded during the time they were 
in the service. They performed quite an important part in the closing 
scene of this great drama, however, the part that they were doubtless 


designed to perform. They were employed to garrison posts at various 
points along the lines of railroad over which our supplies were conveyed, 
thus relieving and sending to the front seve